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Exam 2
N/A
514
Meteorology
07/25/2012

Additional Meteorology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Nights that are clear and calm than on nights that are cloudy and windy
Definition
Dew is most likely to form on:
Term
Frozen Dew
Definition
The name given to a liquid drop of dew that freezes when the air temperature drops below freezing is
Term
Radiational Cooling
Definition
The cooling of the ground to produce dew is mainly the result of:
Term
All of the above
Definition
For frozen dew to form
Term
Decrease as the air becomes drier
Definition
Suppose it is a winter night and at about 10 p.m., the air cools to the dew-point temperature and a thick radiation fog develops. If the air continues to cool during the night, in 5 hours the dew point temperature will probably
Term
Condensation Nuclei
Definition
Particles that serve as surfaces on which water vapor may condense are called
Term
All of the above
Definition
Frost forms when
Term
attraction of water by hygroscopic condensation nuclei
Definition
On a humid day, __________________________________________
causes salty potato chips left outside in an uncovered bowl to turn soggy.
Term
There is more water vapor touching the inside of the pane
Definition
Frost typically forms on the inside of a windowpane (rather than the outside) because:
Term
Particles of dust
Definition
Condensation nuclei may be
Term
without them, condensation would not occur easily in atmosphere
Definition
Condensation nuclei are important in the atmosphere because
Term
There are no condensation nuclei present
Definition
Under what circumstances could the relative humidity exceed 00 percent without producing fog?
Term
Less than 100%
Definition
Wet haze forms when the relative humidity is
Term
Thicker than fog
Definition
On a cold winter morning, the air near the surface is full of smoke particles. If fog should form in this air, it will probably be _______ ____ ___ that forms in cleaner air
Term
Stratus
Definition
High fog is also called
Term
From bottom up
Definition
When radiation fog "burns off", the fog tends to dissipate
Term
Evaporates
Definition
When fog "burns off," it
Term
enhancement of the greenhouse effect by the fog cloud
Definition
On a clear night, the minimum temperature drops to 34°F. The following night, fog forms early in the evening. It is a good bet the minimum temperature will not be as low because of the
Term
Radiational Cooling
Definition
Winter fog in the Central Valley region of California is mainly due to
Term
In a valley
Definition
On a cold, winter morning, the most likely place for radiation fog to form is:
Term
Advection Fog
Definition
The fog that forms along the Pacific coastline of North America is mainly which type?
Term
Advection Fog
Definition
Fog that forms off the coast of Newfoundland is mainly a form of
Term
Converging, Rising
Definition
Along an irregular coastline, advection fog is more likely to form at the headlands than at the beaches because of the __________ surface winds and ______ air.
Term
Upslope Fog
Definition
If fog is forming at Denver, Colorado, and the wind is blowing from the east, then the fog is most likely
Term
It is very cold
Definition
Exhaled breath from your mouth can condense when
Term
Can be above or below freezing
Definition
When you see your breath on a cold morning, the air temperature
Term
the fog is a shallow radiation fog with a relatively low liquid water content
Definition
The use of helicopters to mix the air and disperse radiation fog at airports is effective provided that
Term
Steam fog
Definition
On a cold, calm autumn morning, the formation of fog above a relatively warm lake would most likely be
Term
Evaporation Fog
Definition
Which fog does not necessarily form in air that is cooling?
Term
Warm, Colder
Definition
Frontal fog most commonly forms as ____ raindrops fall into a layer of ______ air.
Term
Evaporation
Definition
Fog that most often forms as warm rain falls into a cold layer of surface air is called:
Term
Appearance
Definition
Clouds are classified by their
Term
Seed the fog with dried ice
Definition
A reasonably successful method of dispersing cold fog is to
Term
True
Definition
True/False:
Fog is a major hazard to aviation
Term
Altostratus - high cloud
Definition
Which association below is NOT correct?
Term
Barrow, Alaska
Definition
At which city might you be able to observe cirrus clouds at an altitude of 3,000 m (0,000 feet) above the surface?
Term
False
Definition
True/False:

Even at high elevations where cirrus clouds are found, liquid water still exists in the clouds
Term
altocumulus castellanus- resemble “little castles”
Definition
Which association below is NOT correct?
Term
Cirrocumulous
Definition
Which cloud is LEAST likely to produce precipitation that reaches the ground?
Term
Cirrostratus
Definition
In middle latitudes, which cloud will have the highest base?
Term
cirrostratus clouds are present and the clouds overhead are high clouds
Definition
A halo around the moon means that
Term
Cirrostratus
Definition
Which cloud type is composed of ice crystals and can cause a halo to form around the sun or moon?
Term
stratocumulus- cloud of vertical development
Definition
Which of the following associations is not correct?
Term
Nimbostratus
Definition
Light or moderate-but-steady precipitation is most often associated with nimbostratus clouds.
Term
Stratocumulus
Definition
In middle latitudes, which cloud will have the lowest base?
Term
Cirrocumulus
Definition
Which of the following cloud types would be found at the highest elevation above the earth's surface?
Term
Altocumulus and cirrocumulus
Definition
Which of the following pairs of cloud types could be very similar in appearance?
Term
Altocumulus
Definition
Which clouds often appear in parallel waves or bands?
Term
Cirrocumulus
Definition
A "mackerel sky" describes what type of cloud?
Term
Cirrocumulus
Definition
When viewed from the surface, the smallest individual cloud elements (puffs) are observed with which cloud?
