Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Family Development 1-5
n/a
124
Social Work
02/09/2011

Additional Social Work Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Boundaries
Definition
physical and psychological seperations families create between themselves and the rest of the world
Term
Choosing by default
Definition
unconscious decisions
Term
choosing by knowledge
Definition
recognizing as many options or alternatives as possible.
Term
Family
Definition

consists of people related by blood, marriage, or adoption.

(common househould, economic interdependency, sexual and reproductive relations)

Term
Nuclear Family
Definition
husband, wife, and children in an independant household; traditional, but also modern because it emerged with modern industrial society
Term
Primary Group
Definition

(definied by Charles Cooley)

any group in which there is a close, face to face relationship - laugh, cry, quarrel together

Term
Secondary Group
Definition
more distant, practical, and unemotional relationship. (professional organization or business association)
Term
Burgess and Locke's view of Family Companionship
Definition
Assumed that family interaction occurred primarily in the context of traditional social roles, rather than emphasizing spontaneity, individuality and intimacy
Term
"constitute a household"
Definition
people residing together
Term
Familism
Definition
The virtual sacrafice of individual family members needs and goals for the sake of the extended family (larger kin group)
Term
Household
Definition
broader than "family" - it includes non familial living arrangments as well
Term
Individualistic Values
Definition
encourage people to think in terms of personal happiness and goals and the development of a distinct individual identity. Gives more weight to the expression of individual preferences and the maximization of individual talents and options
Term
self concept
Definition
an individuals idea about his or her worth and about what sort of person she or he is.
Term
Structural Constraints
Definition
economic and social forces that limit personal choices (we and our personal decisions and attitudes are products of our environment)
Term
Total Fertility Rate of a Population
Definition

the average number of children that would be born to a woman over her lifetime.

Scholars and advocates with a "family decline" perspective point to what they see as a cultural change toward excessive individualism that they characterize as the self indulgence if the baby boom generation.

Term
Cultural broker
Definition
children in role reversal families start managing interaction with bureaucracies and the larger society
Term
Infant Mortality Rate
Definition

The number of children dying under a year of age divided by the number of live births that year.

*cuban and mexican immigrants all have lower IMR than non hispanic whites

Term
Ethnicity
Definition
refers to cultural distinctions often based in language, religion, and history
Term
Ethnic Identity
Definition
Not a race. Its the name - "hispanic" or "latino"
Term
Cultural deviant perspective
Definition
views the qualities that distinguish minority racial/ethnic families from mainstream white middle class families as negative or pathological
Term
Cultural Varient Perspective
Definition
calls for making culturally and contextually relevant interpretations of minority family lives
Term
Race
Definition
biologically distinct group (scientific thinking rejects the idea that there are seperate races distinguished by biological markers)
Term
Role Reversal
Definition
when children learn the English language and American ways faster than their parents and thus become the family leaders
Term
Sex Ratio
Definition
the number of eligible men available for women seeking marital partners.
Term
Social Class
Definition

Measured in terms of education, occupation and income.

(blue collar and white collar workers)

Term
Undocumented Immigrant
Definition
not legal in the United States and subject to sudden deportation
Term
Binational Family
Definition
some family members are American citizens or legal residents, while others are undocumented immigrants.
Term
Transnational Family
Definition
maintains significant contact with 2 countries; the country of origin and the U.S
Term
Globalization
Definition

describes the process by which regional economies, societies, and cultures have become integrated through a global network of political ideas through communication, transportation, and trade.

 

*economists are divided as to whether the increasing globalization of the economy - more outsourcing of jobs to other countries and the replacement of manufacturing by service jobs - is rendering the economic foundation of the American family more precarious

Term
Life Chances
Definition
the opportunities one has for education and work, whether one can afford to marry, the schools that children attend, and a family's healthcare all depend on family economic resources
Term
segmented assimilation
Definition
refers to a variety of adoptive experiences immigrants may have as they become part of a host society
Term
biosocial perspective
Definition
ones who work from this perspective are finding complex interactions among gender, social roles, and biological indicators rather than categorical gender differences.
Term
one
Definition
Term
Boundary Ambiguity
Definition

common in stepfamilies.

