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exam 3
gahh
132
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04/07/2011

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Term
the section of the shore exposed at low tide and covered at high tide
Definition
foreshore
Term
the section of the shore that extends from normal high tide level to the highest elevation on land, effected by storm waves
Definition
backshore
Term
eroded material in coastal regions is carried from high wave to
Definition
low wave energy areas
Term
winter beaches
Definition
are narrower than summer beaches due to high energy waves in winter
Term
sediment is supplied to the coastal zone by
Definition
all of the above
Term
which of the following will decrease the velocity of longshore current
Definition
increased wave period
Term
narrow currents flowing across the surf zone toward the open ocean are called
Definition
rip currents
Term
the rate of wave erosion along a coastline is determined by all of the following except
Definition
direction of longshore current
Term
if one were to walk from the ocean landward across a barrier island complex
Definition
beach, dune, barrier flat, high marsh, low marsh
Term
the area of the barrier island complex that contains thickets and woodlands is the
Definition
barrier flat
Term
the most biologically productive part of a bic is the
Definition
low marsh
Term
large deposits of sediment at the mouths of rivers are called
Definition
deltas
Term
which of the following landforms shows the greatest erosion rate along US coasts
Definition
The Mississippi River Delta
Term
Which of the following landforms shows the least amount of erosion along US coast
Definition
Crystalline rocks of New England
Term
Emergent coasts might have all of the following characteristics except
Definition
Drowned Beaches
Term
Submergent coasts don't have
Definition
marine terraces
Term
A linear ridge of sediment attached to land at one end might be called a
Definition
Spit
Term
Isostatic movement of a coastline might occur due to
Definition
the removal of a large glacier island
Term
Eustatic changes in sea level might include
Definition
Increased glacial ice melting due to the global warming
Term
Which US coast is being most starved for sediments
Definition
Pacific
Term
Nor'easters affect which area of US coastline during the fall and winter
Definition
Northern Atlantic
Term
Which US coastline has the greatest average loss due to erosion
Definition
Gulf
Term
Which of the following measures is designed to prevent or retard shoreline erosion
Definition
All
Term
Seawalls are
Definition
ineffective
Term
What doesn't fit
Definition
Barrier Flat
Term
What doesn't fit
Definition
Tombolo
Term
What doesn't fit
Definition
Sea Stack
Term
What doesn't fit
Definition
Uplifted Crust
Term
The Exclusive Economic Zone Extends
Definition
200 nautical miles from the coast
Term
Prevailing dry offshore winds produce coastal waters that
Definition
have higher salinities
Term
The type of circulation found in Laguna Madre is
Definition
opposite of the typical
Term
An estuary formed from a flooded glacial valley
Definition
Fjord
Term
An estuary produced by faulting or folding rocks
Definition
Tectonic Estuary
Term
Estuarine circulation associated with a deep, high river volume system
Definition
Salt wedge estuary
Term
Estuarine circulation associated with a shallow, low volume estuary
Definition
Vertically mixed estuary
Term
The columbia river estuary received most of it's ecological damage from
Definition
hydroelectric dams
Term
One major problem associated with the chesapeake bay and increased human pressure
Definition
an increase in nutrients resulting in more frequent kills of bottom dwelling animals
Term
Coastal wetlands are characterized by
Definition
high levels of organic matter and anoxic sediments
Term
The percentage of the original area of wetlands currently left in the US
Definition
50%
Term
When ocean water enters a marginal sea above a return flow of saltier water, the circulation pattern is called
Definition
Mediterranean circulation
Term
All of the following examples of pollutants in the marine environment except
Definition
Phytoplankton
Term
Natural processes whcih help to remove oil spills from the ocean include all of the following except
Definition
Digestion of significant amount by fish
Term
Bioremediation has been effective in removing
Definition
hydrocarbons
Term
Plastics cause significant biological damage in oceans when
Definition
netting strangles seals and birds
Term
Secondary swage treatment consists of
Definition
Chlorination of the liquid effluent
Term
The deep water dumping site for sewage sludge off the us east coast initially seemed to be a good choice because
Definition
A well developed pycnocline should isolate sewage
Term
Which of the following organisms are expected to show the highest concentrations of DDT and other chlorinated hydrocarbons
Definition
Sea Otters
Term
Minimata disease associated with
Definition
ingestion of methyl mercury contaminated fish and shellfish
Term
Which of the following associations is corrent
Definition
Kingdom plantae-Macroscopic algae
Term
A small size is advantageous for marine organisms because it
Definition
All of the above
Term
Which of the following word pairs correctly links
Definition
Nekton-Swim
Term
An example of an organism that might be part of the epifauna is
Definition
Sea Star
Term
Planktonic organisms that spend part of their lives in planktonic form and the rest of their lives as benthos or nekton are
Definition
Meroplankton
Term
Nekton are restricted to particular ocean areas by
Definition
All of the above
Term
When compared to their warmer water counterparts, cold water plankton
Definition
are larger in size
Term
All of the following are adaptive solutions employed by marine orgs except
Definition
Decreasing cellular fat content
Term
Plankton which are 2.0 to .2 um in size are called
Definition
Picoplankton
Term
Euryhaline orgs
Definition
can survive wide salinity fluctuations
Term
Organisms that cannot withstand large changes in temp
Definition
Stenothermal
Term
When an organism has the same internal salt concentration as it's environment
Definition
isotonic
Term
Osmotic pressure increases as the
Definition
Difference in salinity increases
Term
The majority of marine invertebrates are
Definition
isotonic with respect to environment
Term
Compared to freshwater fishes, marine fishes
Definition
Tend to lose water by osmosis since their internal concentration is less than that of the sea
Term
An organism that tolerates a wide range of salinities
Definition
Euryhaline
Term
The movement of a substance in solution from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration
Definition
Diffusion
Term
The color pattern in which marine organisms are light
Definition
Countershading
Term
Coastal waters that are highly productive tend to be
Definition
Green in color
Term
Most marine species are found in a
Definition
Benthic environment
Term
Neretic marine environments would be found
Definition
Associated with continental shelves
Term
The euphotic zone is confined to the
Definition
epipelagic zone
Term
Neretic environments are influenced by
Definition
All of the above factors influence neretic environments
Term
The subtidal/sublittoral zone is the area
Definition
Below the intertidal zone on the continental shelf
Term
Zonation of benthic organisms includes all of the following except the
Definition
neretic zone
Term
Organisms of the mesopelagic zone are characterized by
Definition
a and b
Term
Organisms with small, expandable bodies, extremely large mouths, and efficient teeth are likely to be found in the
Definition
Bathypelagic zone
Term
floats for its entire life
Definition
holoplankton
Term
floats for a portion of its life
Definition
meroplankton
Term
lives on the sea floor
Definition
epifauna
Term
lives in benthic sediments
Definition
infauna
Term
swims for its entire life
Definition
nekton
Term
Which of the following associations is incorrect?