Term
Ice particles
Definition
Cirrus clouds are composed primarily of:
Term
Cirrus clouds
Definition
Detached clouds of delicate and fibrous appearance, without shading, usually white in color and sometimes of a silky appearance are
Term
Cirrostratus
Definition
Suppose the sky is completely covered with a thin, white layered-type cloud. You look at the ground and see that objects cast a distinct shadow. From this you conclude that the cloud type must be
Term
6500 & 230000 feet
Definition
At middle latitudes, the base of an altostratus or altocumulus cloud would generally be found between:
Term
Altocumulus
Definition
A middle cloud that sometimes forms in parallel waves or bands is
Term
Altostratus Clouds
Definition
A dim, "watery" sun visible through a gray sheet-like cloud layer is often a good indication of ___________ clouds
Term
Scud
Definition
The name given to ragged-looking clouds that rapidly drift with the wind beneath a rain-producing cloud is
Term
Cumulonimbus
Definition
An anvil-shaped top is most often associated with
Term
Stratocumulus
Definition
If you hold your hand at arm's length and cloud elements appear to be about the size of your fist, the cloud type is probably:
Term
Cumulus Congestus
Definition
The name given to a towering cloud that has NOT fully developed into a thunderstorm is:
Term
Stratocumulus
Definition
A low, lumpy cloud layer that appears in rows, patches, or rounded masses would be classified
Term
Cumulonimbus
Definition
Hail is usually associated with what cloud?
Term
Cumulonimbus
Definition
The cloud with the greatest vertical growth is
Term
Cumulonimbus
Definition
As Apollo 12 ascended into the atmosphere, the height of the surrounding clouds was noted to be 42,000 feet. A lightning stroke was seen within these clouds, indicating that they must have been
Term
Stratospheric clouds (PSC)
Definition
Which of the following clouds would form in the stratosphere?
Term
Mammatus Clouds
Definition
Which cloud forms in descending air
Term
Which of the following is not a way in which a contrail may form
Definition
? Contrails form when hot humid air from jet exhaust mixes with environmental air of low vapor pressure and low temp. Mixing occurs directly behind the plane due to the turbulence generated by the engine. If condensation occurs, then a contrail becomes visible.
Term
Pileus Cloud
Definition
The small, smooth cloud that may form just above the top of a towering cumulus cloud is called (a):
Term
Contrail
Definition
The cloud-like streamer often seen forming behind an aircraft flying at high altitude is called (a):
Term
Lenticular Clouds
Definition
-Clouds that have a characteristic lens-shaped appearance are referred to as (a):
Term
Mammatus
Definition
Clouds that appear as bag-like sacks hanging from beneath a cloud are:
Term
Altocumulus Cloud
Definition
An altocumulus in the form of parallel waves would be described as an
Term
Nacreous Cloud
Definition
Another name for a "mother of pearl" cloud is:
Term
Noctilucent Cloud
Definition
"Luminous night clouds" are also called
Term
Scattered
Definition
Which term below describes a situation in which clouds cover between one-tenth and five-tenths of the sky?
Term
Appear closer together than actually is the case
Definition
When clouds are viewed near the horizon, the individual cloud elements usually:
Term
All of the above
Definition
Which of the following can be used to determine the height of cloud bases?
Term
500 m
Definition
If a pilot balloon rises at a rate of 100 m per minute, and if it disappears into a deck of stratus clouds 1,500 m (5,000 ft) thick in 5 minutes, what is the ceiling of the cloud layer?
Term
Ceilometer
Definition
Which of the following would provide the most accurate method of determining cloud base altitude?
Term
A way of determining cloud thickness and altitude
Definition
Infrared and visible satellite images might provide
Term
Dark, Light
Definition
On an infrared satellite image, low, warm clouds appear ____ and high, cold clouds appear _____
Term
increase the contrast between specific features in the picture
Definition
Infrared satellite images are computer enhanced to
Term
Radiometers
Definition
Satellite images taken of clouds at night use
Term
A low cloud
Definition
If a cloud appears white on a visible satellite image and gray on an infrared image, then the cloud could be
Term
Rainfall
Definition
The TRMM (Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission) satellite provides information on tropical
Term
we have geostationary satellites and polar-orbiting satellites
Definition
Which of the following is NOT a name given to a satellite?
Term
has a geostationary orbit- a circular geosynchronous orbit directly above the earths equator. Remain permanently fixed in exactly the same position in the sky.
Definition
Geostationary satellites
Term
observe clouds in earths orbit. Provides extremely valuable cloud photographs of areas where there are no ground-based observations.
Definition
Satellites can
Term
closely parallel the earths meridian lines. Pass over the north and south polar regions on each revolution. Covers the entire earth
Definition
Polar orbiting satellites
Term
estimating the altitude of the tops of vertical development clouds
Definition
A rotating-beam ceilometer is useful for
Term
Over
Definition
Lenticular clouds typically form ____ a mountain range
Term
Dew Point
Definition
When temperatures are below freezing, the temperature to which air must be cooled in order for a phase change to occur is called the
Term
Close to ground level
Definition
Dew, frozen dew, and frost form when the below-freezing layer of air is
Term
Hygroscopic
Definition
On humid days, salt in saltshakers sometimes becomes moist and no longer pours out easily. The salt can be described as
Term
a clear winter night with a very slight breeze
Definition
Radiation fog typically forms on
Term
In valleys
Definition
In hilly areas, cold air typically collects
Term
False
Definition
True/False:

When fog is "burning off," the cloud droplets are preventing solar radiation from reaching the ground
Term
A uniform grayish cloud that often cover the entire sky. Resembles fog that does not reach the ground. Might be confused with nimbostratus.
Definition
Stratus and high fog are:
Term
Much Colder
Definition
Advection fog is often observed along the Pacific coast during summer, as westerly winds carry moist air toward the shore. The fog forms because the surface water near the coast is ____ ______ then surface water farther offshore.
Term
Advection Fog
Definition
Suppose two ocean currents with different temperatures are flowing next to one another. If the wind blows perpendicular to the currents, we would expect to find:
Term
Cools
Definition
Upslope fog forms because air _____ as it flows up a hill or mountain range.
Term
False
Definition
True/False:

Suppose two unsaturated air masses mix horizontally. The resulting mixture cannot possibly be saturated.