Researchers have used concepts such as family boundaries as research start points

Term
Brain Lateralization
Definition
refers to the relative dominance and the sychronization of the two hemispheres of the brain
Term
Agreement Reality
Definition
what members of a society agree is true - may misrepresent the actual experience of families.
Term
Case Study
Definition
compiled by clinicians who counsel people with marital and family problems.
Term
Chordow's Theory
Definition
Infants develop a primary identification with the person primarily responsible for their early care
Term
Conflict Perspective
Definition
it is the opposite if structure-functional theory
Term
Developmental Task
Definition
challenges that must be mastered in one stange for a successful transition to the next stage
Term
Borderwork
Definition
Many cross-sexual interaction rituals such as playground games are based on and reaffirm boundaries and differences between girls and boys
Term
Euro-American Families
Definition
white families
Term
Equilibrium
Definition
systems tend toward this
Term
Evolutionary Heritage
Definition

transmitted to succeeding generations.

successful behavior patterns are encoded in genes

Term
Exchange Balance
Definition
People without resources typically defer to the preferences of others and are less likely to leave a relationship.
Term
Exchange Theory
Definition
the application of an economic perspective to social relationships
Term
Experimential reality
Definition
beliefs we have about the family- may not be accurate
Term
Experiment
Definition
subjects from a pool of similar participants will be randomly assigned to groups that will be given different experiences
Term
Extended Family
Definition
involves whole kinship groups,  of parents, children, grandparents, and other relatives performed most societal functions
Term
Family ecology perspective
Definition
explores how a family influences and is influenced by the surrounding environment
Term
Family Development Perspective
Definition
emphasizes the family itself as the unit of analysis
Term
Family Life Cycle
Definition

is central based on the idea that the family changes in predictable ways over time.

 

The addition or subtraction of a family member, the stages children go through, and changes in the families connections with other social institutions

Term
Family Policy
Definition
is all the procedures, regulations, attitudes, and goals of government that affect families
Term
Family Functions
Definition
to raise children responsibly, to provide economic support, and give emotional security
Term
Family Systems Theory
Definition
umbrella term for a wide range of specific theories that look at the family as a whole
Term
Feminist Development Perspective
Definition
emphasizes the family itself as a unit of analysis
Term
Identity
Definition
a sense of uniqueness and inner sameness
Term
Inclusive Fitness
Definition
the survival of ones genes
Term
Informed Consent
Definition
the research participants must be appraised of the nature of the research and then give their consent
Term
Institutions
Definition
patterned and predictable ways of thinkings and behaving. Meet the needs of members and enable the society to survive
Term
Interactionist Perspective
Definition
focuses on interaction, the face to face encounters and relationships of individuals who act in awareness of one another
Term
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Definition
Researchers now must have their research plans reviewed by a special board of experts and community representatives
Term
Agentic/Instrumental Character traits
Definition
confidence, assertiveness, and ambition - enable them to accomplish difficult tasks or goals
Term
Laboratory Observation
Definition
means that behavior is observed in a laboratory setting but does not involve random assignment or experimental manipulation of a variable
Term
Longitudinal Study
Definition
provides long term information about individuals or groups, as researchers conduct follow up investigations for some years after an initial study
Term
Looking Glass Self
Definition
Cooley developed this - social feedback shapes the self concept
Term
Meaning
Definition
what given activity or statement coveys symbolically
Term
Naturalistic Observation
Definition
the researcher lives with a family or social group or spends extensive time with family or social group members, carefully recording their activities, conversations, gestures, and other aspects of everyday life.
Term
Normative Order Hypothesis
Definition
proposes that the work, marriage, parenthood sequence is best for mental health and happiness
Term
Nuclear Family
Definition

(husband, wife, children)

Has lost many functions formally performed by the traditional extended family.

"On time" transition - is successful for role performance

Term
Emerging Adulthood
Definition
conveys sense of ongoing change and development
Term
Communal (expressive) character traits
Definition
(women) warmth, sensitivity, the ability to express tender feelings and the placing concern about others welfare above self interest
Term
Femininities
Definition
according to this, there are a variety of ways of being a woman. Attractiveness, caring, and emotional support
Term
Gender
Definition

culturally defined attitudes and behaviors associated with and expected of the 2 sexes.

(what it means to be masculine or feminine)

Term
Gender Identity
Definition
refers to the degree to which an individual sees herself or himself as feminine or masculine
Term
Gender Role
Definition
describes societal attitudes and behaviors expected of and associated with the 2 sexes
Term
Gender Schema theory of gender socialization
Definition
children develop a framework of knowledge about whats boys and girls typically do.
Term
Gender Similarities hypothesis
Definition
pyschologist Janet Hyde offers this to replace the usual assumption of gender differences
Term
Internalize
Definition
children internalize messages from available cultural influences and materials surrounding them.
Term
Male Dominance
Definition
describes a situation in which the males in a dyad or group assume authority over the females.
Term
Masculinities
Definition
a recent and subtle change meant to promote our appreciation for the differences among men.
Term
Modern Sexism
Definition
takes the form of agreement with statements like "discrimination in the labor force is no longer a problem", it denies that gender discrimination persists and includes the belief that women are asking for too much
Term
Patriarchy
Definition
The idea that men dominate women in all societies
Term
Principle of Least Interest
Definition
the partner with less commiment to the relationship is the one who has more power, including the power to exploit the other
Term
Play
Definition
the role is an important concept in interactions perspective. Mead* - play is not idle time but a significant vehicle thru which children develop appropriate concepts of adult roles and images of themselves.
Term
Resources
Definition

education, income, physical attractiveness, and personality affect their formation and continuation in relationships.

