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Exam 3 Review Set (Stress and Health)
Stress and Health
24
Psychology
05/14/2009

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Term
Behavioral medicine
Definition
An interdisciplinary field that integrates behavioral and medical knowledge and applies that knowledge to health and disease.
Term
Health psychology
Definition
A subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine.
Term
Stress
Definition
The process by which we perceive and respond to certain events, called stressors, that we appraise as threatening or challenging.
Stress is the result of a psychological appraisal in which we evaluate the significance of an event, and a (behavioral and physiological) response.

How we appraise an event influences how much stress we experience and how effectively we respond to it.
Term
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS)
Definition
Selye's conecpt of the body's adaptive response to stress in three stages -- alarm, resistance, exhaustion.
Term
Coronary heart disease
Definition
The clogging of the vessels that nourish the heart muscle; the leading cause of death in many developed countries.
Term
Type A
Definition
Friedman and Rosenman's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone people.
Term
Type B
Definition
Friedman and Rosenman's term for easygoing, relaxed people.
Term
Psychophysiological illness
Definition
Literally, "mind-body" illness; any stress-related physical illness, such as hypertension and some headaches. Note: This is distinct from hypochondriasis -- misinterpreting normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease.
Term
Lymphocytes
Definition
The two types of white blood cells that are part of the body's immune system: B lymphocytes form in the bone marrow and release antibodies that fight bacterial infections; T lymphocytes form in the thymus and other lymphatic tissue and attack cancer cells, viruses, and foreign substances.
Term
Coping
Definition
Alleviating stress using emotional, cognitive, or behavioral methods.
Term
Problem-focused coping
Definition
Attempting to alleviate stress directly -- by changing the stressor or the way we interact with that stressor.
Term
Emotion-focused coping
Definition
Attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction.
Term
Aerobic exercise
Definition
Sustained exercise that increases heart and lung fitness; may also alleviate depression and anxiety.
Term
Biofeedback
Definition
A system for electronically recording, amplifying, and feeding back information regarding a subtle physiological state, such as blood pressure or muscle tension.
Term
Microstressors
Definition
daily hassles and minor annoyances (ex. traffic jams, Psych 101 exams)
Term
Two-track system
Definition
The sympathetic nervous system causes the release of stress hormones from the adrenal glands. The celebral cortex evaluates the stressful event and then (by the way of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland) causes the release of glucorcorticoid stress hormones from the adrenal glands. Both tracks activate the fight or flight response.
Term
What stress can do to your body?
Definition
1. Accumulation of abdominal fat
2. Loss of bone minerals
3. Atrophy and death of neurons in the hippocampus ( and resulting impairments of memory)
Term
Stress and disease
Definition
Stress hormones suppress disease-fighting lymphocytes (white blood cells), thereby suppressing the immune system.
Term
Physical Strategies: Relaxation and mediation
Definition
Lowers blood pressure and levels of stress hormones.
Term
Physical Strategies: Massage
Definition
Provides contact comfort and relaxes tense muscles.
Term
Physical Strategies: Exercise
Definition
Reduces stress levels, lowers blood pressure, helps reduce depresssion, increases production of neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine, increases levels of endorphins.
Term
Type A Personality
Definition
Strong sense of time urgency, impatient, competitive, driven to succeed, sometimes hostile, easily angered; associated with high-rates of heart disease.
Term
Type B Personality
Definition
Relaxed, easy-going, patient, no sense of urgency; unlikely to develop heart disease.
Term
Hardy Personality
Definition
Exhibits Type A personality traits, but is resistant to stress.