Term
Slightly Downward
Definition
In order to be effective, fog lamps on cars should be directed
Term
Cumulonimbus & Nimbostratus
Definition
Which two clouds can produce precipitation?
Term
Cirrus Clouds
Definition
Which of the following clouds are almost always composed of ice crystals?
Term
False
Definition
True/False:

Stratus clouds are typically puffy and form by convection
Term
substances dissolved in a droplet can enhance or retard growth of the droplet.
Definition
Which below best describes the solute effect?
Term
even if a cloud is at 100% relative humidity, small droplets can evaporate.
Definition
Which statement below best describes the curvature effect?
Term
Solute Effect
Definition
Condensation onto hygroscopic nuclei is possible at relative humidities less than 100 percent due to the
Term
The number of ice crystals in the ground
Definition
Which of the following is NOT an important factor in the production of rain by the collision-coalescence process?
Term
A thick, warm cumulus cloud
Definition
Which cloud type below will only produce precipitation by the collision-coalescence process?
Term
Faster, greater
Definition
Large raindrops fall ______ than smaller raindrops, and have a _______ terminal velocity than small raindrops.
Term
Stratus
Definition
Which cloud would most likely produce drizzle?
Term
Coalescence
Definition
The merging of liquid cloud droplets by collision is called
Term
Thick, Strong
Definition
If you observe large raindrops hitting the ground, you could probably say that the cloud overhead was _____ and had ______ updrafts.
Term
Cumulonimbus cloud
Definition
If rain falls on one side of a street and not on the other side, the rain most likely fell from a
Term
ice crystals grow larger at the expense of the surrounding liquid cloud droplets
Definition
During the ice crystal process of rain formation,
Term
40 Degrees celcius
Definition
The temperature at which you would expect a cloud to become completely glaciated is
Term
randomly moving atoms form clusters above a critical threshold.
Definition
Homogeneous nucleation occurs when
Term
Glaciated
Definition
When only ice crystals exist in a cloud, the cloud is said to be
Term
ice nuclei are more plentiful in the atmosphere than condensation nuclei
Definition
Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
Term
ice crystals, certain clay minerals, bacteria in decaying plan leaf material
Definition
-Ice nuclei may be:
Term
liquid droplets observed at temperatures below 0 deg C
Definition
Supercooled cloud droplets are
Term
Greater than
Definition
At the same sub-freezing temperature, the saturation vapor pressure just above a liquid water surface is ______ ____ the saturation vapor pressure above an ice surface.
Term
involved in contact freezing. Can be just about any substance
Definition
Contact Nucleation is:
Term
Accretion or riming
Definition
The growth of a precipitation particle by the collision of an ice crystal (or snowflake) with a supercooled liquid droplet is called
Term
cold clouds composed of ice crystals and supercooled droplets
Definition
Cloud seeding using silver iodide only works in
Term
a cirriform cloud lying directly above a lower cloud deck
Definition
Which of the following conditions would be most suitable for natural cloud seeding by ice crystals?
Term
Silver iodide and dried ice
Definition
What are the two main substances used in cloud seeding?
Term
Improves
Definition
-After a rainstorm, visibility typically
Term
Virga
Definition
Rain which falls from a cloud but evaporates before reaching the ground is referred to as:
Term
Dendrite
Definition
The most common ice crystal shape
Term
Sublimate
Definition
Fall streaks usually _________ before reaching the ground.
Term
Snow
Definition
Snowflakes or ice crystals falling from high cirriform clouds are called
Term
Flurries
Definition
A light shower of snow that falls intermittently from cumuliform clouds for a short duration is known as
Term
New snow when the air temperature is below -10 deg C
Definition
The creaking sound produced by walking on snow is most common on
Term
Snow is a good insulator
Definition
Which below best describes why a fluffy covering of snow is able to protect sensitive plants and their root systems from damaging low temperatures?
Term
Moist air and temperatures near freezing
Definition
Large, heavy snowflakes are associated with
Term
Cirrus Clouds
Definition
Fall streaks most often form with
Term
Low temp, strong winds, reduced visibility, blowing snow
Definition
A true blizzard is characterized by
Term
Moist, Near
Definition
The largest snowflakes would probably be observed in _____ air whose temperature is ____ freezing.
Term
Unsaturated, at or below freezing
Definition
In order for falling snowflakes to survive in air with temperatures much above freezing, the air must be ___________ and the wet bulb temperature must be __ __ _____ freezing
Term
Freezing Rain
Definition
In the winter you read in the newspaper that a large section of the Midwest is without power due to downed power lines. Which form of precipitation would most likely produce this situation?
Term
Graupel
Definition
Which of the following might be mistaken for hail?
Term
Sleet
Definition
A raindrop or partially melted snowflake that freezes into a pellet of ice in a deep subfreezing layer of air near the surface is called:
Term
Freezing Rain
Definition
Which type of precipitation would most likely form when the surface air temperature is slightly below freezing and the air temperature increases as you move upward away from the ground?
Term
Silver Iodide
Definition
The primary method used in preventing the growth of large, destructive hailstones is to inject a thunderstorm with large quantities of
Term
Hail Streak
Definition
Hail deposited in a long narrow band is known as a
Term
A hailstone
Definition
Precipitation with the greatest size (diameter) is
Term
Freezing Rain
Definition
Glaze is another name for
Term
Standard Rain Gauge
Definition
You would use a wooden stick to measure rainfall in the
Term
A trace
Definition
An amount of precipitation measured to be less than one hundredth of an inch (0.25 mm) is called:
Term
1 Inch
Definition
If a city were to receive 1/2 inch of rain in the morning and then 5 inches of snow that afternoon, about how much precipitation would the weather service report for that day?
Term
15
Definition
After a snowstorm, the newspaper reports that Buffalo, New York, received .50 inches of precipitation. If we assume an average water equivalent ratio for this snowstorm, then Buffalo received about __ inches of snow.
