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Final
Final
297
Sociology
05/01/2011

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Term
_____________Functions are unfamiliar, unplanned, and widely overlooked.
Definition
Latent
Term
It is suggested that the _________ intellectual contributions of the sociologist are found primarily in the study of unintended consequences of social practices.
Definition
Distinctive
Term
According to the Author, the manifest purpose of buying consumption goods is the
Definition
Satisfaction of the needs for which goods are explicitly designed.
Term
Hindus venerate cows because cows are a symbol of
Definition
Everything that is alive
Term
According to many experts. cow worship is the
Definition
cause of India's hunger and poverty
Term
According to the author, _________ may be the reason for India's lower agricultural efficiency.
Definition
a shortage of oxen
Term
According to George Herbert Mead, the self
Definition
develops through the language process
Term
For Mead, the essential psychological problem of the self-hood or of self'conscious is how the individual can
Definition
get outside himself, experimentally, in such a way as to become an object himself.
Term
According to Mead, the individual himself as such, _______ from the particular standpoints of other individual members of the same group, or from the generalized standpoint of the social group as a whole which he belongs.
Definition
indirectly
Term
for Mead, ______ provides a form of behavior in which the organism or the individual may become an object himself
Definition
communication
Term
The fact that an individual knows that he/she can depend only upon the other and on nobody else, gives a special consecration to
Definition
a dyad
Term
A married couple without children is considered
Definition
a dyad
Term
A husband, wife, and child is
Definition
a triad
Term
No matter how close a triad may be there is always the occasion where two of the three members regard the third as
Definition
an intruder
Term
According to Goffman, communication in the traditional sense involves expression that the individual
Definition
gives
Term
For Goffman, the expression that an individual _____involves a wide range of action that others can treat as symptomatic of the actor, the expectation being that the action was performed for reasons other than the information conveyed in this way.
Definition
gives off
Term
Goffman's article is primarily concerned with communication or expressions that are
Definition
given off
Term
According to Goffman, in everyday life, there is a clear understanding that _____ are important.
Definition
first impressions
Term
As Goffman would see it, when an instructor "lays down the law" on the first day of class, he is proceeding on the understanding that _______is/are very important.
Definition
first impressions
Term
For Goffman, sources of information and carriers of information that are available about individuals are referred to as
Definition
"sign-vehicles"
Term
For Charles Horton Cooley, _____are "spheres of intimate association and cooperation."
Definition
primary groups
Term
According to Cooley, the unity of the primary group is
Definition
differentiated and unusually competitive.
Term
Which of the following, according to Cooley, is NOT one of the most important spheres of primary group intimate association and cooperation?
Definition
the organization
Term
According to Cooley, the general fact is that children, especially boys after about twelfth year, live in ________ where their sympathy, ambition, and honor are engaged even more often than they are in the family.
Definition
fellowships
Term
Which social theorist argued that there were two social classes in society characterized by their relationships to the means of production?
Definition
Karl Marx
Term
The social class that must sell their labor for a wage in order to survive is referred to as the
Definition
proletariat
Term
the social class the owns the means to production is referred to as the
Definition
bourgeoisie
Term
Karl Marx argued that social classes were defined by their relationship to the
Definition
means of production
Term
The mode of production characterized by the dominance of the owners of industry over the mass of individual workers is called ____________.
Definition
capitalism
Term
___________is the technologically advanced, classless society of the future, in which all productive property would be help in common.
Definition
Communism
Term
What is the concept Marx used to describe the pervasive ideas that uphold the status quo and sustain the ruling class?
Definition
ideology
Term
it was int he work _______that Marx most completely explained his beliefs on class including the idea that "(t)he history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggle."
Definition
Communist Manifesto
Term
Marx believed that a new social class had been created by the capitalist mode of production. Which of the following is that class?
Definition
the urban working class
Term
Which of the following is one of the three broad issues in the study of social class based on Marx's and Weber's work suggested in the textbook?
Definition
Economic basis
Term
Gilbert defines ________as "groups of families more or less equal in rank and differentiated from other families above or below them with regard to characteristics sch as occupation, income, wealth and prestige"
Definition
social classes
Term
In the Gilbert-Kahl model of the class structure the group located directly beneath the capitalist class is the ______________
Definition
upper-middle class
Term
According to the Gilbert-Kahl model of the class structure, what class derives its income largely from the return on assets?
Definition
capitalist class
Term
The Gilbert-Kahl model of the class structure is built around_______.
Definition
source of income
Term
In the Gilbert-Kahl model of class structure, which of the social classes is most likely to be university educated?
