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Exam 4
Anthropology 101 at University of Kentucky
110
Anthropology
07/22/2011

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Term
Upon receiving a Master’s degree, it could be said that a student had gained
Definition
An achieved Quality
Term
A(n) __________ is the term for a group of persons of similar age, and the same sex, who move through some, or all, of life’s stages together
Definition
age-set
Term
An association that only contains males, and functions to provide men refuge from females is a(n)
Definition
unisex association
Term
Of the following, which is not a feature of a military association?
Definition
high military rank
Term
__________ associations are clubs that bring together migrants from a common geographical background.
Definition
regional
Term
Friendly societies differ from tribal unions in that their objectives
Definition
are confined for the most part to mutual aid
Term
In societies like the United States, membership in voluntary associations is usually based upon
Definition
common, achieved interests
Term
Associations are
Definition
groups based on criteria other than kinship or common territory.
Term
A group of people who move through all of life’s stages together is known as
Definition
an age-set
Term
Ethnic associations
Definition
are generally found in cities
Term
The more technologically advanced a society, the
Definition
more voluntary associations it is likely to have.
Term
NGOs provide career opportunities for anthropologists because
Definition
they apply anthropological findings and understanding to the solution of practical problems.
Term
Unisex associations, in which membership is restricted to one’s sex, exist in a number of societies and are usually male to
Definition
all the above
Term
Voluntary associations seem to be more common in stratified and complex societies becaus
Definition
stratified societies are composed of people with many different interests.
Term
Street gangs are like voluntary associations because
Definition
all the above
Term
Regional associations are usually found in urban areas because
Definition
these areas attract settlers from rural areas and these associations bring together migrants from common geographic backgrounds.
Term
Rotating credit associations depend on voluntary compliance to work and once in there is
Definition
strong social pressure to continue paying regularly.
Term
The development of women’s association has not translated into new power of women in male dominated societies because
Definition
their arena is still separate from the men’s arena.
Term
In the U.S. most of the people who join voluntary associations have
Definition
common, achieved interests
Term
Anthropologists want to know why different types of associations develop so they can
Definition
understand what the age-set system can do and what the kinship group fails to do.
Term
What is the mode of subsistence for chiefdoms?
Definition
intensive agriculture
Term
A(n) __________ is a means used to determine guilt or innocence by submitting the accused to dangerous or painful tests believed to be under supernatural control.
Definition
ordeal
Term
__________ are used where political officials lack sufficient power to make and enforce judicial decisions.
Definition
oaths
Term
When no regular, effective means of resolving a conflict are available
Definition
violence is commonly used to settle a dispute.
Term
In discussing political groups, anthropologists generally focus on groups organized on the basis of
Definition
territory
Term
A society composed of a number of politically autonomous, small and unusually nomadic groups is classified as a
Definition
band society
Term
In contrast to tribes, chiefdoms have all of the following except
Definition
more nomadic communities.
Term
Which of the following is not generally an important role of chiefs?
Definition
collecting taxes
Term
A set of explicit, usually written rules stipulating what is permissible and what is not, is called
Definition
codified laws.
Term
States generally have all of the following except
Definition
egalitarian distribution of wealth.
Term
State-level societies generally get most of their food from
Definition
intensive agriculture.
Term
Which form of distribution do anthropologists link to chiefdoms?
Definition
redistribution
Term
Oaths and ordeals are most likely in
Definition
complex societies where political leaders lack the power to enforce judicial decisions.
Term
Warfare in preindustrial societies is most likely
Definition
where people fear unpredictable natural disasters.
Term
Although we often refer to a tribe as encompassing an entire society, in actuality
Definition
the tribal type of political system does not usually permit the entire society to act as a unit.
Term
A chiefdom has formal structure and thus it
Definition
integrates more than one community into a political unit
Term
States, in anthropology, have a centralized government with power including
Definition
all of the above.
Term
There has been a great deal of growth in the cities in the past 100 years, not because of the birthrate, but because of
Definition
migration from rural areas
Term
In societies where the leaders are chosen, we need more research to understand why some kinds of people are chosen over others. Why would this be helpful?