Term
1
Definition
On average, the water equivalent of 0 inches of snow is about _ inches of water.
Term
amount of energy reflected back to the radar unit
Definition
Radar gathers information about precipitation in clouds by measuring the
Term
Rain, freezing rain, sleet, snow
Definition
In a typical advancing winter storm, which of the following sequences of precipitation types is most likely to occur?
Term
Can Absorb
Definition
Freshly fallen snow ___ ______ sound waves
Term
Size
Definition
The main difference between a cloud drop and a raindrop is its
Term
a million
Definition
A typical raindrop is about _ ________ times that of a typical cloud droplet.
Term
Increases
Definition
Saturation vapor pressure _________ as temperature increases
Term
large drops have faster terminal velocity
Definition
Large cloud droplets fall faster than small cloud droplets because
Term
Drizzle
Definition
The lightest form of rain is
Term
below -40 degrees celsius
Definition
The difference in saturation vapor pressure between supercooled water and ice reaches a maximum at about -2°C. This means that the ice crystal process will be most effective in producing precipitation when cloud temperatures are
Term
Precipitation Radar and The microwave imager
Definition
Satellites measure rainfall from space using which instrument?
Term
Increase, decrease
Definition
Net convergence of air would cause surface pressure to _________ and net divergence would cause surface pressure to _________.
Term
Increase
Definition
If the earth's gravitational force were to increase, atmospheric pressure at the ground would
Term
pressure will decrease with increasing height at the same rate in both columns
Definition
The surface pressures at the bases of warm and cold columns of air are equal. Which of the following statements is NOT correct?
Term
Decrease, more slowly
Definition
The surface pressures at the bases of warm and cold columns of air are equal. Air pressure in the warm column of air will _________ with increasing height ____ ______ than in the cold column.
Term
Increase
Definition
Suppose a parcel of air has a given temperature, pressure, and density. If the parcel's size remains the same while its temperature increases, then the air pressure inside the parcel will
Term
the same pressure but higher density than the warm parcel
Definition
If two air parcels at sea level have the same size but different temperatures, the colder parcel of air will have
Term
p= T x p x C
Definition
Which of the following relationships best describes the gas law?
Term
Decrease
Definition
If surface air pressure decreases, the height of the column in a mercury barometer would:
Term
172.28 mb
Definition
If the outside air temperature is 27°C and the air density is .2 kg/m3, the outside air pressure would be:
Term
Pressure
Definition
The scale on an altimeter indicates altitude, but an altimeter actually measures:
Term
Mark a continuous record of pressure on chart paper.
Definition
A barometer will:
Term
Millibars or hectopascals
Definition
-The unit of pressure most commonly found on a surface weather map is:
Term
Increase
Definition
If a liquid with a lower density than mercury were used in a barometer, the height of the column in the barometer would
Term
A small closed cell with most of its air removed will expand and contract with changes in air pressure
Definition
An aneroid barometer works on the principle that:
Term
Barometer
Definition
Which of the following instruments measures pressure?
Term
Stormy Weather
Definition
An aneroid barometer carried from sea level to the top of a 300 m (,000 ft) hill would indicate
Term
Evangelista Torricelli
Definition
The mercury barometer was invented by
Term
Temperature & Gravity
Definition
To obtain the station pressure you must normally make corrections for
Term
1020 mb
Definition
A station at an altitude of 900 m (about 3,000 feet) above sea level measures an air pressure of 930 mb. Under normal conditions, which of the values below do you think would be the most realistic sea level pressure for this station?
Term
1090 mb
Definition
Suppose a station at sea level measures an air pressure of 1,030 mb. Under standard conditions, what would be the most likely air pressure at an elevation of 600 m (about 2,000 ft) above this station?
Term
Altitude
Definition
To correctly monitor horizontal changes in air pressure, the most important correction for a mercury barometer is the correction for
Term
A constant height chart
Definition
The surface weather map is a sea level chart. Thus, a surface weather map is also called
Term
Isobars
Definition
Lines connecting points of equal pressure are called
Term
More rapidly in the vertical direction than in the horizontal
Definition
Pressure changes:
Term
Elongated High Pressure Areas
Definition
On a weather map, ridges are
Term
p=pxtxc
Definition
Which of the following expresses the gas law?
Term
P= T rho C , rho 8 rho
Definition
According to the gas law, when temperature remains constant, which of the following is TRUE?
Term
Lower than your altimeter indicated
Definition
Suppose you are a pilot who is flying from warm air into colder air. In the cold air, even though your altimeter is still indicating the same altitude as it did in the warm air, you would be flying
Term
The atmospheric pressure is equal everywhere
Definition
On an isobaric surface:
Term
Pressures, heights
Definition
Low _________ on a constant height chart corresponds to low ________ on a constant pressure chart.
Term
Contour lines
Definition
On a 500 millibar chart, _______ lines are drawn to represent horizontal changes in altitude which correspond to horizontal changes in pressure.
Term
Altitude
Definition
The contour lines drawn on a 500 mb chart are lines of constant:
Term
Lower than the airplanes actual altitude
Definition
If an airplane flies from standard temperature air into warmer than standard temperature air, without making any correction, the altimeter in the warmer air would indicate an altitude
Term
Higher, higher
Definition
Warm air aloft is associated with constant pressure surfaces that are found at ______ altitude than normal and ______ than normal atmospheric pressure aloft.
Term
High, low
Definition
On an upper-level chart, normally we find warm air associated with _____ pressure, and cold air associated with ___ pressure.
Term
A trough
Definition
A surface low pressure center is generally associated with _ _______ on an upper level isobaric chart.
Term
Parallel to the isobars or contours
Definition
On an upper-level chart the wind tends to blow
Term
Higher than average heights
Definition
A ridge on an upper-level isobaric chart indicates
Term
True
Definition
True/False:

On an isobaric weather chart, the spacing of the height contours indicates the magnitude of the pressure gradient force
Term
Will remain at rest
Definition
Newton's first law states that "an object at rest _____ ______ __ ____ as long as no force is exerted on the object."