Definition
upper-middle
Term
When did class inequalities rise steeply in the latter half of the 20th century?
Definition
mid 1970s
Term
the years between 1946 to approximately 1973 are referred to in the Gilbert text as the ____________________.
Definition
Age of Shared prosperity
Term
For Cooley, the "_______________ has been broken up by the growth of an intricate mesh of wider contacts which leaves us strangers to people who live in the same house."
Definition
intimacy of the neighborhood..
Term
Primary groups are primary in the sense that they
Definition
give individuals their earliest and completest experience of social unity.
Term
The complex system that included a group's beliefs, values, dress, and way of life is called _____________.
Definition
culture
Term
What is culture made up of?
Definition
all of these
Term
Which of the following is an example of non-material culture?
Definition
table manners
Term
Material culture consists of
Definition
objects created in a given culture.
Term
What is the relationship between biology and culture in shaping human behavior?
Definition
human biology sets limits and provides the capacities for different types of behavior.
Term
The discussion of birthday traditions included in the text demonstrates that
Definition
even seemingly "normal" practices have cultural roots.
Term
Norms, values, laws, and customs are all examples of
Definition
non-material culture.
Term
The research technique in which sociologist is the researcher, but is also involved in the activities being studied is called
Definition
participant observation
Term
When choosing a research method, the most important thing for sociologists to consider is
Definition
what type of sociological question is being investigated.
Term
How scientific is sociology?
Definition
Sociology aspires to be both scientific and humanistic.
Term
The scientific method was first described by
Definition
Sir Francis Bacon
Term
Which of the following is not a step in the scientific research process?
Definition
finding funding for the research
Term
Studies that are based on interpretive observation are called __________.
Definition
qualitative
Term
In what ways does sociological knowledge differ from philosophy and personal belief?
Definition
In sociological study the theory must be testable.
Term
Sociological study that starts with a specific research question focused on some generally-held principle is called
Definition
deductive reasoning
Term
The _______________ is the overall logic of the research project, included what observational method will be used.
Definition
research design
Term
In order to develop a research design, a sociologist must
Definition
All of these choices are true.
Term
To study the difference in academic achievement between male and female athletes, one might look at rates of graduation among university students involved in sports. This is an example of ____research.
Definition
qualitative
Term
Preindustrial societies are those that
Definition
work directly with the land
Term
Which of these types of society has the greatest amount of social differentiation?
Definition
agricultural
Term
Which of the following is not a characteristic of foraging societies?
Definition
simple technologies for harvesting food surpluses
Term
Pastoral societies are based on the domestication of animals. In addition, they are characterized by
Definition
being nomadic
Term
In ___________ societies, hand tools such as hoes and digging sticks are used to cultivate crops.
Definition
horticultural
Term
The type of research that is more open to interpretation of what people do is called _______research.
Definition
qualitative
Term
Based on what you read you think that people whose parents are divorced are more likely to become divorced themselves. As you begin your research you state your belief that if a person's parents are divorced that person is more likely to become divorced themselves. This is an example of a ___________.
Definition
hypothesis
Term
Most sociologists would probably agree that in the nature-nurture debate,
Definition
human development is the result of the interactions of natural and social influence.
Term
Within sociology, the process by which groups and individuals within those groups are brought into conformity with dominant social expectations is called ______.
Definition
social control
Term
Socialization serves as a form of social control because
Definition
All of these are true
Term
Which of the following is false in regards to socialization and conformity?
Definition
Conformity to social expectations eliminates individuality.
Term
Which of the following is true about peers as agents of socialization?
Definition
Peer cultures for young people often take the form of cliques or friendship circles.
Term
Religion is a powerful socialization agent. What is the impact of religion during one's childhood?
Definition
Religious education is important to the identities to the identities children construct in childhood.
Term
Psychoanalytic theories of socialization are based on the work of Sigmund Freud, whose theoretical contribution related to socialization is
Definition
the idea that the subconscious mind shapes human behavior.
Term
Social learning theory views identity as
Definition
the result of shaping oneself in response to the expectations of others.
Term
Sociologists who study the large paterns of social interactions that are vast, complex, and highly differentiated are using
Definition
macro-analysis
Term
Which of these is an example of something a sociologist would consider from the microlevel analysis of social interaction?
Definition
day to day life in a sorority house
Term
Which of these would interest a sociologist who prefers macro-analysis of social interaction?
Definition
how laws governing family leave have affected families in the US
Term
Sociologists use the term ________ to describe the order established in social groups at any level.
