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Final
Final Study Guide
295
Anthropology
12/04/2011

Additional Anthropology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Biological Anthropology
Definition

1.    study of biological variation

a.     helps us to explain what it means to be human

Term
Uniformitarianism
Definition

1.    theory that the earth’s features are the result of long-term processes that continue to operate in the present just as they did in the past.

a.     Forces like wind, water erosion, local flooding, frost, etc… contributed in the past to produce the landscape we see today

b.    Indicated that Geological change was still happening and that the forces were uniform over time

Term

Deep Time

Definition

the immense time scale that changes perceptions of the earth’s history from a few thousand to many millions of years

a.     Permitted the necessary time depth for the process of evolutionary change

Term
Darwin's HMS Beagle Voyage (1831)
Definition

1.    How do Darwin’s finches provide examples of the principles of natural selection?

a.     The different size and form of the finches’ beaks showed that they had adapted to different food sources. All of the finches in their respective islands showed that one type of beak was preferred, or naturally selected, over another.

Term
Basic Processes of Natural Selection
Definition

a.     All Species capable of producing offspring at a faster rate than food supplies increase

b.    Biological variation within all species

c.     More offspring are produced than can survive + limited resources = competition

d.    Favorable variations or traits have advantage (fitness)

e.    Environment determines which traits are favorable

f.      Traits are inherited and passed on to the next generation

g.    Successful variations accumulate in a population, so that generations may be distinct from ancestral ones (new species appear)

h.     Geographical isolation contributes to the formation of new species (adaptation to diff. environments)

Term
Types of Selection
Definition

a.Directional – one extreme selected for

b.Stabilizing – both extremes selected for

c.Oscillating – all over the place

 
Term
Epochs
Definition

a.Cenozoic Era includes:

i.Miocene 23 mya

ii.Pliocene 5 mya

iii.Pleistocene 1.8 mya

iv.Holocene 0.01

 
Term
Natural Selection
Definition

1.    critical mechanism of evolutionary change

a.     Genetic change(s) in frequencies of certain traits in populations due to differential productive success between individuals

b.    Depends on:

                                               i.     Reproductive competition

                                              ii.     Variation in fitness (reproduction/how well adapted)

                                             iii.     Heritability – has to be inherited by offspring

Term
Artificial Selection
Definition
the choosing of two animals to breed based on genetic traits
Term
Fixity of Species
Definition

1.    the belief that life-forms couldn’t and didn’t change

Term
Reproductive Success
Definition

1.    the number of offspring an individual produces and rears to reproductive age; an individual’s genetic contribution to the next generation 

Term
evolution
Definition

a change in the genetic structure of a population. It’s also used to refer to the appearance of a new species

Term
taxonomy
Definition

1.    the branch of science concerned with the rules of classifying organisms on the basis of evolutionary relationships

Term
genus
Definition
a group of closely related species
Term
epoch
Definition

categories of the geological time scale; subdivisions of periods. In the Cenozoic era, epochs include the Paleocene, Eocene, Oligocene, Miocene and Pliocene… 

Term
Copernicus
Definition

a.     Challenged the theory that the earth was the center of the universe

Term
John Ray
Definition
Developed the concept of "species" and second level of classification called the genus
Term
Georges-Louis Leclerc De Buffon
Definition

a.     (1707-1788) French naturalist

b.    Dynamic relationship between the external environment and living forms

c.     Different regions have unique plants and animals

d.    Animals come from a center of origin

Term
Carolus Linnaeus
Definition

a.     Swedish naturalist who developed methods of classifying plants and animals

b.    Establish binomial nomenclature

c.     Created taxonomy – four level system (reproduction, physical similarities, class and order)

Term
Cuvier
Definition

a.     Introduced the concept of extinction to explain disappearance of animals represented in fossils

b.    Believed in fixity of species

c.     Proposed catastrophism

                                               i.     Belief that the earth’s geological features are the results of sudden, worldwide cataclysmic events

                                              ii.     Suggested that a series of regional disasters occurred

Term
Mary Anning
Definition

World's leading "fossilists"

- Contributed to the understanding of the evolution of marine life

- discovered complete fossil of Ichthyosaurus

Term
Alfred Russell Wallace
Definition

a.     British Naturalist

b.    Suggested that current species were descended from other species and that the appearance of new ones was influenced by environmental factors

c.     Described evolution as a process driven by competition and natural selection

d.    Co-discoverer of natural selection

Term
Charles Lyell
Definition

a.     1797-1875

b.    Lawyer, geologist, considered the founder of modern geology

c.     Wrote Principles of Geology and illustrated the effects of uniformitarianism

d.    Uniformitarianism – idea that earth’s features are the result of long term processes

e.    Emphasized that the earth must be older than people thought

f.      Concept of deep time - changed the framework within which scientists viewed the geological past

g.    Contradicted catastrophism

Term
Jean-Baptiste Lamarck
Definition

a.     The inheritance of acquired characteristics/use-disuse theory

                                               i.     If an external environment changed, animal’s activity would also change to accommodate new circumstances

                                              ii.     Result in the increased or decreased use of body parts over time

                                             iii.     New trait would be passed on to offspring

                                            iv.     Genetically incorrect theory

Term
Thomas Malthus
Definition

a.     (1766-1834)

b.    English economist who wrote An Essay on the Principle of Population that influenced Charles Darwin and Alfred Russel Wallace in their discovery of natural selection

c.     Argued that the availability of resources determined population size

d.    Animal populations increase in numbers when resources are plentiful and when there are not many predators

e.    Argued that the lack of resources would always be a constant source of misery and famine for humankind if population continued to increase

Term
Charles Darwin
Definition

a.     Founded the theory of natural selection after he arrived at the Galápagos islands

b.    Wrote “On the Origin of Species”

c.     Sample finches illustrated common ancestry, but also the ability to change through time

d.    Finches changed due to different islands and varying diets

Term

1.    RNA (mRNA, tRNA) how are they different from DNA?

Definition

a.     RNA is the single-stranded molecule similar to DNA

b.    mRNA = messenger RNA

c.     tRNA = transfer RNA

d.    DNA is the double-stranded molecule that contains the genetic code

e.    DNA connot leave the nucleus

f.      RNA has ribose, DNA has deoxyribose

Term

1.    Sickle cell anemia – as example of point mutation, and relation to malaria

Definition

a.    Sickle cell anemia is an example of point mutation because it is a result from a defect in the beta chain and point mutation definition is that there’s a change in one of the four DNA bases

b.    The relation of sickle cell anemia to malaria is that if you do have a sickle-cell trait, then you have greater resistance to malaria than people with normal hemoglobin

                                              i.     Provides protection against malaria

Term

Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA)

Definition

DNA found in the mitochondria. Mitochondrial DNA is inherited only from the mother

Term

Somatic cells 

Definition

all the cells in the body except those involved with reproduction

Term

Nucleotides

Definition

basic units of the DNA molecule, composed of a sugar, a phosphate, and one of four DNA bases

Term
Mutation
Definition

a change in DNA. A molecular alteration in genetic material, and the only way to produce new genetic material.