Term
False
Definition
True/False:

During a reversible adiabatic process, the pressure gradient force is parallel to the isobars
Term
False
Definition
True/False:

The Coriolis force is the force that causes the wind to blow
Term
Vertical pressure gradient force and gravity
Definition
The hydrostatic equation describes the equilibrium between the:
Term
As pressure decreases, height increases
Definition
Why is there a minus sign in the hydrostatic equation? (The hydrostatic equation is .)
Term
Sir Isaac Newton
Definition
The fundamental laws of motion were formulated by
Term
Newton's second law
Definition
The "force exerted on an object equals its mass times the acceleration produced" is a description of
Term
Gravitational Force
Definition
Which of the following forces does not have a direct effect on horizontal wind motions?
Term
All of these
Definition
Which of the following can influence wind direction
Term
Coriolis Force
Definition
Which of the following forces CANNOT act to change the speed of the wind?
Term
Inward toward the center of rotation
Definition
The net force on air moving in a circle at constant speed is
Term
Pressure Gradient
Definition
The amount of pressure change that occurs over a given horizontal distance is called the:
Term
It is non-existent at the equator
Definition
-Which of the statements below is NOT correct concerning the pressure gradient force?
Term
At all places on the earth
Definition
The pressure gradient force is directed from higher pressure toward lower pressure
Term
Pressure Gradient Force
Definition
The force that would cause a stationary parcel of air to begin to move horizontally is called the
Term
Fast winds, high latitude
Definition
Which of the following produces the strongest Coriolis force
Term
Coriolis Force
Definition
The ________ ______ is an apparent force created by the earth's rotation.
Term
Coriolis Force
Definition
The rate of the earth's rotation determines the strength of the
Term
Rotating Earth
Definition
The Coriolis force is the result of
Term
It causes the wind to blow faster
Definition
Which statement below is NOT correct concerning the Coriolis force?
Term
There would still be a coriolis force
Definition
-If the earth stopped rotating which of the following would NOT be true?
Term
Geostrophic Wind
Definition
A wind blowing at a constant speed parallel to straight line isobars with the pressure gradient force (PGF) and the Coriolis force in balance is called a
Term
To the right of the winds motion in the northern hemisphere
Definition
The net force acting on air which is blowing parallel to straight contours at constant speed is:
Term
East
Definition
Suppose that the winds aloft are geostrophic and blowing from the north. Low pressure is located to the
Term
Northwest
Definition
Suppose that the winds aloft are geostrophic and blowing from the north. With the same orientation of isobars at the surface, the winds would blow from the
Term
the air over high latitudes became warmer than over the equator
Definition
The winds aloft in the middle latitudes would not blow from the west if
Term
West of you
Definition
If in the Northern Hemisphere the upper level winds above you are blowing from the south, then it is a good bet that a trough of low pressure is to the
Term
Zonal
Definition
When the wind blows in a more or less west to east direction, the wind flow pattern is called
Term
Gradient Wind
Definition
A wind that blows at a constant speed parallel to curved isobars or contour lines is called a
Term
Left, Right
Definition
If directly above you at 10,000 feet the wind is blowing from the south, then it is a good bet that at 10,000 feet, the center of lowest pressure is ____ of you, while the center of highest pressure is _____ of you
Term
Meridional
Definition
A wind flow pattern that takes on a more or less north-south trajectory is called:
Term
Upward
Definition
The vertical pressure gradient force is directed
Term
From west to east
Definition
The winds aloft in the middle latitudes of the Southern Hemisphere generally blow:
Term
From NE to N to NW
Definition
A surface LOW pressure area that moves from south to north directly east of your home would most likely produce winds that shift from:
Term
Clockwise and inward towards the center
Definition
The wind around a surface low pressure center in the Southern Hemisphere blows:
Term
The frictional force
Definition
Surface winds blow across the isobars at an angle due to
Term
East
Definition
-If, at your home in the Northern Hemisphere, the surface wind is blowing from the northwest, then the region of lowest pressure will be to the ____ of your home.
Term
around surface low pressure centers in the Northern and Southern hemisphere
Definition
Winds blow slightly inward
Term
Circulation around a low pressure
Definition
Cyclonic flow means __________ ______ _ ___ ________ center in either the Northern or Southern Hemisphere
Term
To your left
Definition
Buys-Ballot's law states that, "In the Northern Hemisphere if you stand with your back to the surface wind, then turn clockwise about 30°, lower pressure will be
Term
Clockwise and outward from the center
Definition
The wind around a surface high pressure center in the Northern Hemisphere blows:
Term
Rising, sinking
Definition
We can generally expect the air to be ______ above areas of surface low pressure and _______ above areas of surface high pressure.
Term
Converges, diverges
Definition
The surface air around a strengthening low pressure area normally _________, while aloft, above the system, the air normally ________
Term
Gravity
Definition
The atmosphere around the earth would rush off into space if the vertical pressure gradient force were not balanced by
Term
Away from the earth, toward the earth
Definition
In the vertical, the pressure gradient force points ____ from the earth and gravity points _______ the earth.
Term
Hydrostatic equilibrium
Definition
When the upward-directed pressure gradient force is in balance with the downward pull of gravity, the atmosphere is in
Term
Pressure Gradient
Definition
If an air parcel is completely at rest, which of the following forces can make the parcel begin to move?
Term
Microscale
Definition
The smallest scale of atmospheric motion is the
Term
Winds blowing through a city
Definition
An example of mesoscale motion is
Term
Winds blowing past a chimney
Definition
An example of microscale motion is:
Term
Mesoscale land breeze
Definition
Which of the following associations is most accurate?
