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Fish Culture Ex. 3
Parasites & Disease
35
Biology
04/17/2012

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Term

Infectious Hemapoietic Necrosis

(IPN)

Definition

Viral disease of trout & salmon. Survivors are often carriers of the infection.

Symptoms:  1) lethargic

2) display of sporadic whirling or other abnormal swimming activity

3) abdominal swelling

4) exopthalmia

5) pale gills, fin hemorrhaging, dark body coloration.

6) Internal examination reveals pale liver, spleen, & kidneys.

Treatment: No known cure for fish, but eggs may be treated.

Term
Cestode
Definition

Sometimes these are problems in fish culture situations. In carps there are 3 that are of Asian origin (Bothriocephalus opsarchthydis. B. aicheilograthi, & B. gowkongensis). These can cause intestinal blockage, and eventually the fish starve to death. In black bass, Proteocephalus ambioplites can be a problem.

 

Term
Cestode
Definition

Symptoms: 1) intestinal blockage

2) starvation

Diphllobothrium latum

Brood Fish Tapeworm

(walleye & bass)

 

Treatment: w/ a food additive known as di-N-butyl tin oxide

Term
Leeches
Definition
Ectoparasite & is cylindical in cross selection rather than flat. Wounds can lead to secondary inflections by fungus or bacteria. Can be treated with formalin.
Term
Copepods
Definition

Ectoparasites on gills & body of fishes. They feed on body fluids of fish. Eragsilus parasitizes the gills of fish & can lead to respiratory impairment, reduced growth, and mortality. Argulus & Lernea attach to the body surfaces of fishes & can lead to mortality of small fishes. Treatment is with Dylox. (crusteaseans- "sealice" & "fish tick"- Argulus- anchor worms!)

 

Lesions/wounds can lead to secondary infections

Term
Hemorrhagic Septicemia
Definition

Symptoms:

1)shallow ulcers that are reddish or grayish in color.

2) inflamation of tissues surrounding the mouth.

3) exopthalmia

4) abdominal distention

5) bloody or opaque fluid in the intestine

 

Treatment: Terramycin added 2 food -or-

furacin (yellow powder put in the water) <- illegal

Term
Digenetic Trematodes
Definition

Symptoms:

1) Black spot (Neascus, Uvulifer) found in the epidermal & muscle tissue.

2) White grub (Posthodiplostomum minimum) found in the liver & heart.

3) yellow grub (Clinostomum marginatum) often found in the muscle tissues.

 

Treatment: By control of snail populations

Term
Columnaris
Definition

Symptoms:


1) body discoloration

2) shallow ulcerations

3) gills may have eroded filaments & lamellae

Note: secondary infection takes advantage of abrassions caused by spawning

 

Treatment: furacin or diquat added to the water

(economical but not approved)

 

Term
Bacterial Kidney Disease
Definition

Symptoms: none.


Affects the kidneys

 

Treatment: Erythromycin

Term

Viral Hemmorrhagic Septicemia


(VHS)


Definition

Symptoms: Infected fish...

1) are lethargic

2) avoid water currents

3) seek edge of holding facility

4) Fish body becomes darker w/ progession of the disease

5) As fish become older, they become more resistant to the disease

 

Treatment: No known treatment for fish.

Eggs can be treated with Wescodyne.

Term

Icthyopthirius multifilis


("ICH")

Definition

Symptoms: fish "itch" & flash

1) thickening of epithelia & excessive mucous

2) infected fish congregate around flowing water & have small white pustules on their bodies

 

Treatment: Formalin & Malachite green<- illegal!cargenogen.

Only 2 treatable stages: tomite (infects the fish) & tomalite (free-swimming stages)

if the stage encysts, it's protected

Treatment is effective when the pustules completely dissappear

Term
Fungus
Definition

Symptoms:

1) White cottony growths on infected fish or on egg masses.

 

Treatment: Eggs: malachite green

Fish: can be treated with formalin

Both: hydrogen peroxide

Term
Enteric Redmouth
Definition

Symptoms: Not specific, therefore, to diagnose the bacteria must be isolated. Usually mimmicks furunculosis, but without the lesions.

 

Treatment: Sulfurmerazine (very potent!)

Term
Trichodina
Definition

Symptoms


1) irregular white blotches on head & dorsal surface of fishes (body, fins, or gills)

2) fraying of fins, loss of appetite, or excess mucous production. * dorsal fin is the fav. spot!

 

Treatment: salt (NaCl)

acetic acid

formalin

hydrogen peroxide

Term
Costia
Definition

Symptoms:

1) grayish- white or blue cast on the fish

2) excessive mucous production & necrosis of epidermal tissue.