Term
Genes
Definition
material particles of inheritance
Term
Alleles
Definition
variants of genes
Term
Chromosomes
Definition

discrete structures composed of DNA and proteins found only in the nuclei of cells. Chromosomes are visible under magnification only during certain phases of cell division

Term
locus
Definition
specific location on a chromosome where a gene is found
Term
Heterozygous
Definition
having different alleles at the same locus on members of a pair of chromosomes
Term
Homozygous
Definition
having the same allele at the same locus on both members of a pair of chromosome
Term
Allele Frequencies
Definition

indicators of the genetic makeup of an interbreeding group of individuals known as population.

Term

 Sex-linked traits

Definition

a.Controlled by genes on the X or Y chromosome

b.X linked traits are much more common

i.Queen Victoria & Hemophilia

 
Term
Watson and Crick
Definition

a.     Stole the helix DNA molecule structure from Rosalind Franklin

Term
Problems with Meiosis
Definition

a.     Trisomy – a condition in which an extra copy of a chromosome is present in the nuclei, causing developmental abnormalities

b.    3 copies of a chromosome

c.     Trisomy 21

d.    1/1000 live births

e.    Advanced maternal age

f.      Respiratory infection

g.    Leukemia

h.     Mental impairment

Term

Meiosis vs. Mitosis

Definition

a.     Where in the body each takes place

                                               i.     Meiosos: only in gametes (sex cells)

                                              ii.     Mitosis: only in somatic cells

b.    What types of cells are produce/DNA makeup of the daughter cells, etc.

                                               i.     Meiosis

1.    Two divisions

2.    Four daughter cells that each have 23 chromosomes

3.    Resulting gametes can pair up with another gamete to create a zygote with a full set of chromosomes (half from each parent)

                                              ii.     Mitosis

1.    One division

2.    Two identical daughter cells that are genetically identical to the original cell and have 46 chromosomes

Term

Physical structure of DNA, properties of the DNA code, what does DNA do?

Definition

a.     DNA is composed of 2 chains of smaller units called nucleotides

                                               i.     Nucleotides made up of 3 components

1.    Sugar molecule (deoxyribose)

2.    A phosphate

3.    Group ( a molecule composed of phosphorous and oxygen

4.    And one of four nitrogenous bases

                                              ii.     Nucleotides stacked up on top of one another to form a chain that is bonded by its bases to another nucleotide chain. Together, the 2 chains twist to form a helix shape

1.    Adenine, guanine, thymine, and cytosine

                                             iii.     The sugars and phosphates represent the two sides, while the bases and the bonds that join them form the rungs

b.    DNA directs all cellular activities

Term

Mendel’s Genetic Principles (of inheritance)

Definition

a.     Segregation

                                               i.     Genes occur in pairs because chromosomes occur in pairs

                                              ii.     During gamete production, members of each gene pair separate so each gamete contains one member of a pair

                                             iii.     During fertilization, the full number of chromosomes is restored.

                                            iv.     Depends on:

1.    Chromosomes carry the hereditary material

2.    Sex cells are formed through meiosis

b.    Dominance

                                               i.     Dominant traits are governed by an allele that can be expressed in the presence of another, allele

1.    Dominant alleles prevent the expression of recessive alleles.

c.     Recessiveness

                                               i.     Recessive traits are not expressed in heterozygotes

1.    For a recessive allele to be expressed, there must be two copies of the allele.

d.    Independent Assortment

                                               i.     Particles or genes that control different traits (ex: pea color or pea texture) assort independently of each other during gamete formation

Term

1. Factors that produce and redistribute variation

Definition

a.     Mutation

b.    Gene Flow

c.     Genetic Drift

d.    Recombination

Term

The Modern Synthesis (two stage process of evolution) 

Definition

a.     The production and redistribution of variation (inherited differences among organisms)

b.    Natural selection acting on this variation, whereby inherited differences, or variation, among individuals differentially affect their ability to successfully reproduce

Term

Know how Mendel’s experiments with pea plants demonstrate his genetic principle

Definition

a.     Dominance & Recessive

                                               i.     F1 and F2 generation

1.    Short (t) plants did not disappear, the allele was simply masked by the dominant (T) allele

b.    Independent assortment: crossed plants that bred true for two traits

Term

Effect of environment on phenotypes (e.g. Height)

Definition

a.     Height is affected on phenotype by childhood nutrition (an environmental factor)

b.    Other environmental factors:

                                               i.     Exposure to sunlight

                                              ii.     Altitude

                                             iii.     Temperature

                                            iv.     And increasing levels to toxic waste and pollutants

Term

1.    Mendelian vs. Polygenic traits

Definition

a.     Mendelian

                                               i.     Influenced by one gene

                                              ii.     Expression not usually influenced by environment

                                             iii.     Distribution of phenotypes into just a few discrete categories (e.g., in complete dominance with two alleles, there are just two phenotypes)

b.    Polygenic Traits

                                               i.     Influenced by more than one gene

                                              ii.     Expression may be influenced by environment

                                             iii.     Distribution of phenotypes is continuous with no discrete categories (many phenotypes can be distinguished)

Term
Macroevolution
Definition
changes produced only after many generations, such as the appearance of a new species
Term
Microevolution
Definition
small changes occurring within species, such as changes in allele frequencies
Term
Dominant traits
Definition

1.    governed by an allele that can be expressed in the presence of another allele

a.    Dominant alleles prevent the expression of recessive alleles

Term
Mendelian Traits
Definition

1.    characteristics that are influenced by alleles at only one genetic locus

a.     Many blood types such as ABO

b.    Genetic disorders like sickle-cell anemia

Term

Recessive traits

Definition

recessive traits are not expressed in heterozygotes

a.for a recessive allele to be expressed, there must be two copies of the allele

 
Term
Variation
Definition
inherited differences among individuals; the basis of all evolutionary change
Term
Genotype
Definition
indicates the genes carried by an individual; e.g. AA homozygote is the genotype of yellow plants
Term
Phenotype
Definition
observable characteristics of an organism; e.g. yellow color is a phenotypic trait of pea plants
Term
Polygenic traits
Definition
continous traits governed by alleles at more than one genetic locus
Term
Recombination (individuals)
Definition
the exchange of genetic material between paired chromosomes during meiosis, also called crossing over
Term
Gene pool (individuals)
Definition
all of the genes shared by the reproductive members of a population
Term
Gene flow (between populations)
Definition

- exchange of genes between populations

- introduce and re-introduce genes into a population

- can make distant populations more similar to each other, reducing the change of speciation

Term
Genetic drift (population)
Definition

evolutionary changes, or changes in allele frequencies, that are produced by random factors in small populations. Genetic drift is a result of small population size.

Term
Founder effect
Definition

a type of genetic drift in which allele frequencies are altered in small populations that are taken from, or are remnants of, larger populations

Term
Bottlenecking
Definition

a small group leaves to colonize a new area, thus bottleneck occurs. Population size decreases and genetic variation is reduced

Term
Pedigree
Definition

a diagram showing family relationships; is used to trace the heredity pattern of a particular genetic (usually Mendelian) trait.