Term
Molecular viscosity
Definition
The slowing of the wind due to the random motion of air molecules is called
Term
at the time of maximum surface heating
Definition
Thermal turbulence above the surface is usually most severe
Term
All of the above
Definition
On a clear, windy day, the depth to which mixing occurs above the surface depends upon
Term
1000 m or 3300 ft
Definition
The top of the friction layer is usually found near what altitude?
Term
Viscosity
Definition
The friction of fluid flow is called
Term
In the afternoon
Definition
Surface winds are generally strongest and most gusty
Term
friction with the earths surface slows the air near the ground
Definition
The wind's speed generally increases with height above the earth's surface because:
Term
eddies of higher air density
Definition
The howling of wind on a blustery night is believed to be caused by:
Term
Wind Shear
Definition
-An abrupt change in wind speed or wind direction is called:
Term
Rotors
Definition
-Violent, rotating eddies that create hazardous flying conditions beneath the crest of a mountain wave are called:
Term
When huge eddies develop in clear air
Definition
Clear Air Turbulence (CAT) can occur
Term
They often form in the atmosphere where the air is too thin to support the wings of an airplane
Definition
Which below is NOT true concerning an "air pocket"?
Term
2 times
Definition
Pedaling a bicycle into a 20 knot wind will require about _ times as much effort as pedaling into a 10 knot wind.
Term
231 mhp in 1934 on Mount Washington, New Hampshire
Definition
The greatest wind speed ever recorded at the earth's surface occurred at:
Term
True
Definition
True/False:

Clear air turbulence often occurs near a boundary of high wind shear
Term
All of these
Definition
The size and shape of a turbulent eddy depend on
Term
2
Definition
Suppose the wind speed increased from 5 mph to 10 mph. We can conclude that the force exerted by the wind increased by a factor of
Term
the winds are strong somewhere over the Pacific ocean
Definition
If huge waves pound against the beach communities of Southern California for several days during clear, calm weather, it is a good bet that:
Term
5
Definition
Suppose the wind speed increased from 5 mph to 25 mph. We can conclude that the force exerted by the wind increased by a factor of
Term
All of the above
Definition
Which of the features below could indicate prevailing wind direction
Term
Found
Definition
Dust storms and dust devils are _____ on Mars.
Term
the percentage of time that the wind blows from different directions.
Definition
A wind rose indicates:
Term
regions with moderate, steady winds
Definition
The most practical location for building a wind turbine would be
Term
Is wind blowing from land to water, ex. land breeze
Definition
An offshore wind:
Term
Santa Ana Wind
Definition
Which below would NOT be considered an onshore wind?
Term
NE
Definition
A wind reported as 45° would be a wind blowing from the
Term
Greater than 20 knots and more northwesterly
Definition
Suppose a west wind of 20 knots blows over a coastal region which is densely covered in shrubs. If this same wind moves out over the middle of a large calm lake, its speed and direction would probably be
Term
Radiosonde balloon
Definition
What instrument would you use for a radiosonde observation?
Term
Anemometer
Definition
An instrument used to measure wind speed is called a(n
Term
SW
Definition
A wind reported as 225° would be a wind blowing from the
Term
Doppler radar and the backscattered energy
Definition
A wind profiler obtains wind information using
Term
Cup anemometer
Definition
-A wind instrument that usually consists of three or more cups
Term
Lidar
Definition
The instrument that uses infrared or visible light in the form of a laser beam to determine wind direction is the
Term
Aerovane
Definition
Which of the instruments below indicates both wind speed and wind direction?
Term
Anemometer
Definition
Which instrument only measures wind speed?
Term
Becomes stronger with increasing height
Definition
Which is NOT a characteristic of a thermal low?
Term
1019 mb
Definition
If the sea level pressure in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is 1016 mb, the strongest summertime sea breeze along the New Jersey coast would occur when the sea level pressure just east of Atlantic City, New Jersey is
Term
Land breeze
Definition
During the summer in humid climates, nighttime clouds tend to form over water during a
Term
They mainly occur at night
Definition
Which below is usually NOT true concerning a sea breeze circulation?
Term
Once per day
Definition
A sea breeze circulation will reverse direction and become a land breeze
Term
Differences in temperature
Definition
A sea or land breeze is caused by
Term
Land Breeze
Definition
The nighttime counterpart of the sea breeze circulation is called a
Term
A drop in relative humidity
Definition
In summer, during the passage of a sea breeze, which of the following is NOT usually observed?
Term
Sea breeze
Definition
A smog front is most often associated with which wind system?
Term
Sea Breeze
Definition
A cool, summertime wind that blows from sea to land is called a
Term
West, East
Definition
-In south Florida the prevailing winds are northeasterly. Because of this, the strongest sea breeze is usually observed on Florida's ____ coast, and the strongest land breeze on Florida's ____ coast.
Term
cloudy conditions and showery weather over the land
Definition
When a sea breeze moving north meets a sea breeze moving south, they form a
Term
Converging & Rising
Definition
Clouds and precipitation are frequently found on the downwind side of a large lake. This would indicate that the air on the downwind side is:
Term
In the afternoon
Definition
During the summer along the coast, a sea breeze is usually strongest and best developed
Term
low pressure areas that enhance rainfall during the summer monsoon.