Definition
social organization
Term
According to Peter Berger, it can be said that the first wisdom of sociology is that
Definition
things are not what they seem.
Term
According to C. Wright Mills, __________do not possess the quality of mind to grasp the interplay of man and society, of biography and history, of self and world.
Definition
ordinary men
Term
According to C. Wright Mills, in this course of a single generation, one-_______ of mankind is transformed from all that is feudal and backward into all that is modern and advanced.
Definition
sixth
Term
The sociological imagination enables its professor to
Definition
understand the larger historical scene in terms of its meaning for inner life and the external career of a variety of individuals.
Term
According to Berger, there is a ______ motif inherent in the sociological consciousness.
Definition
debunking
Term
______was long identified in the history of sociology for her 1853 translation and abridgment of Comte.
Definition
Martineau
Term
______ spearheaded national and international anti-lynching campaigns and was an active organizer for African American civil rights.
Definition
Well-Barnett
Term
______ was a leading figure in the German feminist movement.
Definition
Weber
Term
______self-identified as a sociologist, taught sociology, and worked as a social investigator.
Definition
Webb
Term
Poverty is a persistent problem in the US and none of its intended solutions are more controversial than
Definition
welfare.
Term
The UofM's "Panel Study of Income Dynamics" found that in 1978, ___% of families depended on welfare for more than half of their income
Definition
3.5
Term
Many of the thing social scientists study generate deep emotions and firm convictions in most people. This make
Definition
effective inquiry into the facts difficult.
Term
According to feminists, _________ is a key reason why eating problems predominate among women.
Definition
the culture of thinness
Term
According to Thomas Silber, many well trained professionals have wither misdiagnosed or delayed their diagnoses of eating problems among African Americans and Latina women due to
Definition
stereotypical thinking that eating disorders are limited to white women.
Term
"A thing the value or meaning of which is bestowed upon it by those who use it" to defines a/an
Definition
symbol
Term
According to Leslie White, human beings differ from the dog and all other creature because they
Definition
play an active role in determining what value vocal stimuli will have.
Term
According to Leslie White, human social organization would be impossible without
Definition
articulate speech.
Term
Which of the following is a symbolic behavior?
Definition
the use of amulets
Term
_______functions are those consequences that are familiar, planned, and generally recognized.
Definition
Manifest
Term
"Means tested" public assistance programs are
Definition
only available to people with incomes below a specific threshold.
Term
Which of the following would be an example of anomie?
Definition
A man loses his job, his fortune, and his family during the Great Depression of the 1930s
Term
According to Robert Merton, an innovator is an individual who has
Definition
accepted the goals of society, but pursues them with means regards as improper.
Term
The contact hypothesis
Definition
states that interracial contact between people of equal status will cause them to become less prejudice and to abandon previous stereotypes.
Term
Ehreneich's first low-wage job in Key West was as a:
Definition
waitress
Term
In Robert Merton's terms, people who overzealously and cruelly enforce bureaucratic regulations can be classified as
Definition
ritualists
Term
When viewing the global economic system, sociologist Immanuel Wallerstein draws on the
Definition
conflict perspective
Term
A farmer is called to help sandbag a levy that is about to flood his town. the farmer is stationed between two correctional center inmates who are required to assist in the flood-control efforts. As a result of this experience, the farmer has developed a new found respect for inmates. This example would be consistent with which perspective?
Definition
interactionist perspective
Term
What percent of the total available wealth did the richest 20 percent of people in the US own in 2002?
Definition
84.5%
Term
Which of the following would be the best example of absolute poverty?
Definition
A homeless man in tattered clothes begs in the streets for money and food.
Term
Which sociological perspective's approach to deviance focuses on why rule violation continues to exist in societies despite pressures to conform and obey?
Definition
functionalist perspective
Term
Which theory was used by Edwin Sutherland to emphasize that criminal behavior is learned through social interactions with others?
Definition
cultural transmission
Term
Amalgamation refers to the process of
Definition
combining a majority group and a minority group through intermarriage to form a new group.
Term
Which sociologist used the term "differential association" to describe the process by which exposure to attitudes favorable to criminal acts leads to violation of rules?
Definition
Edwin Sutherland
Term
In Mexico, what percent of the population has a high school education?
Definition
21 percent
Term
Which of the following is surprising about Mexico, according to Forbes magazine?
Definition
Mexico was home to 2010's wealthiest person in he world.
Term
Mexican schoolchildren are taught that the election of Benito Juarez in the nineteenth century proved that all Mexicans
Definition
are equal.