Definition
because we see differences in the personal qualities of leaders in different societies
Term
A high degree of political participation in society has important consequences because
Definition
democratically governed states rarely go to war with each other.
Term
Religion deals with the
Definition
supernatural
Term
A polytheistic religion recognizes __________ gods, not one of which is __________.
Definition
many important/supreme
Term
When an individual compels the gods to act on his or her behalf
Definition
magic is being performed
Term
__________ are generally full-time male specialists who officiate at public events.
Definition
priests
Term
For anthropologists, the term mana refers to
Definition
a supernatural force residing in some people and objects.
Term
In most societies, ghosts resemble
Definition
close relatives
Term
People are most likely to believe their ancestors play an active role in their lives in societies
Definition
where descent groups are important decision-making groups.
Term
In which kinds of societies are gods most likely to be viewed as aggressive and malevolent?
Definition
societies with punitive or hurtful child-rearing practices
Term
Monotheistic religions generally have beliefs in
Definition
a supreme supernatural being together with lower ranked supernatural.
Term
In which type of society are the gods most likely to take an active interest in the moral behavior of humans?
Definition
. a society with inequality of wealth
Term
Sorcerers and witches of both sexes tend to have
Definition
very low social and economic status in their societies.
Term
Which type of religious practitioner is most likely to be female?
Definition
medium
Term
A "revitalization movement" is
Definition
an effort to save a culture by infusing it with new purpose and life.
Term
Anthropologists believe there is a universality of religious beliefs and practices because
Definition
they are found in all contemporary societies.
Term
There are many variations cross-culturally in religious beliefs, especially in
Definition
the way supernatural forces are viewed.
Term
The gods or spirits in a particular culture exhibit certain character traits because
Definition
it might be related to the nature of child training.
Term
Societies vary in the kinds of ways that people interact with the supernatural. Often people use
Definition
all of the above.
Term
Magic is used in a number of societies to manipulate the supernatural. The purpose of this manipulation is for
Definition
. good or for evil.
Term
The type of religious practitioners found in a culture is related to the degree of cultural complexity. So in a society with only one practitioner you would typically see a
Definition
shaman.
Term
New religions are continually founded. Anthropologists are interested in the start of a new religion because
Definition
it’s one of the things that happens when cultures are disrupted by contact with dominant cultures.
Term
All humans recognize what anthropologists and sociocultural gerontologists call "generation" which simple means:
Definition
There are people older than you and younger than you in society.
Term
What is "chronological age"?:
Definition
Your age in exact years according to the calendar
Term
If you live to a certain chronological age, the average age that a normal human can expect to attain is called:
Definition
Life expectancy
Term
Older persons can also be treated with prejudice and discrimination because of their age, which we call:
Definition
Ageism
Term
The "anthropology of aging" is also called:
Definition
Ethnogerontology
Term
In the US, most people assume that getting old means getting sick; and in reality, most people will:
Definition
Have a successful old age ’in place’ in their own home with family, kin, and friends
Term
Jeanne Calment lived to 122 years, 164 days which established the limit of the:
Definition
Human life span
Term
Which of the following is false about aging in cross-cultural perspective?:
Definition
All humans age at about the same rate, beginning with a birth date.
Term
In defining "age stage" cross-culturally we know all the following are true except which statement?
Definition
Age stages (infant, child, adolescent, adult, elder) are the same for all societies.
Term
Someone who attains 100 years of age is called (a):
Definition
Supercentenarian
Term
The ethics of applied anthropologists requires that
Definition
the anthropologist must not take any action that is harmful to the interests of the community.
Term
Anthropologists who call themselves applied or practicing anthropologists are not usually employed in which setting?
Definition
universities
Term
As a profession, applied or practicing anthropology is explicitly concerned with
Definition
making anthropological knowledge useful.
Term
Which term refers to the type of applied work required in connection with many programs funded by government or private agencies?