Term
Autosomal dominant traits
Definition

1.    governed by dominant alleles located on the autosomes (any chromosome except X or Y)

a.    Achondroplasisa. Form of dwarfism 

Term
Autosomal recessive traits
Definition
also influenced by loci but show a different pattern of inheritance. An affected person can be produced by unaffected parents; if both parents have the trait, the offspring will be affected.
Term
Pleitropy
Definition

1.    situation where a single gene influences more than one phenotypic expression

a.     E.g. The autosomal recessive disorder phenylketonuria

Term
Gregor Mendel (1822-1884)
Definition

a.Laid down basic principles of heredity

b.He explored the ways physical traits could be expressed in plant hybrids

 
Term

1.    Theodosius Dobzhansky

Definition

a.Importance of mutations in adding variation

Term
Different Definitions of a species
Definition

a.Biological species concept: individuals capable of interbreeding, but reproductively isolated from other such groups.

Term
Evolutionary Systematics vs. Cladistics
Definition

a.     evolutionary systematics – ancestors and descendants are traced in time by analysis of homologous characters

b.    cladistics – attempts to make rigorous evolutionary interpretations based solely on analysis of certain types of homologous characters.

Term
Generalized vs. Specialized characteristics
Definition

a.     Refer to the adaptive potential of a particular trait

b.    Generalized – trait that’s adapted for many functions

c.     Specialized – trait that’s limited to a narrow set of functions

Term

1.    Phylogenetic systematics and Cladistics

Definition

a.     Two major types of classification

b.    PS: uses homologous characteristics to make hypotheses regarding evolutionary relationships as well as ancestor-descendant relationships and shows the latter through time as a phylogenetic tree

c.     Cladistics – uses only specific sorts of homologous characteristics (derived ones) and doesn’t attempt to make ancestor-descendant conclusions or show evolutionary relationships through time; conclusions are shown in a cladogram

Term

Principles of classification

Definition

a.     Homologies – similarities based on descent from a common ancestor

b.    Analogies – similarities based on common function, with no assumed common evolutionary descent

c.     Homoplasy – the separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms

Term
Exons
Definition

segments of genes that are transcribed and are involved in protein synthesis

Term
Introns
Definition

segments of genes that are initially transcribed and the deleted. Because they aren’t expressed, they aren’t involved in protein synthesis

Term
Adaptive Radiation
Definition

1.    a life form rapidly takes advantage of the many newly available ecological niches

a.     A species, or group of species, will diverge into as many variations as two factors allow. Factors

                                              i.     Adaptive potential

                                             ii.     The adaptive opportunities of the available niches 

Term
Homodont
Definition
same teeth
Term
Heterodont
Definition

having different kinds of teeth; characteristic of mammals, whose teeth consist of incisors, canines, premolars, and molars

Term
Phyletic Gradualism 
Definition

idea that change accumulates gradually in evolving lineages

a.“missing links” present in fossil record

 
Term
Punctuated Equilibrium
Definition

The concept that evolutionary change proceeds through long periods of stasis punctuated by rapid periods of change.

a.No missing links between species; gaps are real, not artifacts of an imperfect fossil record

 
Term
Phylogenies
Definition

indicate branching orders, timing of speciation events, history of events

a.     Provide the basis for identifying and classifying organisms taxonomically

b.    They explain why species evolve specific adaptations

Term
Homology
Definition

similarities between organisms based on descent from a common ancestor

Term
Analogy
Definition

1.    similarities between organisms based strictly on common function, with no assumed common evolutionary descent

Term
Homoplasy
Definition

1.    the separate evolutionary development of similar characteristics in different groups of organisms

Term
Monophyly
Definition

referring to an evolutionary group (clade) composed of descendants all sharing a common ancestor

Term
Speciation
Definition
the process by which a new species evolves from a prior species
Term

Allopatric Speciation

Definition

a.     Living in different areas

b.    Important factor in the divergence of closely related species from each other and from each other and from their shared ancestral species because it leads to reproductive isolation

Term
Parapatric Speciation
Definition

a.Free exchange of genes between two populations of organisms living indirectly adjacent but environmentally different habitats 

Term

Derived (modified) traits 

Definition

referring to characteristics that are modified from the ancestral condition and this diagnostic of particular evolutionary lineages

Term
Sexual dimorphism
Definition
differences in physical characteristics between males and females of the same species
Term
Intraspecific variation (within)
Definition
Within species; individual, age, and sex differences within every biological species
Term
Interspecific variation (between)
Definition
(between) species; refers to variation beyond that seen within the same species to include additional aspects seen between two different species; differences between reproductively isolated groups
Term
Primate Characteristics
Definition

a.     Limbs and locomotion

                                               i.     A tendency toward an erect posture (derived trait)

b.    A flexible, generalized limb structure, which allows most primates to practice various locomotor behaviors (ancestral trait)

c.     Prehensile hands  (able to grasp) (derived trait)

                                               i.     Retention of five digits on the hands and feet (ancestral)

                                              ii.     An opposable thumb and, in most species, a divergent and partially opposable big toe

                                             iii.     Nails instead of claws

                                            iv.     Tactile pads enriched with sensory nerve fibers at the ends of digits (derived)

d.    Diet and teeth

                                               i.     Lack of dietary specialization. (ancestral trait)

                                              ii.     A generalized detention (ancestral trait) Primate teeth aren’t specialized for processing only one type of food, a characteristic related to a general lack of dietary specialization

e.    The senses and the brain

                                               i.     Rely heavily on vision and less on sense of smell

                                              ii.     Color vision (derived)

                                             iii.     Depth perception – stereoscopic vision (derived)

a.     Eyes placed toward the front of the face/binocular vision

b.    Visual information from each eye transmitted to visual centers in both hemispheres of the brain

c.     Visual information organized into three dimensional images by specialized structures in the brain itself

                                            iv.     Decreased reliance on olfaction

                                             v.     Expansion and increased complexity of the brain

                                            vi.     Maturation, learning, and behavior

                                           vii.     Tendency to live in social groups

Term
New World
Definition
Southern Mexico, Central America, parts of South America
Term
Example of New World Monkeys
Definition

a.     Squirrel monkeys

b.    Uakari

c.     Capuchins

d.    Muriqui

Term
Old World
Definition
Africa, India, Southeast Asia, Japan
Term
Traits of Old World Monkeys
Definition

a.     Most quadrupedal and arboreal

b.    All belonging to the Cercopithecidae family

c.     Divided into subfamilies, the cercopithecines and the colobines

Term

1.    New vs. Old World Monkey traits

Definition

a.     Shape of the nose

b.    New world monkeys have broad noses with outward facing nostrils

c.     Old world monkeys have narrower noses with downward facing nostrils

                                               i.     Have areas of hardened skin on their buttocks called ischial callosities that serve as sitting pads, which make it possible to sit and sleep on tree branches for hours at a time

d.    Platyrrhine (flat nosed) and catarrhine (downward facing nose)

Term

1.    What are traits of Hominoids that separate them from the monkeys?

Definition

a.     Larger body size

b.    Absence of a tail

c.     Shortened trunk

d.    More complex behavior

e.    More complex brain

f.      Increased period of infant development and dependency

Term

What traits do anthropoids (monkeys, apes, humans) have that makes them distinct from lemurs and lorises?