Term
Du Bois poses the question, "Why did God make me an outcast and a stranger in mine own house?" By this, the author alludes to
Definition
the color-conscious nature of society.
Term
Monica, a new student at Valley High school, becomes friends with a group of teenagers who use marijuana and remain seated during the singing of the National Anthem. Although Monica had never used marijuana and used to sing the Anthem, she begins to engage in the same behavior as her new friends. This is an example of
Definition
differential association.
Term
An important tenet of labeling theory is the recognition that some individuals or groups have the power to define labels and apply them to others. This view shares the emphasis on the social significance of power as purported by the
Definition
conflict perspective
Term
A bank president is found guilty of tax evasion. In addition to paying the government all the money he owes with substantial interest, he is sentenced to three years' probation and a $50,000 fine. At the same time, a female teller at the same bank is found guilty of stealing $500. the teller is sentenced to a prison term of no less than four years. This differential treatment would be of particular concern to sociologists using the
Definition
conflict perspective.
Term
The Red Scare of 1919 clearly linked the anti-immigrant to the anti-_____sentiment.
Definition
working-class
Term
The most massive affirmative action program in the US history was/is
Definition
the GI Bill of Rights.
Term
Crime is a violation of
Definition
criminal law for which formal penalties are applied by some governmental authority
Term
According to world systems analysis, a core nation is a nation that
Definition
Along with it multinational corporations controls and exploits noncore nations.
Term
A single women who engages in illegal acts of prostitution in order to support herself and her children is
Definition
committing a victumless crime.
Term
A women is born into a homeless, single-parent family. She is very talented and as an adult, becomes a wealthy, world-acclaimed pianist. This scenario most clearly represents which type of stratification system?
Definition
class
Term
Karl Marx argued that social, economic, and political inequalities are dependent on
Definition
class differentiation.
Term
According to Portes, bilingual students:
Definition
succeed academically.
Term
In 1998, California voters overwhelmingly approved Proposition 227, the:
Definition
The English for the Children Initiative
Term
Capitalism is an economic system in which
Definition
the means of production are largely in private hands, and main incentive for economic activity is the accumulation of profit.
Term
Karl Marx used the term "proletariat" to refer to
Definition
the working class.
Term
The notion that peripheral nations move from having traditional or less developed institutions to those characterized of more developed nations is known as
Definition
modernization theory.
Term
Which of the following would be an example of segregation?
Definition
confining Japanese Americans to relocation camps during WWII.
Term
The former policy of the South African government that was designed to maintain the separation of Blacks and other non-Whites from the dominant Whites was known as
Definition
apartheid.
Term
In Karl Marx's view, social relations during any period of history depends on who controls the
Definition
primary mode of economic production.
Term
Karl Marx used the concept of class consciousness to refer to
Definition
a subjective awareness held by members of a class regarding their common vested interests and the need for collective political action to bring about social change.
Term
The manifest purpose of buying consumption goods is the
Definition
satisfaction of the needs for which the goods are explicitly designed.
Term
In which of the following nations is income inequality the highest?
Definition
Namibia
Term
Which of the following statements about multinational corporations is true?
Definition
The value of sales of the largest multinational corporations exceeds the total value of goods and services of many peripheral nations.
Term
Which of the following terms did Karl Marx use to refer to an attitude held by members of a class that does not accurately reflect the class's objective position?
Definition
false consciousness
Term
Which sociological perspective argues that competition for scarce resources results in significant political, economic, and social inequality?
Definition
conflict perspective
Term
Which of the following have the women volunteers in the Philippines accomplished through the establishment of the Pan-Cordillera Women's Network for Peace and Development?
Definition
all of these
Term
What country does the text use as a case study to illustrate colonialism, neocolonialism, and the domination and exploitation of a peripheral, developing country by a core industrialized nation?
Definition
Mexico
Term
Sociologist Ralf Dahrendorf suggests that among the most powerful groups in society are
Definition
all of these
Term
Structural or institutional discrimination
Definition
both a and c
Term
Interracial love if often stereotyped as
Definition
all of the above
Term
Of the following, which Latino subpopulation is the second largest
Definition
Puerto Ricans
Term
"Mainstream organizations" tend to be
Definition
Eurocentric
Term
Slavery in the US was one of the first....
Definition
multinational corporations
Term
The term "social control" refers to
Definition
techniques and strategies for preventing deviant behavior in any society.