3) rapid mortality may result

4) attacks gills and external body surface

 

Treatment:

acetic acid

-or-

formalin dip treatments

Term
Myxosporidians
Definition

Symptoms:


1) white cysts on the skin, barbels, or gills (look like tumors)

 

Treatment: spores are resistant to treatment

Term
Swim Bladder Stress Syndrome
Definition

Symptoms:

1) fish swim near the water surface with their head down & tails protruding above the surface

2) Fish swim at the surface with the backs exposed

3) Fish swim erractically on their sides

4) Fish swim upside down with the swim bladder distended.

Treatment:
Driving off excess gas from the water by aeration or agitation

Term

Channel Catfish Virus


(CCV)

Definition

Symptoms:

1) Fluid in abdominal cavity

2) exopthalmia

3) anemia

4) hemorrhaging of gills, fins, skin, kidneys

5) absence of food in the intestine due to lack of feeding

 

Treatment: No known cure

Term
Monogenetic Trematodes
Definition

Symptoms:


1) found on gills, body, fins of freshwater fishes

2) gill flukes (ex. gyro)

 


Treatment: formalin & hydrogen peroxide

Term
Salmonoid Herpes
Definition
Recently discovered viral infection of trout and salmon. Problems have occured in Japan & the United States
Term
Digenetic Trematodes
Definition
Have intermediate host in the life cycles (commonly a snail). Fish also serve as intermediate hosts for metacercarial stages for some, or as a definitive host for others. Black-spot are usually found in the epidermal & muscle tissues. White grub are often found in the liver & heart. Yellow grubs are found in the muscle tissues. Host specificity.
Term
Hemorrhagic Septicemia
Definition
caused by a gram negative bacteria, Aeromonas hydrophila. Another causative bacteria is Pseudomonas flourescens. In trout and salmon this disease is called furunculosis (Aeromonas salmonicida).
Term
Columnaris
Definition
caused by a myxobacterium called Flexibacter columnaris. Common amoung warm water fishes. Carrier fish will not show symptoms. Secondary infection takes advantage of abrassions from spawning.
Term
Bacterial Kidney Disease
Definition
caused by Renibacterium salmoninarium. Infection is limited to salmon and trout. Affects kidneys.
Term

Viral Hemorrhagic Septicemia

(VHS)

Definition
Found in Europe primarily w/ Rainbow & Brown Trout
Term

Icthyopthirius multifilis

(ICH)

Definition
Protozoan parasite that attacks the integument of fish. Causes thickening of epithelia & excessive mucous production. Ciliate feeds on epithelial tissues & body fluids. Infected fish congregate around flowing water & have small white pustules on their body. Free swimming form is the only treatable stage in the life cycle of this parasite.
Term
Fungus
Definition
Usually a secondary infection. Most common in freshwater fishes is Saprolegnia. Eggs have 0 immune system to fight it off. UV light filter can kill it.
Term
Enteric Redmouth
Definition
Problem with Salmon & Trout. Bacterial disease caused by Yersinia ruckeri. Mimicks furunulosis, but w/o the lesions.
Term
Monogenetic Trematodes
Definition
Commonly found on gills, body, and fins of freshwater fishes. Ex. included Gyrodactylus, Dactylogyrus, and Cleidodiscus. These trematodes do not have an intermediate host in their life cycles. Gill flukes! Ectoparasites. parasites the difinitive host. AKA: the FISH!
Term
Nematodes
Definition
Endoparasites found in the digestive tract & body cavities of freshwater fishes. Rarely a problem in fish culture facilities. Ex. Spinitectus & Eustrongyloides
Term

Channel Catfish Virus

(CCV)

Definition
Limited to channel cat (primarily fingerlings). Only known pathogenic virus in catfish. Herpes- type virus & brood fish are often the carriers, but it is often difficult to detect in adult fish. May be transmitted through reproductive fluids & mortality can occur w/i 32hrs of infection. Virus can be transmitteted through water to other fish & become concentrated in the kidneys. Infected fish swim erratically, or hang in the water with their heads up.
Term
Swim Bladder Stress Syndrome
Definition
occurs when there is excess gas in the culture system
Term
Myxosporidians
Definition
Protozoan parasites of fishes that can lead to high mortality rates. Appear as white cysts on the skin, barbels, or gills. Produce spores that are resistant to treatment. A dried out spore is still dangerous! "Whirling" disease problem in Rockies! Dominant in Rainbow Trout, but Brown Trout are carriers. It will & can kill Rainbow Trout.
Term
Costia
Definition
Protozoan parasite that attacks gills & external body surface of fishes. Characteristically has a grayish- white or blue cast on the fish. Causes excess mucous production & necrosis of epidermal tissue. Rapid mortality may result. 2 flagella- flagellate. Treatment is by acetic acid or formalin dip treatments.
Term
Trichodina
Definition
Most common protozoan parasite of warmwater fishes. Ectoparasite: appears on body, fins, or gills. Appear as irregular white blotches on head & dorsal surface of fish. Can cause fraying of fins, loss of appetite, or excess mucous production.