Definition

a.     Larger brain and body size

b.    Reduced reliance on the sense of smell

c.     Greater degree of color vision

d.    Bony plate at the back of the eye socket

e.    Different female reproductive anatomy

f.      Longer gestation and maturation periods

g.    Fused mandible

Term

Primate dental formula 

Definition

a.     Old world monkeys – 2.1.2.3 (upper) /2.1.2.3 (lower)

                                               i.     2 incisor, 1 canine, 2 premolars, 3 molars

b.    New World Monkeys – 2.1.3.3.

                                               i.     2 incisor, 1 canine, 3 premolars, 3 molars

Term

Classification of Primates

Definition

a.     Primates

                                               i.     Strepsirhini (lemurs and lorises) & Haplorhini (tarsiers, monkeys, apes, and humans)

Term

1.    What special traits do lemurs and lorises have? Where are they found?

Definition

a.     Strong reliance on olfaction reflected by presence of moist, fleshy pad at end of nose

b.    Eyes placed more to the side of the face

c.     Differences in reproductive physiology

d.    Shorter gestation and maturation period

e.    Have ‘dental comb’ – forward projecting lower incisors and canines

                                               i.     Used in both grooming and feeding

f.      Retention of a claw (grooming claw) on the second toe

g.    LEMURS

                                               i.     Found only on the island of Madagascar and adjacent islands off the east coast of Africa

                                              ii.     Only non-human primates on Madagascar

h.     LORISES

                                               i.     Tropical forest and woodland habitats of India, Sri Lanka, Southeast Asia, and Africa

                                              ii.     Nocturnal

Term

1.    Where can you find Orangutans?

Definition

a.     Heavily forested areas of Borneo and Sumatra (Indonesia)

Term

1.    Some distinctive traits of gorillas, chimps, humans

Definition

a.     Gorillas

                                               i.     Largest of all living primates

                                              ii.     Vegetarian

                                             iii.     Tend to be placid and quiet

b.    Chimpanzees

                                               i.     Found in equatorial Africa, in a broad belt from the Atlantic ocean in the west to Lake Tanganyika in the east

                                              ii.     Frequently excitable, active, and noisy

                                             iii.     Live in large communities ranging from 10-100 individuals

c.     Humans

                                               i.     Dependence on vision

                                              ii.     Decreased reliance on olfaction

                                             iii.     Flexible limbs and grasping hands

                                            iv.     Increased brain size

                                             v.     Dependent on culture

                                            vi.     Spoken language

                                           vii.     Ability to write

                                          viii.     Habitual bipedal locomotion

Term
Anthropoid
Definition

members of the primate infraorder Anthropoidea

- includes monkeys, apes, and humans

Term
Generalized
Definition
primates have retained several ancestral mammalian traits that many other mammals have lost over time
Term
Diurnal
Definition
active during the day
Term
Olfaction
Definition
sense of smell
Term
Arboreal
Definition
tree living
Term
Specialization
Definition
where a species has a narrow ecological niche and eats only one or two things
Term
Dental formula
Definition

numerical device that indicates the number of each type of tooth in each side of the upper and lower jaws; indicates the number of each tooth type in each quadrant of the mouth

Term
Estrus
Definition

 – a hormonally initiated period of sexual receptivity in female nonhuman mammals correlated with ovulation

a.     Serve as visual cues to males that females are sexually reproductive

Term

What are some factors that influence primate social structure and how?

Definition

a.     Body Size

                                               i.     Large animals are better able to retain heat and their overall energy requirements are lesser than that of smaller animals

                                              ii.     Smaller animals generally have a higher Basal Metabolig Rate (the rate at which the body uses energy to maintain all bodily functions at resting state than large animals)

                                             iii.     Require energy rich diet (high protein: insects, fats, nuts and seeds, carbohydrates: fruits and seeds.)

b.    Basal Metabolic Rate (BMR)

                                               i.     Metabolism – the rate at which the body uses energy to maintain all bodily functions at a resting state

                                              ii.     Smaller animals have a higher BMR than larger ones

c.     Diet

d.    Distribution of Resources

e.    Predation

f.      Relationships with other, nonpredatory species

g.    Dispersal – members of one sex leave the group in which they were born (their natal group) about the time they become sexually mature

Term

1.    Know some of the major primate social activities/behaviors

Definition

a.     If primates are in a social group, then it benefits them in the event of predator attacks

b.    Multimale-female groups are advantageous where predation pressure is high

c.     The social behavior communication-autonomic response by raised body hair

d.    Vocalization and branch shaking are examples of deliberate communication

e.    Reassurance is communicated through hugging or holding hands.


Term

Life history characteristics of primates 

Definition

a.     Characteristics or developmental stages that typify members of a given species and influence potential reproductive rates

b.    Influence primate social structure

                                               i.     Length of gestation

                                              ii.     Length of time between pregnancies

                                             iii.     Period of infant dependency and age at weaning

                                            iv.     Age of sexual maturity

                                             v.     Life expectancy


Term

1.    Dominance hierarchy

Definition

a.     Higher ranking animals have greater access to food and mating partners than lower ranking individuals

b.    Serve to reduce the amount of actual physical violence

c.     Lower ranking individuals are unlikely to attack or threaten a higher ranking one

d.    Dominant animals can frequently exert control with threatening gestures

e.    Rank/status can be measured by access to resources

f.      FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SOCIAL STATUS

                                               i.     Sex

                                              ii.     Age

                                             iii.     Aggression

                                            iv.     Time in group

                                             v.     Intelligence

                                            vi.     Motivation

                                           vii.     Mother’s social position

Term

1.    Inter-sexual selection vs. Intra-sexual selection

Definition

a.     Intrasexual selection – selection within the same sex

b.    Intersexual – selection between the two sexes

Term
Behavioral ecology
Definition

1.    the study of the evolution of behavior, emphasizing the role of ecological factors as agents of natural selection. Behaviors and behavioral patterns are favored by natural selection when they increase the reproduction fitness of individuals in specific environmental contexts.

a.     Some behaviors are influenced by genes and are subject to natural selection the same way physical characteristics are

Term
Sympatric
Definition

living in the same area; pertaining to two or more species whose habitats partly or largely overlap.

a.Provides a way to maximize access to food while reducing competition between different species

 
Term
Home Range
Definition

the total area exploited by an animal or social group; usually given for one year or for the entire lifetime of an animal

Term
Displays
Definition

Sequences of repetitious behaviors that serve to communicate emotional states. Nonhuman primate displays are most frequently associated with reproductive or agonistic behavior.