Term
Arnold gets an "A" on organic chemistry exam because he copies most of his answers from Stanley, the "class brain" who is sitting next to him. According to Merton's anomie theory of deviance, Arnold would be classified as a(an)
Definition
innovator
Term
Which of the following has a role in maintaining social control?
Definition
all of these
Term
Only ______ of Americans have an income over $250,000.
Definition
2%
Term
In 1970 one in every 10 families was female headed. Which of the following statements about today's female-headed families is correct?
Definition
One of every 5 families is female-headed.
Term
A tax that takes higher proportions of income at lower levels is a
Definition
regressive tax
Term
A women who was born and raised in a poor family becomes a regional supervisor for the US Postal Service. She has experienced
Definition
upward intergenerational mobility
Term
Author Paul Collier states those countries at the bottom of the world economy are living a reality closer to the conditions of the
Definition
14th century
Term
How many people in the world do author Paul Collier state are falling behind, falling apart, and stuck at the bottom?
Definition
1 billion
Term
"Sanctions" are defined as
Definition
penalties and rewards for conduct concerning a social norm.
Term
Wealth is
Definition
all of a person's material assets, including land, stocks, and other types of property.
Term
An ascribed status is a social position
Definition
assigned to a person without regard to the person's unique characteristics or talents.
Term
Which sociological perspective emphasizes literally could not operate if massive numbers of people defied standards of appropriate conduct?
Definition
functionalist perspective
Term
Which of the following terms refers to going along with one's peers, with peers defined as individuals of a person's status who have no special right to direct that person's behavior?
Definition
conformity
Term
A minority group is a group
Definition
whose members have significantly less control over their own lives than the members of the dominant group.
Term
Which group is at the top of the color hierarchy in Mexico?
Definition
the criollos
Term
The impoverished majority in Mexico are referred to as the
Definition
mestizos
Term
Which of the following is not one of the forms of capital distinguished by Pierre Bourdieu?
Definition
political capital
Term
Kohn assigned families to classes on the basis of
Definition
father's occupation
Term
The literature on social class and patterns of association suggest that people at higher class levels __________.
Definition
none of the above are correct.
Term
Which of the following terms is used to refer to hereditary systems of rank that are relatively fixed, immobile, and generally religiously dictated?
Definition
castes
Term
Which of the following statements about racial groups in the US is true?
Definition
all of these
Term
A system of stratification under peasants were required to work land leased to them by nobles in exchange for military protection was known as a(an)
Definition
estate system
Term
About how many people are imprisoned in non-governmental, privately run prisons in the US-a significant means of formal social control?
Definition
about 182,000
Term
A college student is caught cheating on an exam and is brought before a college-wide disciplinary committee, which decides to expel the student from the school. The committee's action is an example of
Definition
formal social control.
Term
Ethnocentrism refers to
Definition
the tendency to assume that one's own culture and way of life are superior to all others.
Term
The work of a group that regulates relations between various criminal enterprises involved in the smuggling and sale of drugs, prostitution, gambling, and other illegal activities is called
Definition
organized crime
Term
According to the text, which of the following forces is in part responsible for the domination of the world marketplace by a few nations?
Definition
all of these
Term
Which of the following statements about crime rates is in the US is correct?
Definition
all of these
Term
What racism prevails in a society, members of a subordinate groups generally experience
Definition
all of these
Term
Underreporting of crime in the US
Definition
has been a problem because members of racial and ethnic minority groups have not always trusted law enforcement agencies and have often refrained from contracting the police.
Term
Which type of crime is unlikely to be reported in victimization surveys?
Definition
Fraud
Term
Which sociologist is responsible for creating control theory?
Definition
Travis Hirschi
Term
An ethnic group is a group
Definition
that is set apart from others because of its national origin or distinctive cultural patterns.
Term
Which of the following statements is true relative to stigma and deviance in the US?
Definition
all of these
Term
Prejudice is to discrimination as
Definition
attitude is to behavior.
Term
Some sociologists have suggested that in the southern US in the pre-civil rights era, an African American individual was born into a status that would always be subordinate to the status of all the White members of the community. This would be an example of a(an)
Definition
class system
Term
Which sociological perspective would most likely be concerned with the stigmatizing nature of formal social controls that require convicted sex-offenders to register with police agencies and have their picture published in newspapers to make their identities publicly known?
Definition
interactionist perspective
Term
Which of the following is not one of the types of marital relationships distinguished by Rainwater?
Definition
progressive relationships
Term
The class advantages or disadvantages that a child inherits are not just economic but also _______.
Definition
a and b
Term
The kind of research Lareau used was ______, which is rare because it is expensive and time-consuming.