Definition
social impact studies
Term
Applied or practicing anthropologists may be involved in all of the following except
Definition
Applied anthropologists may be involved in all of the above.
Term
Applied anthropology in the United States developed
Definition
out of anthropologists’ personal experience with disadvantaged people in other cultures.
Term

According to the code of ethics adopted by the Society of Applied Anthropology in 1948,
Definition
the target community should be included as much as possible in the formulation of policy.
Term
Large-scale programs of planned change can also have an impact on the archaeological record. Recovering and recording the archaeological record before programs of planned change disturb or destroy it is called
Definition
cultural resource management (CRM).
Term
Which field of anthropology is devoted to solving crimes?
Definition
forensic
Term
What factors do medical anthropologists think we need to consider if we are to reduce the suffering in human life?
Definition
biological and social
Term
Many of the ideas and practices of medical researchers and practitioners are influenced by
Definition
culture.
Term
Which term refers to the health-related beliefs, knowledge, and practices of a cultural group?
Definition
ethnomedicine
Term
Which term refers to the system in which physicians are trained?
Definition
biomedical paradigm
Term
Many cultures have the view that the body should be kept in
Definition
an equilibrium.
Term
Which are perhaps the most important medical practitioners in societies lacking full-time occupational specialization?
Definition
shamans
Term
Lack of adequate nutrition usually results in what conditions for children?
Definition
retarded weight and height
Term
Anthropologists have many ethical responsibilities and the most important is
Definition
to those who are being studied.
Term
In deciding whether or not a proposed change to a culture would be of benefit, you need to look at
Definition
the long-term effects.
Term
Applied anthropologists have advocated for indigenous healers to work within medical change programs. This is especially true in
Definition
isolated areas where indigenous healers are the only source of health care.
Term
In many parts of the world illnesses are attributed to supernatural forces. This reinforces what we know about
Definition
the widespread practices of sorcery and witchcraft.
Term
Why do climatic and other events in the physical environment become disasters?
Definition
because of conditions in the social environment
Term
Which social problem does cross-cultural research suggest that societies with individual property rights, rather than shared rights, are more likely to suffer?
Definition
famine
Term
In India, what may be the cause for the uneven distribution of food and other supplies provided to flood victims by the government?
Definition
rules of social and gender stratification
Term
Who, in socially stratified societies, are most likely to be forced to overcultivate, overgraze, and deforest their land, making it susceptible to degredation?
Definition
the poor
Term
The reasons for infanticide are similar to those given for
Definition
abortion
Term
Cross-culturally, what is the most common form of family violence?
Definition
wife beating
Term
Societies that have violent methods of conflict resolution within communities, physical punishment of criminals, high frequency of warfare, and cruelty toward enemies generally have more
Definition
wife beating
Term
What is the most reliably reported crime in official records?
Definition
homicide
Term
One of the clearest findings to emerge from comparative studies of crime is that war is associated with higher rates of
Definition
homicide
Term
What legitimizes violence just as war seems to?
Definition
capital punishment
Term
Property crimes increase with increases in
Definition
unemployment
Term
What is a cause of socialization for aggression?
Definition
war
Term
People in nonindustrial societies mostly go to war
Definition
as a hedge against the unpredictability of natural disasters.
Term
What type of national political systems rarely fight each other?
Definition
participatory governments
Term
What is one marker of the difference between most crime and terrorism?
Definition
Criminals rarely take credit for their activities.
Term
Anthropologists think they can contribute to solving global social problems because
Definition
it is possible to discover the causes of a problem and we assume we can do something about the causes.
Term
Why is it that a crime in one society is not necessarily a crime in another?
Definition
because cultures have different viewpoints of behavior and different laws
Term
One value consistent with egalitarian societies is that crimes like theft is seen less often because
Definition
access to resources is fairly equally distributed, so there are fewer differences in wealth.
Term
Research shows us that societies which are more participatory go to war with each other
Definition
. less often.
Term
Why has terrorism become a global problem
Definition
all the above.