Term
K-Selected
Definition

individuals produce only a few young, in whom they invest a tremendous amount of parental care

Term
R-Selected
Definition

1.    large numbers of offspring are produced but parents invest little or no energy in infant care

a.     Insects

b.    Most fish

c.     Mice

d.    Rabbits

Term
Sexual Selection
Definition
type of natural selection that operates on only one sex within a species. Sexual selection results from competition for mates, and it can lead to sexual dimorphism regarding one or more traits.
Term
Polyandry
Definition

a mating system characterized by an association between a female and more than one male (usually two or three), with whom she mates. Among non-human primates, this pattern is seen only in marmosets and tamarins. Males participate in infant care.

Term
Core Area
Definition

1.    the portion of a home range containing the highest concentration and most reliable supplies of food and water. The core area is frequently the area that will be most aggressively defended.

Term
Hominin
Definition

term for members of the evolutionary group that includes modern humans and now extinct bipedal relatives

Term
Mosaic Evolution
Definition

A pattern of evolution in which the rates of evolution in one functional system vary from those in other systems

Term
Paleoanthropology
Definition

The study of ancient humans

Term
Artifacts
Definition

Objects of materials made of modified for use by hominins. The earliest are usually made of stone, or occasionally bone.

Term
Taphonomy
Definition

the study of how bones and other materials came to be buried in the earth and preserved as fossils

Term
Olduvai Gorge
Definition

Place that has yielded the finest quality and greatest abundance of paleoanthropological information concerning early hominin behavior. Located in Serengeti Plain of northern Tanzania

Term
Zinjanthropus
Definition

now part of the genus paranthropus. Zinjanthropus cranium was discovered by Mary Leakey at Olduvai Gorge in 1959.

Term
The Leakey Family
Definition

Louis and Mary Leaky conducted continuous excavations from the 1930s to the early 1980s at Olduvai Gorge

Term
Relative Dating
Definition

tells us that something is older or younger than something else, but not by how much

Term
Chronometric Dating
Definition

Dating technique that gives an estimate in actual numbers of years; also known as absolute dating

Term
Half-life
Definition
the time period in which one half the amount of a radioactive isotope is converted chemically to a daughter product
Term
Culture
Definition

Behavioral aspects of human adaptation, which includes: technology, traditions, language, religion, marriage, patterns, and social roles. (set of learned behaviors  enhanced from one generation to the other)

Term
Stratigraphy
Definition
study of the sequential layering of deposits
Term
Principle of superposition
Definition
a lower stratum (layer) is older than a higher stratum
Term
Fluorine analysis
Definition

1.    Relative dating method that applies only to bones. Bones incorporate fluorine throughout fossilization; therefore, bones deposited at the same location and time should have the same amount of fluorine. Useful only with bones found at the same location.

Term
Biostratigraphy
Definition

1.    a relative dating technique based on the regular changes seen in evolving groups of animals as well as the presence of absence of particular species.

Term
Paleomagnetism
Definition

Dating method based on the earth’s shifting magnetic pole

Term
Thermoluminiscence 
Definition

Technique for dating certain archaeological materials (such as stone tools) that were heated in the past and that release stored energy of radioactive decay as light upon reheating.

Term
Potassium/Argon (k/Ar)
Definition
Chronometric technique used to date early hominins/materials in the 1 to 5 million year range. Potassium-40 contains a half life (time period in which one-half the amount of a radioactive isotope is converted chemically to a daughter product) of 1.25 billion years and produces Argon-40.  
Term
Carbon-14
Definition

Radiometric method. Contains a half-life of 5,730 years. Used to date organic materials, such as: bones wood, cloth, and plant remains. Applies to later stages of hominin evolution. Range is less than 1,000-75,000 years (accuracy is reduced for materials more than 40,000 years old). 

Term

Stable Carbon Isotopes

Definition

isotopes of carbon that are produced in plants in differing proportions, depending on environmental conditions. By analyzing the proportions of the isotopes contained in fossil remains of animals (who ate the plants), it’s possible to reconstruct aspects of ancient environments (particularly temperature and aridity)

Term
Knapping
Definition
making stone tools
Term
Flake
Definition
thin-edged fragment removed from a core
Term
Core
Definition
stone reduced by flake removal (may or may not itself be used as a tool)
Term
Direct percussion
Definition
striking a core or flake with a hammerstone
Term
Lithic
Definition
Reffering to the production of stone tools
Term

Microliths

Definition

1.    small stone tools usually produced from narrow blades punched from a core; found especially in Africa during the latter part of the Pleistocene

Term

Pressure flaking

Definition

a method of removing flakes from a core by pressing a pointed implement (bone or antler) against the stone

Term

Microwear

Definition

 polishes, striations, and other diagnostic microscopic changes on the edges of stone tools

Term

Phytoliths

Definition

microscopic silica structures formed in the cells of many plants, particularly grasses

Term

Environmental determinism

Definition

an interpretation that links simple environmental changes directly to a major evolutionary shift in an organism. Such explanations tend to oversimplify the evolutionary process.

Term

1.    Theories for bipedalism

Definition

a.     Ability to carry objects (and offspring);

hunting on the ground;

gathering of seeds and nuts;

feeding from bushes;

improved thermoregulation;

having a better view of open country (to spot predators);

walking long distances

and provisioning by males and females with dependent offspring

Term

Habitual bipedalism

Definition

bipedal locomotion as the form of locomotion shown by hominins most of the time

Term

Obligate bipedalism

Definition

hominins are committed to bipedalism and cannot locomote efficiently in any other way

Term

1.    Morphological changes associated with bipedalism

Definition

a.     Highly derived feet( large toe is enlarged and put in line with the rest of the toes, longitudinal arch is formed which helps to absorb shock and adds a propulsive spring)

b.    Repositioning of the foramen magnum underneath the skull so that the head is more or less balanced on the spine(this requires less robust neck muscles to hold the head upright.)

c.     The spine has two distinctive curves -- a  backward(thoracic) one and a forward(lumbar) one that keep the trunk (and weight) centered above the pelvis

d.    The pelvis is shaped more in the form of a basin to support internal organs.

e.    The lower limbs are elongated (for example, human thigh = 20% of body height, while gorilla thigh = 11% of body hieght)

f.      Femur is angled inward, which keeps the legs more directly under the body; modified knee anatomy also permits full extension of the knee joint. 

Term

Os Coxae

Definition

Iliac blades, are shorter and broader in humans, which stabilizes weight transmission as we walk upright.

Term

Foramen Magnum

Definition

the opening at the base of the skull through which the spinal cord emerges

Term

Pre-Australopiths

Definition

earliest and most primitive hominins (7.0-4.4 mya)

Term

Sahelanthropus tchadensis

Definition

                                               i.     Where: Chad

                                              ii.     When: 6-7 mya

                                             iii.     What found: nearly complete cranium.

                                            iv.     Characteristics: Flat face, bipedal placement of the foramen magnum, massive brow ridges, small brain 350cc

Term

Orrorin tugenensis

Definition

                                               i.     Where: Tugen Hills, Kenya

                                              ii.     When: 6 mya

                                             iii.     What Found: thigh, arm ,lower jaw ,teeth.