Definition
naturalistic observation
Term
At one time, amny Puerto Ricans were effectively barred from serving in the Chicago Police Department because they failed to meet the height requirement. This is an example of
Definition
institutional discrimination
Term
Which term is used in the sociological literature to describe a loss of direction felt in a society when social control of individual behavior has become ineffective?
Definition
anomie
Term
Which term is used by Karl Marx to refer to the capitalist class that owns the means of production?
Definition
bourgeoisie
Term
In Immanuel Wallerstein's view, the global economic system is divided between nations that control wealth and nations from which resources are taken. This view is called
Definition
world systems analysis
Term
Exploitation theory is a
Definition
Marxist theory that views racial subordination in the US as a manifestation of the class system inherent in capitalism.
Term
Which of the following is a core nation?
Definition
Germany
Term
According to Rosenhan, which of the following patient characteristics was NOT found to be evident in the mental hospitals under investigation?
Definition
treated with extreme human dignity
Term
In Karl Marx's view of class conscious workers in revolt, who will guide the working class in its struggle?
Definition
revolutionary leaders
Term
According to the author, from 60 to ___% of those in prostitution were sexually assaulted in childhood.
Definition
90
Term
_______law specifically prohibits inducement into prostitution by sexual abuse, pornography, or by exploiting the need for food, shelter, safety, or affection.
Definition
Florida
Term
Many psychiatrists believe that the preference for sexual partners of a particular sex is merely a secondary manifestation of something that lies much deeper in the individual. They refer to this as "the ________ personality."
Definition
homosexual
Term
It is commonly believed that homosexual males are
Definition
rarely robust physically .
Term
Very little is known about homosexual behavior in the rest of the world. This lack of knowledge stems from
Definition
the irrational fear anf prejudice surrounding the study of human sexual behavior.
Term
According to Monroe et al. 1969, a number of societies have what they call
Definition
institutionalized male transvestitism
Term
In _______, the Zpotec Indians believe that "effeminate males" are born not made.
Definition
Southern Mexico
Term
According to the author, ________starts with assignment to a sex category on the basis of what the genitalia looks like at birth.
Definition
gender construction
Term
In the lecture, the 'Achievement Gap' differentiate between two similar States revealed that:
Definition
Texas had better educational outcomes than California.
Term
Linguist Marjorie Swacker recorded question-and-answer sessions at academic conferences. Women were highly visible as speakers at the conferences studied, but it came to volunteering and being called on to ask questions, women contributed
Definition
only 27.4%
Term
For most women, the language of conversation is primarily a language of
Definition
rapport
Term
From childhood, men learn to use talking as a way to get and keep
Definition
attention
Term
For males, talk
Definition
is for information
Term
For women, talk
Definition
is for interaction.
Term
Institutions such as prostitution and slavery, which have existed for thousands of years, are so deeply embedded in cultures that they have become
Definition
invisible.
Term
In 1988, ______ described prostitution as "dynamic and adaptive sex work, involving a transaction between seller and buyer of a sexual service."
Definition
the World Health Organization
Term
According to the author, there have been huge growth in ________ in the US: strip clubs, nude dancing, escort services, tanning salons, massage parlors, phone ans computer sex.
Definition
illegitimate pimping
Term
According to researcher Debra Boyer, most prostitutes began prostituting between ages of
Definition
12 and 14
Term
The building blocks of gender are
Definition
socially constructed statuses.
Term
Some societies have three genders- men, women, and
Definition
berdaches
Term
At ______, sex characteristics become evident, and most societies put children through their most important rites of passage.
Definition
puberty
Term
Through naming, birth announcements, and dress, parents create
Definition
a gendered world for their newborn.
Term
_____refers to a form of subtle sex discrimination where women receive mixed messages about their abilities, intelligence, and accomplishments.
Definition
Supportive discouragement
Term
______refers to a sexually oriented behavior that, at face value, looks harmless or even playful.
Definition
Friendly harassment
Term
Bernard points out that in the area of sexual relations, Kinsey and his associates found different responses in from one-to two-thirds of the couples they studied. Kinsey interpreted these difference in terms of
Definition
selective perception.
Term
In a study of happily married, middle-class couples, __________ concluded that projection in terms of everyday needs was distorting even simple, everyday events, and lack of communication was permitting the distortions to continue.
Definition
Harold Feldman
Term
In a laboratory-based study of married couples conducted by David Olson, a most interesting finding was that husbands perceived themselves as
Definition
having more power than they actually did have in the laboratory "reality."
