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Final Exam 2
Microbiology Exam
50
Microbiology
05/12/2011

Additional Microbiology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Which of the following is not a characteristic sign of inflammation?
Definition

Fever

Term

Which of the following choices describes the order in which immune cells arrive at a recently inflamed area?

Definition
Neutrophils then monocytes
Term
Which of the following granulocytes demonstrates the highest phagocytic activity?
Definition

Neutrophils

Term
Which of the following statements best describes interferons?
Definition
Alpha interferon is an antiviral cytokine         
Term

Which of the following is normally found in serum?

Definition
Complement
Term
Which of the following is an effect of opsonization?
Definition

a.  Increased adherence of phagocytes to microorganisms       

b.  Increased adherence of phagocytes to antigens

e.  Both a and b

Term

Normal microbiota provide protection from infection by all of the following ways except?

Definition
They produce lysozyme
Term

The phases of phagocytosis are _________.?

Definition
chemotaxis, adherence, ingestion, digestion
Term

Which of the following is not a function associated with complement activation?

Definition
inhibits bacterial protein synthesis by binding to bacterial ribosomes
Term
Which of the following is not true about macrophages?  
Definition
They develop from neutrophils
Term

Why has the Natural killer cell in the figure above been activated?  

Definition
Target cell no longer expresses MHCI
Term
Phagocytes with defective lysosomes are unable to
Definition
Produce toxic digestive enzymes
Term

Which of the following recognizes antigens on antigen presenting cells expressing MHCII?

Definition
T-helper cells
Term

________________are the sites where T and B cells can encounter dendritic cells and become activated.

Definition
Peripheral lymph nodes
Term
The transfer of antibodies in breast milk is a good example of  
Definition
Naturally acquired passive immunity.
Term
A vaccination is a good example of …
Definition
Artificially acquired active immunity
Term
All of the following are true about natural killer cells (NKs) except?
Definition
They are stimulated by antigen
Term
Lectin binds to certain ______________to begin the activation of the MBL complement pathway?

Definition

carbohydrates

Term
Class II major histocompatibility complex molecules (MHCII) are found on all of the following types of cells except  
Definition

T cells.

Term
Using figure 2, why is the amount of antibody in (A) primary response to antigen smaller than the amount of antibody in (D) second exposure to an antigen?
Definition

the second exposure to the same Ag stimulates the memory cells formed at the time of initial exposure to rapidly produce a large amount of Ab

Term

Using figure 2. What class of antibody is represented by the immune response in (B)?

Definition
IgM
Term
What class of antibody is secreted second in an immune response to an antigen (C)?
Definition
IgG
Term
In figure 3 above which area is similar for all IgG antibodies?
Definition
C and D; the two long bottom ones
Term
In figure 3 above which areas are different for all IgM antibodies?
Definition
a and b; the two top on the same side
Term
In figure 3 above which areas represent antigen binding sites?
Definition
a and b; two top next to eachother
Term

In figure 3 above what can attach and activate a host immune cell?

Definition
e
Term

What class of antibody is the most abundant in serum?

Definition
IgG
Term
Which of the following prevents some bacteria from adhering to mucosal surfaces? 
Definition

IgA

Term
Tears and sweat protect the host by
Definition
flushing and the defensin lysozyme.
Term
You were trying to determine if a patient was infected with Salmonella from a fecal sample which type of ELISA,(Enzyme linked immunoabsorbant assay) would you use?
Definition
Direct
Term

The main role for cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTLs) is to

Definition
kill host cells that have intracellular infections
Term
How is the diversity in antibody production achieved by Bcells?
Definition

DNA recombination and rearrangements lead to millions of different antibodies

Term

Once an antibody has bound antigen, the mechanisms activated to get rid of the antigen depend on the class of the molecule.  How many major antibody classes are found in humans?

Definition
5
Term
What is the antigen in the home pregnancy test?
Definition
human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG)
Term

The pool of T and B cells do not contain cells that are harmfully reactive against host tissue, or self. These are usually eliminated at the immature lymphocyte stage by the process of __________.

Definition
clonal deletion
Term

Cytokines released by CD4 (TH2) cells….

Definition

Activate B cells to become plasma cells

Term

Which of the following can be true about a patient that shows a positive ELISA for antibodies to measles virus except?

Definition
The patient was near someone that has antibodies to measles
Term
The humoral immune response differs from the cell-mediated immune response in that only in the humoral immune response is there  

Definition
secretion of antibody.
Term
Cytotoxic T lymphocytes are distinguished from other lymphocytes by the presence of
Definition
CD8
Term
Pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs) of TOLL receptors include
Definition

a.  lipopolysaccharide.
b.  peptidoglycan.

e.  both a and b

Term

The “T” in the name T cells is because

Definition
T cells develop in the thymus
Term

What two cells types are fused together during the production of monoclonal antibodies?

Definition
B cells and myeloma cells
Term
Which of the following pathways for complement activation is generally dependent upon the formation of antigen-antibody complexes? 
Definition
the classical pathway
Term

During monoclonal antibody production, what is the name of the new cell type that is formed from the fusion of two different cells?

Definition

Hybridoma cell

Term
Lymphocytes are comprised of which of the following cell types?  

Definition
a.  T cells
b.  B cells
c.  natural killer cells
d.  all of the choices

Term
The antigen binding domain of antibody molecules 

Definition

A. is the same for all the antibodies produced by a single Bcell clone.
B. binds to the epitope.

E. Both A & B

Term
Consistent removal of normal microbiota either by repeated washing with antibacterial agents can result in? 
Definition

increased susceptibility to disease

Term
Opsonizing antibodies must be against __________ molecules if they are to effectively stimulate phagocytosis. 
Definition
surface
Term
Class I major histocompatibility complex molecules are found on ____________ cells.  
Definition
all nucleated
Term
Definition