                                            iv.     Ape-like Features: chimp like teeth, postcranial climbing adaptations.

                                             v.     Hominin Features: bipedal, thick tooth enamel.

Term

Ardipithecus Ramidus  (2 species)

Definition

                                               i.     Where: Ethiopia

                                              ii.     When: 5.8-4.4 mya

                                             iii.     What: teeth, foot bones, cranial bones, upper forelimbs.

1.    2 Species:

a.     Kadabba-> Ape like features: canine sharpened against premolar. Hominin features: bipedal, thick enamel.

b.    Ramidus-> Ape-like features: small molars thin enamel. Hominin features: incisor-like canines, forward placement of foramen magnum

Term

Australopiths

Definition
(4.2-1.2 mya) Made up of two closely related genera: Australopithecus and Paranthropus
Term

Major features that all australopiths share

Definition

                                              i.     They are clearly bipedal (although not necessarily identical to Homo in this reguard)

                                             ii.     They all have relatively small brains (at least compared to Homo)

                                           iii.     They all have large teeth, particularly the back teeth, with thick to very thick enamel on the molars

                                           iv.     A. afarensis conlusively a habitual biped, not necessarily precludes arboreal behavior altogether though. Avg. brain capacity is 438 cm cubed. Some individuals(males?) have cranial capacity of 500 cm cubed while other individuals(females?) have a cranial capacity of only 375 cm cubed. 

Term

Australopithecus anamensis

Definition

                                              i.     Time period: 4.2 - 3.9 mya, the earliest australopiths

                                             ii.     Location: East Africa and from a couple sites in northern Kenya.

                                           iii.     Major Characteristics: Postcranial pieces clearly indicate bipedal locomotion. However, has some primitive features in dentition including a large canine and a sectorial first premolar. These fossils more primitive than all the later members of the genus Austrolapithecus.

Term

a.     Australopithecus afarensis - 3.6 - 3.0 mya

Definition

                                              i.     Found in sites of Hadar( in Ethiopia) and Laetoli( in Tanzania)

                                             ii.     A. afarensis knee joint resembles human knee, suggests bipedalism.

1.    Black skull

2.    Lucy

3.    Laetoli

4.    Dikka Child

Term

a.     Paranthropus boisei

Definition

                                              i.     Where: East Africa

                                             ii.     When: 2 mya

                                           iii.     Characteristics: small cranial capacity(510-530 cm cubed), extremely robust in terms of teeth & jaws, sagittal crest

Term

Paranthropus robustus

Definition

 Where: South Africa When: 2-1.2 mya Characteristics: Small cranial capacity,  also very robust in terms of teeth & jaws(but not as much as P. boisei), saggital crest.

Term

Australopithecus africanus

Definition

2.5-2.0 mya, South Africa, They were small brained ( adult cranial capacity of 440 cm cubed), big-toothed (though not as much as Paranthropus), well-adapted bipeds.

Term

Laetoli footprints

Definition

(Tanzania) 75 ft trail of hominin footprints. 3 individuals. Found by Mary Leaky and colleagues, 3.5 my bp. Made in ash; stayed well perserved—; (Laetoli Footprints 3.5 mya) 75 ft trail, three individuals, impression patterns clearly show bipedal locomotion.

Term

Lucy

Definition

(Lucy 3.2 mya) Has ape-like skull but bipedal locomotor pattern. Discovered at Hadar in 1974, belongs to A. afarensis

Term

Black Skull

Definition

a.     Where: Northern Kenya

b.    When: 2.5 my bp

c.     Genus/Species: Paranthropus aethiopicus

Term

Taung child

Definition

discovered in 1924. The endocast is in back with fossilized bone mandible and face in front. A. africanus. Very first early hominin discovery from Africa( or anywhere else for that matter)

Term

Dikika child

Definition

a.     3.3-3.2 mya

b.    large part of skeleton discovered in 2001.

c.     Immature A. afarensis.

d.    3 years old. "mixed" locomotion

e.    Feet suggest walking curved fingers and scapula suggest arboreal ease.

f.      Dikka Child 3.3-3.2 mya) foot and lower limb indicate terrestrial bipedalism,  yet shoulder and curved fingers suggest arboreal ease. Teeth quite primitive, canines are large and pointed, lower first premolar is semisectorial, teeth rows are parallel and even

g.    converging somewhat toward the back of the mouth.

Term
Sagittal crest
Definition

1.    a ridge of bone that runs down the middle of the cranium like a short Mohawk. This serves as the attachment for the large temporal muscles, indicating strong chewing. 

Term

Brow ridges

Definition

aka supraorbital tori (torus for singular) characteristic in a robust form of varying degrees  of: Homo erectus, Sanhelanthropus tchadensis, and Paranthropus aethiopicus among others.

Term
Homo habilis
Definition

a.     "handy man" Plio-Pleistocene(5.0-1.0 mya) hominin at Olduvai Gorge, significantly larger brain than Australopithecines. Referred to as early Homo, dubbed Homo habilus by Louis Leakey and colleagues. Shows an increase in cranial size of about 20% over the larger of the Australopithecines. Associated with Oldowan( earliest known stone tool industry), Leakey argued H. habilus were early Olduvai toolmakers. H. habilus material at Olduvai gorge dates to 1.8 mya.

Term
Homo erectus
Definition

a.     1.8 mya - 100 kya

b.    Headed north from Kenya to Republic of Georgia to Dmanisi, in the Caucasus region.

c.     Had a low forehead, large brow ridges(supraorbital tori), large back teeth, shovel shaped incisors, thick cranial bones, sagittal ridge, nuchal torus, broad skull base, and cranial capacity of 700-1250 cm cubed(25% increase relative to Early Homo.) Body size dramatically increased relative to earlier hominins(esp. increased robusticity).  

Term
East Turkana
Definition

a.     What found: Nearly complete skull of H. erectus

b.    When: 1.8 mya

Term

Nariokotome

Definition

a.     What: most complete H. erectus skeleton ever found(WT15000)

b.    When: dated to 1.6 mya

Term
Dmanisi
Definition

a.     What: four crania and several postcranial bones coming from at least four individuals( note that skull and postcranial bones not necessarily from same individuals)

b.    When: 1.8-1.7 mya

Term
Trinil
Definition

a.     What: Skull cap

b.    When: 1.6-1.0 mya

Term

Ngangdong

Definition

a.     What: very late survival of H. erectus, contemporary of H. Sapiens. fourteen individuals' fossils found

b.    When: 50-25 kya

Term

Zhokoudian

Definition

a.     What: 14 skullcaps, other cranial pieces, and more than 100 isolated teeth, but only a scattering of postcranial elements

                                               i.     hominin remains belong to upward of 40 adults and children and together

b.    Largest, most famous sample of H. erectus, wide age range of individuals, shows some H. erectus populations were well adapted to temperate(cold) environments. 40 male and female adults and children found

c.     When: 780-(?)400,000 kya

Term

Atapuerca, Spain 

Definition

a.     oldest evidence of hominins in western Europe, possibly not Homo erectus. partial jaw with a few teeth(Sima del Elefante)

b.    When: dated to 1.2 mya

Term

Difference between Asian and African erectus

Definition

a.     East African specimens are not as buttressed at the brow ridge and nuchal torus and have thinner cranial bones than those found in Asia. The African and Asian populations are seperated by more than 1 million years.