Term
According to Bernard, there is a/an _______ in marriage, that resides in the cultural prescriptions, proscriptions, and expectations that constitute marriage.
Definition
objective reality
Term
The Racial-Ethnic 'Achievement Gap' in education refers to:
Definition
Difference between blacks, Hispanics, Native Americans and whites in achievement.
Term
The ______ of Puritanism differs only in degree, not in fundamental principle, from that of monasticism; and on account of the Puritan conception of marriage, its practical influence is more far-reaching than that of the latter.
Definition
sexual asceticism
Term
According to Weber, ________ is bad ethically only in so far as it is a temptation to idleness and sinful enjoyment of life, and its acquisition is bad only when it is with the purpose of later living merrily and without care.
Definition
wealth
Term
Worldly Protestant, _______ acted powerfully against the spontaneous enjoyment of possessions; it restricted consumption, especially of luxuries.
Definition
asceticism
Term
According to Steve Baker, the director of BYU's honor code office, _____% of students are ever brought to see him.
Definition
fewer than 1
Term
At Notre Dame, _____% of the university's student body lives on campus and there is general agreement about the positive effects of single-sex dorms.
Definition
85
Term
At Baylor, ______involves a willingness on part of the administration to adopt behavioral standards.
Definition
formation
Term
______requires students to get their parents' permission before pursuing a romantic relationship.
Definition
Patrick Henry College
Term
According to Smith, any attempt to talk about women in Islam involves venturing into an area characterized by
Definition
over-generalization.
Term
According to Smith, the Holy Koran
Definition
forms the basis of prevailing family law in most areas of the Muslims world.
Term
In her article, Smith points out that
Definition
according to the Holy Koran, a man may take up to four wives.
Term
According to Smith's discussion of traditions int he Muslim world
Definition
in contemporary Islamic world, divorce rates vary considerably from one country to the next.
Term
According to the Holy Koran
Definition
the wives of the Prophet Muhammad should, for the sake of property, speak to other men only from behind a partition.
Term
According to Smith's discussion of life within the Islamic world
Definition
until fairly recently, education for women has been minimal.
Term
Following the Irish potato famine of the 1840s, thousands of Irish workers settled in the cities and towns of the northeastern US, and _______ was seen as a means of integrating this "uncouth and dangerous" element into the social fabric of American life.
Definition
schooling
Term
Since the mid-nineteenth century, the dual objectivies of educational reformers-_______ and ________ -have been intermingled; sometimes so completely that its impossible to distinguish between the two.
Definition
equality of opportunity/social control
Term
According to Bowles and Gintis, early educational reformers believed that education was to help preserve and extend
Definition
the capitalist order.
Term
Denial of "______" is perhaps the single most consistent outcome of the education offered to poor children in the schools of our large cities.
Definition
the means of competition.
Term
The video, 'Inside the teenage Brain' made the point that:
Definition
teenagers are natural 'thrill seekers'
Term
According to the author, Public School 261 in District 10 has the capacity for 900 students, but there were _____students enrolled.
Definition
1300
Term
According to the principle of Public School 261, there are _____ computers for its 1300 students.
Definition
26
Term
At Public School 24, students labeled "talented" or "gifted"
Definition
are placed in the "pull out" program.
Term
According to the principal of Public School 24, the reason for the 130 children in "special classes" can be traced to
Definition
neurological damage
Term
Frequently genital mutilation is performed by
Definition
an old women of the village.
Term
_______is reported to affect nearly all the female population of Somalia.
Definition
Infibulation
Term
During the 1980s, women in ______ were shocked by accounts of mutilations being performed in local hospitals on daughter of immigrants.
Definition
Sweden
Term
What is the name of the Federal policy that mandates gender equity in education in federally funded schools?
Definition
title IX
Term
what risk found by researchers among female athletes who are "highly involved" in sports?
Definition
all of these
Term
A small body of scholarship suggests that traditional gender roles may be disadvantageous to men in that
Definition
all of these
Term
When ted consoles his sister about a difficult romantic breakup, works a day shift as a construction worker, and sings nursery rhymes to his young daughter so that she may fall asleep, he is portraying
Definition
multiple masculinities
Term
Which sociologist discussed the concept and coined the term "multiple masculinities?"
Definition
R.W. Connell
Term
The belief that men play a variety of gender roles, including a nurturing-caring role and an effeminate-gay role, in addition to their traditional role of dominating women, is called
Definition
multiple masculinities
Term
Which sociologist argued that to function most effectively, the family requires adults who specialize in particular roles?