Definition
Monsoon depressions are:
Term
wet weather and winds blowing from sea to land
Definition
The summer monsoon in eastern and southern Asia is characterized by:
Term
katabatic wind
Definition
An extremely strong downslope wind that occurs in parts of Antarctica would be considered a:
Term
dry weather and winds blowing from land to sea
Definition
The winter monsoon in eastern and southern Asia is characterized by
Term
Summer
Definition
Low pressure becomes best developed over the Asian continent in:
Term
Valley Breeze
Definition
While fly fishing in a mountain stream, you notice that the wind is blowing upstream. From this you could deduce that the wind is a:
Term
Valley Breezes
Definition
Cumulus clouds that appear above isolated mountain peaks are often the result of:
Term
In early afternoon
Definition
A valley breeze would develop its maximum strength
Term
Katabatic Wind
Definition
A strong, usually cold, downslope wind is called a
Term
East to west downslope
Definition
A katabatic wind on the Oregon coast would most likely blow from the
Term
Cold, downslope
Definition
A katabatic wind is a ____, __________ wind
Term
Foehn
Definition
A chinook wind in the Alps is called a
Term
Compressional Heating
Definition
The heat from a chinook wind is generated mainly by:
Term
Bank of clouds forming over the mountains
Definition
A chinook wall cloud is a
Term
clouds form and precipitation falls on the upwind side of the mountains
Definition
On the eastern side of the Rocky Mountains, chinook winds are driest when
Term
warm, dry winds that descend the eastern slope of the Rocky Mountain
Definition
Chinook winds are:
Term
Sinking air warms by compression
Definition
The main reason Santa Ana winds are warm is because
Term
Compression
Definition
Santa Ana winds warm by ___________ as the flow down an elevated desert plateau.
Term
Warm, dry
Definition
The Santa Ana wind is a ____, ___ wind that blows into southern California.
Term
High, northeast of Los Angeles over the Great Basin
Definition
-Strong Santa Ana winds develop in Los Angeles during the fall when a ____ pressure center forms to the _________ __ ___ _______ over the _____ ______.
Term
Leste
Definition
A warm, dry gusty wind that blows across North Africa is the
Term
Hot, dry days
Definition
Which of the following conditions favor the development of dust devils?
Term
Dust Devil
Definition
Another name for a small, rotating whirlwind observed at the surface is:
Term
Haboob
Definition
A dust or sandstorm that forms along the leading edge of a thunderstorm is a:
Term
Enhances the surrounding pressure gradient
Definition
A northeaster along the east coast of the United States is best developed when a low pressure area
Term
Away from the shore, pressure gradients are small
Definition
A sea breeze is most likely to develop along a coastline when:
Term
Clear-air turbulance
Definition
Which of the following is a serious hazard to aircraft?
Term
Strong Winds
Definition
Good hang-gliding conditions require
Term
Brush Fires
Definition
Strong winds blowing over vegetation results in
Term
4
Definition
If the wind speed doubles, the force exerted by the wind increases by a factor of
Term
Local Winds
Definition
The land/sea breeze, lake breeze, and mountain/valley breeze are examples of
Term
strong winds and sudden changes in atmospheric pressure or by earthquakes
Definition
A seiche can be caused by
Term
is moving faster than the earth spins
Definition
A westerly wind means that the atmosphere:
Term
The earth rotates once in 24 hours
Definition
Which below is NOT an assumption of the single-cell model of the general circulation of the atmosphere?
Term
Hadley Cell
Definition
The large thermally driven convection cell that is driven by convective "hot" towers along the equator is the
Term
An east
Definition
Air moving eastward more slowly than the earth rotates, would appear to be an east wind to an observer on the earth.
Term
Westerlies
Definition
Chicago, Illinois (latitude 42°N) is located in the
Term
Northeast trades meet the southeast trades
Definition
The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is a region where:
Term
The equator and 60 degrees latitude
Definition
In terms of the three-cell model of the general circulation, areas of surface low pressure should be found at:
Term
Northeast
Definition
In Honolulu, Hawaii (latitude 2°N), you would most likely experience winds blowing from the:
Term
Easterly
Definition
At Barrow, Alaska (latitude 70°N), you would expect the prevailing wind to be
Term
Sinking Air Loft
Definition
Generally, along the polar front, one would not expect to observe
Term
A ridge of high pressure
Definition
According to the three-cell general circulation model, at the equator we would not expect to find
Term
Polar Easterlies
Definition
The wind belt observed on the poleward side of the polar front is called the:
Term
Between the sub polar lows and subtropical highs
Definition
On a weather map of the Northern Hemisphere, one would observe the westerlies
Term
Westerlies
Definition
The majority of the United States lies within which wind belt?
Term
South of the subtropical highs
Definition
On a weather map of the Northern Hemisphere, the trade winds would be observed
Term
At the equator
Definition
-In the general circulation of the atmosphere, one would find the region called the doldrums
Term
30 degrees latitude and the polar regions
Definition
-In terms of the three-cell general circulation model, the driest regions of the earth should be near
Term
The shrinking air of the subtropical highs
Definition
The world's deserts are found at 30° latitude because:
Term
Thermal Low
Definition
On a surface weather map during the month of July, one would expect to find what type of pressure system over the desert southwest of the United States?
Term
Subpolar lows
Definition
The semi-permanent pressure systems associated with the polar front are called:
Term
Siberian high
Definition
Which of the following is not considered a semi-permanent high or low pressure area?
Term
Southward and northward
Definition
The position of the Pacific high over the North Pacific Ocean shifts southward in winter and northward in summer
Term
Pacific High
Definition
The large semi-permanent surface anticyclone that is normally positioned over the ocean, west of California, is called the
Term
Is driven by energy from the sun
Definition
A thermally direct cell is one that:
Term
Approximated and parameterized
Definition
Many small-scale processes are ____________ and _____________ in General Circulation Models.
Term
Forms along the polar front
Definition
Which of the following does NOT describe the subtropical jet stream?
Term
It is normally found at a higher elevation than the subtropical jet
Definition
Which below does NOT describe the polar front jet stream?
Term
Air north of the polar front is much colder than air south of the polar front.