Term

1.    Middle Pleistocene

Definition

a.     780,000 - 125,000 years ago

b.    most premodern human populations replaced H.  erectus in the Old World. Long period of coexistence in Southeast Asia of H. erectus and premodern humans. Early premodern humans similar to H. erectus, but have some features that were more derived. They possessed an increased brain size, a more rounded braincase, a more vertical nose, and a less angled back of the skull(occipital). 

Term

Upper Pleistocine

Definition

a.     aka Late Pleistocene, 125,000 - 10,000 years ago, end of H. Heidelbergensis, appearance and disappearance of Neanderthals and appearance of Homo sapiens. 

Term

1.    Pleistocene environmental change 

Definition

a.     due to glaciation and interglacials,glaciation results in colder temperatures in northern latitudes and more arid conditions in southern latitudes(notably in Africa).Interglacials result in those northern latitudes becoming warmer and the said souther latitudes becoming wetter.

Term

Homo heidelbergensis

Definition

a.     600,000 - 125,000 years ago

b.    Found in South and East Africa, England, France, Spain, Germany, and Greece in Europe, and China in Asia.

c.     Morphology: occipital region is less angulated, the cranial vault bones are thinner, and the cranial base is essentially modern, increased cranial capacity, reduced tooth size, and parietal expansion.Kabwe (significance, what found, when from)

Term

1.    Kabwe 

Definition

a.     When: 600-125

b.    What: Nearly complete cranium, cranial fragments of second individual, miscellaneous postcranial bones

Term

1.    Bodo

Definition

a.     When: Middle Pleistocene (600,000 ya)

b.    What: Incomplete skull, part of braincase

c.     Significance: Earliest evidence of Homo heidelbergensis in Africa.Cut marks similar to those found in butchered animals.Defleshed by other hominins

Term
Homo heidelbergensis
Definition
Term
Swanscombe
Definition
Term

Atapuerca

Definition

a.     oldest evidence of hominins in western Europe, possibly not Homo erectus.

b.    What: partial jaw with a few teeth(Sima del Elefante)

c.     When: dated to 1.2 mya

Term

1.    Heidelbergensis in Asia

Definition
Term

Dali

Definition
Term

Jinniushan

Definition
Term

1.    Levallois tool technique

Definition

a.     premodern humans in Africa and Europe – for controlling flake size and shape, resulting in a “turtle back” profile

1.    Required several complex and coordinated steps, suggesting increased cognitive abilities in later premodern populations

Term

Homo neandertalensis

Definition
Term

La Chapelle-aux-saints 

Definition
Term
Moula-Guercy 
Definition

 (120,000 – 100,000 ya) 78 broken skeletal fragments from 6 individuals Bones were processed, defleshed and disarticulated Deer bones processed in the same way

Neanderthal cannibalism

Term

Krapina, Croatia 

Definition
Term

Shanidar 1 

Definition
Term

1.    Mousterian tool technique

Definition
Term

Homo sapiens

Definition
Term

Omo I 

Definition
Term

Herto, Ethiopia 

Definition
Term

Skhul 5 

Definition
Term

Qafzeh 6 

Definition
Term

Cro Magnon 

Definition
Term

Châtelperronian

Definition

was the earliest industry of the Upper Palaeolithic in central and south western France, extending also into Northern Spain. It derives its name from the site of la Grotte des Fées, in Châtelperron, Allier, France. It arose from the earlier, Mousterian industry. It made use of the Levallois technique of lithic reduction (stone-knapping) and lasted from between c. 35,000 and c. 29,000 BP. 

Term

1.    Magdalenian

Definition
Term

1.    Upper Paleolithic changes in human tools and symbols

Definition
Term

1.    Solutrean Stonework

Definition
Term

Punch blade technique

Definition

a.     (1) A portion is removed from the core

b.    (2) The objective is to create a flat surface called striking platform

c.     (3) The core is struck by the use of a hammer and punch (made of bone or antler) to remove the long narrow flakes called blades

d.    (4) Or the blades can be removed by pressure flaking

e.    (5) The result/product can be used as knives or other tools.  

Term

Dolni Vestonice and Predmosti

Definition

                                               i.     (27,000-26,000 ya in the Czech Republic)

                                              ii.     Found small animal figures were fashioned from fire clay, ceramic technology. 

Term

a.     Lascaux Cave

Definition

                                               i.     (France) immense wild bulls=Great Wall of Bulls; and horses and deer, and other animals were drawn in yellow, black , red.

Term

a.     Altamira (Spain)

Definition

                                               i.     walls and ceilings filled with bisons in red and black. Images can reflect religous or magical, visual communication, or simply art.

Term

a.     Grotte Chauvet

Definition

                                               i.     France, 35,000 ya

                                              ii.     through radiocarbon dating, during the "Aurignacian") Images include dots, stenciled human handprints, many animals representation

Term

a.     Apollo 11 Rock shelter site

Definition

                                               i.     (Africa Namibia, 28,000 & 26,000 ya) painted slabs. 

Term

1.    Flores hominids

Definition

a.     Homo floresiensis

b.    (95,000-13,000 ya)

c.     Southeast Asia, Flores (Indonesia).

d.    H. floresiensis. Late survival of very small-bodied and small-brained hominin on island of Flores; designated as different species from modern humans. 

Term

Complete Replacement Model 

Definition

"Out of Africa", recent African Evolution. Developed by British paleoanthropologists Christopher Stringer and Peter Andrews. Proposes anatomically modern populations arose in Africa in the last 200 ky. Migrated from Africa, completely replacing populations in Europe and Asia. Does not accont for the transition from archiac H. sapiens to modern H. sapiens anywhere except Africa. Between 100-200 kya, modern humans arose in Africa and spread outward to replace Neanderthals and other pre-modern humans. Little or no gene flow between Neanderthals.

Term

Regional Continuity Model 

Definition

(Associated with paleoanthropologists Milford and Wilpoff of the University of Michigan) Populations in Europe, Asia and Africa continued evolutionary development from Archaic H. sapiens to anatomically modern humans. Gene flow links human populations  H. erectus/egaster eveolves in modern H. sapiens. Regional variation apparent amongst different human populations. Morphological resembllances exist between modern humans and archaic H. sapiens in each region  because of a continuous line of descent.

Term

Partial Replacement Model

Definition

Günter Brauer - Postulates the earliest dates for African modern H. sapiens at over 100 kya. initial dispersal of H. sapiens sapiens from S. Africa was influenced by  environmental conditions. Moving into Eurasia, modern humans hybridized with resident groups, eventually replacing them. The disappearance of archaic humans was due to hybridization and replacement. 