Definition
both Robert Bales and Talcott Parsons
Term
Which of the following studied the minangkabau society in Indonesia, learning that men and women acted not as competitors but partners for the common good?
Definition
Peggy Reeves Sanday
Term
Which of the folloring terms is used by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales to refer to an emphasis on tasks, a focus on more distant goals, and a concern for the external relationship between one's family and other social institutions?
Definition
instrumentality
Term
Which of the following terms by Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales to refer to concern for the maintenance of harmony and the internal emotional affairs of the family?
Definition
expressiveness
Term
According to Talcott Parsons and Robert Bales, the expressive role is performed by
Definition
women
Term
Although it does not explicitly endorse traditional gender roles, which sociological perspective implies that dividing between spouses is beneficial for the family unit?
Definition
functionalist perspective
Term
Which perspective suggests that men may originally have become powerful in preindustrial times because their size, physical strength, and freedom from childbearing duties allowed them to dominate women physically, but in contemporary societies such considerations are not so important?
Definition
conflict perspective
Term
Conflict theorists would view gender differences as
Definition
a religion of the subjugation of one group, such as women, by another group, such as men.
Term
Using an analogy to Marx's analysis of class conflict, conflict theorists would argue that women are in a position comparable to that of the
Definition
proletariat
Term
Which of the following publications was not one of the earlier important works to critique women's position in society and culture?
Definition
the Social System
Term
Which of the following statements about feminist movement is true?
Definition
Among the most important early critiques of women's position in society and culture was John Stuart Mill's feminist theory based on the interactionist perspective
Term
Some radical feminist theorists view the oppression of women in male-dominated societies as
Definition
inevitable
Term
Which sociological perspective has influenced the creation of the feminist perspective the most?
Definition
conflict perspective
Term
In 2009, what percentage of children in their twenties lived with their parents?
Definition
33% OF MEN AND 22% of women
Term
In 2009, what percentage of all children in the US lived in a household with a grandparent?
Definition
9%
Term
The process that allows for the transfer of the legal rights, responsibilities, and privileges of parenthood to a new legal parent or parents is referred to as
Definition
adoption
Term
Which of the following percentages reflects the number of married women in the US who are in the labor force?
Definition
69%
Term
Which of the following factors has contributed to the rise of dual-income families in the US?
Definition
all of these
Term
After his divorce from Wanda, Willy has custody of his two young children. Fortunately, his job allows him to work from home on his computer, and he is able to earn a living to support his family and to spend as much time as necessary supervising and caring for his children. This is an example of a(an)
Definition
single-parent family.
Term
which of the following statements concerning step families is correct?
Definition
Children raised by stepmothers are likely to have less health care, education, and money spent on their food than children raised by their biological mothers.
Term
About what percentage of divorcees in the US have remarried?
Definition
63%
Term
The increasing divorce rate in the US is attributable to
Definition
all of these
Term
Steve and Mary are married and then get a divorce. Steve then marries Rachel, anf they get a divorce too. Steve remarries Mary and lives with her until she dies. After Mary's death, Steve marries Beth and lives with her until his death. Steve's life would be an example of
Definition
serial monogamy
Term
what is the general term for a marriage in which an individual can have several husbands or wives at the same time?
Definition
polygamy
Term
Which of the following statements about polygamy is correct?
Definition
In some forms of polygamy, men often marry women and her sisters.
Term
Which pattern of descent is most typical in the US?
Definition
bilateral
Term
Patrilineal descent refers to a
Definition
kinship system that favors the relatives of the father.
Term
Males are expected to dominate family decision making in a(an)
Definition
patriarchy
Term
A kinship system that favors the relatives of the mother is based on
Definition
matrilineal descent
Term
a matriarchy is a society in which
Definition
women hold greater authority than men.
Term
Secularization is the
Definition
process through which religion's influence on other social institutions diminishes.
Term
The US government maintains a policy of "separation of church and state." The relationship between the church and the government in the US illustrates
Definition
secularization
Term
Which sociologist was perhaps the first sociologist to recognize the critical importance of religion in human societies?
Definition
Emile Durkheim
Term
According to your text, a table, an incense stick, and candelabra can all be considered
Definition
both sacred and profane items
Term
Which is the single largest faith in the world?
Definition
Christianity
Term
For Muslims, which of the following do they consider to be prophets?
Definition
all of these
Term
In which way does Hinduism differ from other religions?
Definition
all of these
Term
Which of the following attributes is true regarding Buddhism?
Definition
it emerged in India
Term
When did the religion known as Buddhism first develop?
Definition
6th century B.C.