Definition
Kingdom Plantae - macroscopic algae
Term
A small size is advantageous for marine organisms because it:
Definition
All of the above statements are advantageous to marine organisms.
Term
Which of the following word pairs correctly links a descriptor with the way in which the organism lives in the ocean?
Definition
nekton - swim
Term
An example of an organism that might be part of the epifauna is a(n):
Definition
sea star.
Term
Planktonic organisms that spend part of their lives in planktonic form and the rest of their lives as either benthos or nekton are called:
Definition
meroplankton.
Term
Nekton are restricted to particular ocean areas by:
Definition
All of the above conditions may restrict the distribution of nekton.
Term
When compared to their warmer water counterparts, cold water plankton often:
Definition
are larger in size.
Term
All the following are adaptive solutions employed by marine organisms to prevent sinking except:
Definition
decreasing cellular fat content.
Term
Plankton which are 2.0 to 0.2 ┬Ám in size are called:
Definition
picoplankton.
Term
Euryhaline organisms:
Definition
can survive wide salinity fluctuations.
Term
A common body shape that streamlines an organism in the marine environment is a flattened body that:
Definition
tapers at the posterior end.
Term
The seasonal temperature range in the deep ocean is usually:
Definition
negligible.
Term
The difference between centripetal forces and gravitational forces is called the:
Definition
resultant
Term
The tide generating force varies
Definition
inversely with the cube of the distance between the objects
Term
The tide generating force varies
Definition
directly with the product of the object masses
Term
Tidal ranges largest when moon is at
Definition
perigee
Term
center of open ocean tidal system
Definition
amphidromic
Term
semidiurnal tides in US
Definition
Atlantic Coast
Term
mixed tides in the US
Definition
Pacific
Term
water flowing out of an enclosed basin due to tides
Definition
ebb current
Term
which of the following is a tidal current
Definition
both ebb and flood tides
Term
An example of a coastal plain estuary is the
Definition
Chesapeake Bay
Term
An example of a bar-built estuary is
Definition
Laguna Madre
Term
Lagoons that form behind barrier islands are examples of
Definition
Bar Built Estuaries
Term
The most productive areas of the ocean are characterized by
Definition
upwelling
Term
Biological productivity in polar seas tends to be limited by
Definition
Solar Energy
Term
The illuminated area of the ocean is termed the
Definition
photic zone
Term
Primary production in the temperature latitudes varies with the
Definition
season
Term
Primary production in the tropical latitudes is limited by
Definition
Nutrients
Term
Which of the following refers to the totally of an environment: including chemical physical and geological parts and all plants and animals?
Definition
Ecosystem
Term
Organisms which require prefabricated food?
Definition
Heterotrophs
Term
Which of the following would be found at the 3rd trophic level?
Definition
Carnivores
Term
Limited supplies of ____ and ____ are the principle factors that limit primary production in the ocean
Definition
Sunlight and nutriends
Term
The compensation depth is the depth when?
Definition
Photosynthesis is maximum
Term
The reverse of photosynthesis is called
Definition
Respiration
Term
Which of the following is typically a grazer?
Definition
Copepod
Term
Bacteria which can live without free oxygen are termed
Definition
anerobic
Term
The reason why tropical regions are limited by nutrients is:
Definition
Thermocline
Term
A food web consist of a system of interconnected
Definition
Food chains
Term
The efficiency of trophic transfers in ecosystems in on average around?
Definition
10%
Term
The maximum sustainable yield is best defined as?
Definition
Largest catch that can be taken without overfishing
Term
Which color of visible spectrum penetrates the open ocean water deepest
Definition
blue
Term
All of these are types of photosynthetic marine organisms except?
Definition
carnivores
Term
The chemical pigment which allows plants to photosynthesize is?
Definition
chlorophyll
Term
primary producers are called?
Definition
autotrophs
Term
Trophic refers to?
Definition
An energy level
Term
Red tides (harmful algal blooms) belong to the following marine species?
Definition
Dino flagellates
Term
Which of the following are the primary producers?
Definition
plants
Term
plant eaters are
Definition
herbivores
Term
animals who eat meat are
Definition
carnivores
Term
a filter feeder?
Definition
a mussel
Term
organism whichi require oxygen are called
Definition
aerobic