The exhange of rewards and costs among participants shapes power and influence in the family, the household and commitment to relationships.

*they can be material and nonmaterial gifts

Term
Roles
Definition
positions in the social structure that have associated behavior expectations
Term
Role Making
Definition
adapting typical family roles of husband and wife to their own preferences
Term
Role sequences
Definition
the order in which major transitions to adult roles take place
Term
Role Taking
Definition

or playing out the expected behavior associated with a social position.

*its how children begin to learn behavior appropriate to the roles they play as adults

Term
Science
Definition
logical system that bases knowledge on systematic observation
Term
Scientific Investigation
Definition
data gathered systematically from many sources through these investigation techniques
Term
Self Concept
Definition
the basic feelings people have about themselves, their abilities, characteristics and their worth
Term
In the Structure Functional Perspective, the family is seen as....
Definition
a social institution that performs certain essential functions for society
Term
Symbolic Interaction Theory
Definition

children develop self concepts based on social feed back

*looking glass self

Term
Survey
Definition
part of our everyday experience. Face to face interviews
Term
System
Definition
combination of elements or components that are interrelated and organized as a whole
Term
Theoretical Perspective
Definition
ways of viewing reality, in which observers view, organize and interpret what they see. Suggests explanations for why family patterns and practices are the way they are
Term
Self Identification theory
Definition
children categorize themselves as male or female, by age three. Then they identify behaviors in their families, in the media or elsewhere appropriate to their sex and adopt those behaviors
Term
Hormonal Process
Definition
is through which the genetic heritage is expressed
Term
Hormones
Definition
chemical substances secreted into the bloodstream by the endocrine glands. Influence the activities of cells, tissues, and body organs
Term
Intersexual
Definition
the children have some anatomical, chromosomal or hormonal variation from the male or female biology that is considered "normal"
Term
Sex
Definition
biological characteristics (male and female anatomy) determined at birth
Term
Socialization
Definition
a process by which people develop their human capacities and acquire a unique personality and identity and which a culture is passed from generation to generation
Term
Social Learning Theory
Definition
children learn gender roles as they are taught by parents, schools, and the media
Term
Traditional Sexism
Definition
the belief that womens roles should be confined to the family and that women are not as fit as men for certain tasks or for leadership positions
Term
Transgender
Definition
an identity adopted by those who are uncomfortable in the gender of their birth
Term
Transsexual
Definition
has been raised as one sex, while emotionally identifying with the other - surgery
Term
A-Frame Relationships
Definition
symbolized by A- partners have strong couple indentity but little sense of themselves as individuals
Term
Agape
Definition
Greek for "love feast" - emphasizes unselfish concern for the beloveds needs even when that requires some personal sacrafice. Nurturing others
Term
Attachment Theory
Definition
during infancy and childhood a young person develops a general style of attaching to others
Term
Avoidance Attachment theory
Definition
children who feel uncared for abandoned develop this style.
Term
Co-Dependents
Definition
persons who gravitate toward relationships with exploitative or abusive partners around whom they organize their lives and they remain strongly committed despite the absence of any identifiable rewards or personal fulfillment for themselves
Term
Sternbergs Theory of Commitment
Definition

the decision/commitment component of love consists of 2 aspects, one short term and one long term;

 

1.the decision that ones loves someone

2. commitment to maintain that love

Term
Consummate Love
Definition
complete ove, a kind of love toward which many of us strive, especially in romantic relationships
Term
Dependence
Definition
involves reliance on another or others for continual support or assurance
Term
Dopamine
Definition
a chemical naturally produced in our brains. Acts upon the pleasure center of our brains, powerful feelings
Term
Emotion
Definition
a strong feeling arising without conscious mental or rational effort, which motivates an individual to behave in certain ways.
Term
Eros
Definition
Greek word meaning love (forms the word erotic)
Term
H - frame relationships
Definition
partners stand virtually alone, self sufficient
Term
Illegitimate Needs
Definition
"deficient needs" arise from feelings of self doubt, unworthiness and inadequacy
Term
Independence
Definition

involves self reliance and self sufficiency and may imply that the individual functions in isolation from others.

*emphasizes seperation from others

Term
Insecure/anxious attachment style
Definition
same as avoidant attachment style
Term
Definition