Term

Olduwan tool industry

Definition

chopping tool industry; earliest known tool industry

Term

Aechulian tool industry

Definition

Invented about 1.4 mya(after emigration of H. erectus from Africa). Core was worked on both sides, called a biface(known widely as a handaxe or cleaver), biface had a flatter shape than rounder earlier Oldowan cores. In Acheulian culture raw materials transported more consistently for longer distances, whereas in Oldowan all stone tools were found very close to their raw material sources.  Biface was the  "Acheulian Swiss army knife" , used to cut, scrape, pound, and dig.

Term
Controversial aspects of the Zhoukoudian cave
Definition

a.     hunters or hunted

b.    whether they used and controlled fire

c.     whether it was a trap or home

Term

-       regional continuity model of modern homo sapiens

Definition

a.     modern humans didn’t appear solely in Africa

b.    pre-modern populations in Europe, Asia, and Africa all evolved into modern Homo sapiens

c.     gene flow between pre-modern populations from different regions of the Old World

Term
What was the first hominin to migrate out of Africa?
Definition
Homo erectus
Term
Where is Dmanisi?
Definition
the Republic of Georgia
Term
Biological Determinism
Definition
the concept that phenomena, including various aspects of behavior (e.g. intelligence, values, morals) are governed by biological (genetic) factors; the inaccurate association of various behavioral attributes with certain biological traits, such as skin color
Term

Eugenics

Definition

the philosophy of “race improvement” through the forced sterilization of members of some groups and increased reproduction among others; an over simplified, often racist view that’s now discredited

Term
Race
Definition
Term
Changing concepts of race
Definition
Term
Racism
Definition
Term
Polytypic
Definition

Referring to species composed of populations that differ in the expression of one or more traits

Term

Cline

Definition

1.    is a gradual change in the frequency of a trait or allele in populations dispersed over geographical space;Reflect microevolutionary influences of natural selection and/or gene flow.

Term
Polymorphisms
Definition
Term
R.D. Lewontin
Definition

There’s no biological value in the further study of geographical populations

Term
Skin color distribution
Definition
Term
Gene pool
Definition

1.    all of the genes shared by the reproductive members of a population

Term

Breeding isolates

Definition

populations that are clearly isolated geographically and/or socially from other breeding groups

Term

Endogamy

Definition

mating with individuals from the same group

Term

Exogamy

Definition

mating pattern whereby individuals obtain mates from groups other than their own

Term
Hemoglobin
Definition

when it is carrying oxygen, gives a reddish tinge to the skin.    

Term

Carotene

Definition

1.    a plant pigment which the body synthesizes into vitamin A, provides a yellowish cast.

Term

Melanin

Definition

1.    has the ability to absorb ultraviolet radiation preventing damage to DNA.

Term

1.    Folate and UV radiation

Definition

a.     Folate - B vitamin that isn’t stored in the body and must be replenished through dietary sources such as leafy green vegetables and certain fruits

b.    UV Radiation – depletes folate serum levels both in laboratory experiments and in light-skinned individuals.

c.     Explanation of heavily pigmented skin in the tropics

Term
What influences skin color?
Definition
Hemoglobin, carotene, and melanin
Term

Vitamin D hypothesis

Definition

lightly pigmented skins are necessary outside of the tropics to permit Vitamin D synthesis from UVR

Term

Growth

Definition

1.    increase in mass or number of cells

Term

Development

Definition

1.    differentiation of cells into different types of tissues and their maturation

 

Term

1.    Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium

Definition

a.     The population is infinitely large to eliminate the possibility of random genetic drift or changes in allele frequencies due to chance.

b.    —  There’s no mutation.

c.     —  There’s no gene flow.

d.    —  Natural selection isn’t operating.

e.    —  Mating is random.

Term

Lactose Intolerance

Definition

involves an individual’s ability to digest milk; example of human biocultural evolution

Term

Homeostasis

Definition

a condition of balance, or stability, within a biological system, maintained by the interaction of physiological mechanisms that compensate for changes (both external and internal)

Term

Acclimatization

Definition

physiological responses to changes in the environment that occur during an individual’s lifetime

Term

MC1R Gene

Definition

1.    Allele that reduces pigment in skin and hair; not present in all modern populations

Term

1.    SCL gene

Definition
Term

Bergmann’s Rule

Definition

1.    concerns the relationship of body mass or volume to surface area.

As mass increases, the relative amount of surface area decreases proportionately

Term

Allen’s Rule

Definition

1.    concerns the shape of the body, especially appendages

a.     In colder climates, shorter appendages, with increased mass-to-surface ratios, are adaptive because they are more effective at preventing heat loss.

b.    Conversely, longer appendages, with increased surface area relative to mass, are more adaptive in warmer climates because they promote heat loss.

Term

Vectors

Definition

agents that transmit disease from one carrier to another. Mosquitoes are vectors for malaria, just as fleas are vectors for bubonic plague

Term

Endemic

Definition

1.    continuously present in a population

Term
Zoonotic
Definition

a disease transmitted to humans via

contact with non-human animals

Term

Thrifty gene hypothesis

Definition
Term

Thrifty phenotype hypothesis

Definition
Term

The human life cycle

Definition

a.     Pre-natal begins with conception and ends with birth

b.    Infancy is when the baby nurses

c.     Childhood is from weaning to puberty

d.    Adolescence is from puberty to the end of growth

e.    Adulthood is the completion of growth

Term

Life history theory 

Definition

1.    Explains variability in the timing of fertility, growth, developmental rates, & death of organisms

a.     Principle idea that energy used for one purpose cannot be used for another

Term

1.    Prenatal development and birth

Definition
Term

Benefits of breast-feeding

Definition
Term

Menarche

Definition
Term

 Menopause

Definition
Term

Grandmother hypothesis

Definition

1.    post menopausal lifespan so that grandmothers can invest in existing children & grandchildren

a.     This comes at the expense of their own reproduction

Term

Senescence

Definition

1.    the accumulation of metabolic byproducts and a decreased probability of reproduction and survival

Term

Pleiotropic genes 

Definition

genes with more than one effect

Term

Human behavioral ecology

Definition

a.     Argues that natural selection is not limited to physical and physiological responses, but has had an effect on the way humans think

Term
Definition
Term
What does Adenine connect to?
Definition
Thymine
Term
What does Cytosine combine to?
Definition
Guanine
Term
What does Thymine combine to?
Definition
Adenine
Term
What does Guanine combine to?
Definition
Cytosine
Term
Epigenetics
Definition

                                               i.     changes in phenotype that are not related to changes in underlying DNA

1.    Reveals that structural changes to DNA and associated proteins can underlie gene expression

Term
Epigenome
Definition

the instructions that determine what and how genes are expressed in cells

Term

Vascoconstriction

Definition

a.    narrowing of blood vessels to reduce blood flow to the skin.

                                               i.     Is an involuntary response to cold and reduces heat loss at the skin’s surface

                                             ii.     Minimizes heat loss and is more energy efficient

Term
vasodilation
Definition

Another mechanism for radiating body heat;   occurs when capillaries near the skin’s surface widen to increase blood flow to the skin

 

 

 

 

Term
Definition