Definition
In the Northern Hemisphere, the polar jet stream is strongest when
Term
in a wavy pattern from west to east
Definition
The jet stream flows
Term
Increase in speed
Definition
As an air parcel aloft moves northward from the equator, it moves closer to the earth's axis of rotation. Because of the conservation of angular momentum, the air parcel's motion should
Term
Cold, warm
Definition
In the Northern Hemisphere, air found to the north of the polar front is ____, while air further south is ____
Term
Winter
Definition
The average winds aloft are strongest in
Term
Nighttime thunderstorms
Definition
The low-level jet that forms over the Central Plains of the United States appears to be responsible for
Term
the sloping of the land from the Rockies to the Mississippi Valley, a north-south trending mountain range, stable air above the jet ( all of these)
Definition
Factors that contribute to the formation of a low-level jet stream over the Central Plains of the United States are:
Term
It is found near the tropopause
Definition
Which below is NOT correct about the stratospheric polar-night jet stream?
Term
South of the upper-level subtropical high
Definition
Generally, on an upper-level (100 mb) chart in the Northern Hemisphere during July, we would expect to find the tropical easterly jet stream
Term
North Atlantic Oscillation
Definition
A phenomenon in the Atlantic Ocean, similar to the southern oscillation, is the
Term
North Atlantic Drift
Definition
Average winter temperatures in Great Britain and Norway would probably be much colder if it were not for the
Term
Clockwise, clockwise
Definition
In the Northern Hemisphere, ocean currents in the Atlantic and the Pacific move in a generally circular pattern. The direction of this motion is _________ in the Atlantic and _________ in the Pacific.
Term
Affects fish populations
Definition
The Pacific Decadal Oscillation is similar to the El Niño/Southern Oscillation, except that it
Term
False
Definition
True/False:

At any given time, only one jet stream can be found in the atmosphere.
Term
Upwelling
Definition
The cold water observed along the northern California coast in summer is due mainly to
Term
California, Gulf Stream, Labrador
Definition
Major ocean currents that flow parallel to the coast of North America are:
Term
El Nino
Definition
The name given to the current of warm water that replaces cold surface water along the coast of Peru and Ecuador during December is
Term
Gulf stream and Labrador current
Definition
The two ocean currents, warm and cold, that produce fog off the coast of Newfoundland are the:
Term
The Ekman Spiral
Definition
The turning of water with depth is known as
Term
The turning of water with depth
Definition
The Ekman Spiral describes
Term
the rising of cold water from below
Definition
Upwelling is
Term
extensive ocean warming occurs over the tropical Pacific
Definition
During a major El Niño event
Term
clear air turbulence, strong vertical wind speed shear, very strong winds (all of these)
Definition
At jet streak is a place where _____________________ is often found
Term
winds cause surface waters to move away from the coast
Definition
Upwelling occurs along the northern California coast because
Term
La Nina
Definition
A condition where the central and eastern tropical Pacific Ocean turns cooler than normal is called
Term
The southern oscillation
Definition
The reversal of the positions of surface high and low pressure at opposite ends of the Pacific Ocean is called
Term
the semipermanent highs and lows would disappear altogether
Definition
If the earth's surface was homogeneous (either all land or all water):
Term
False
Definition
Because clouds often block their view, instruments onboard satellite cannot regularly make observations of surface winds
Term
Microwave Energy
Definition
The scatterometer measures winds by sending and receiving pulses of
Term
Sea Roughness
Definition
Satellites provide a global picture of winds by converting ___ _________ into wind speed and direction.
Term
False
Definition
True/False:

During some years, the northern hemisphere has more than 10 semi-permanent highs and lows
Term
Fewer
Definition
The southern hemisphere has _____ semi-permanent lows than the northern hemisphere.
Term
Abundant Precipitation
Definition
Areas of rising air tend to be associated with abundant precipitation
Term
True
Definition
True/False:

Jet streams sometimes split into two branches.
Term
Meridional
Definition
A jet stream transfers more heat across the globe when it is
Term
The energy imbalance between high and low latitudes.
Definition
The ultimate cause of jet streams is:
Term
An increased pressure gradient exists across the North Atlantic Ocean, the prevailing westerlies in the northern hemisphere are stronger, winters in the eastern US are wet and mild, (all of these)
Definition
During the positive phase of the North Atlantic Oscillation
Term
Generally flat areas of uniform composition with light surface winds
Definition
A good source region for an air mass would be
Term
Northern Canada and Alaska
Definition
The origin of cP and cA air masses that enter the United States is
Term
originate over the ice- and snow-covered regions of the arctic, northern Canada, and Alaska where long, clear nights allow for strong radiational cooling of the surface.
Definition
Continental polar (cP) and continental Arctic (cA) air masses
Term
In winter cA source regions have lower temperatures than cP source regions
Definition
Which of the following statements is most plausible?
Term
Potential Temperature
Definition
The temperature that unsaturated air would have if it moved from its original altitude to a pressure of 1,000 mb is the
Term
False
Definition
True/False

In an exceptionally cold winter during which the Great Lakes were entirely covered by ice, lake effect snows would be expected in extremely high frequency and intensity
Term
Warmer and Moister
Definition
Compared to an mP air mass, mT air is
Term
mT
Definition
A moist, tropical air mass that is warmer than the surface over which it is moving would be classified
Term
mT and cP
Definition
The greatest contrast in both temperature and moisture will occur along the boundary separating which air masses
Term
Temperature and Moisture
Definition
An air mass is characterized by similar properties of ___________ and ________ in any horizontal direction.
Term
Cold and dry
Definition
One would expect a cP air mass to be:
Term
cP
Definition
A Texas norther (or blue norther) is most often associated with which air mass?
Term
The air sinks, compresses, and warms
Definition
When cP air moves into western Washington, western Oregon, and California from the east, the air mass is warmer at the surface than it was originally because:
Term
Continental Polar in winter
Definition
Which air mass would show the most dramatic change in both temperature and moisture content as it moves over a large body of very warm water?
Term
cA
Definition
The coldest of all air masses is
Term
cP
Definition
What type of air mass would be responsible for refreshing cool, dry breezes after a long summer hot spell in the Central Plains?
Term
cP
Definition
Record breaking low temperatures are associated with which air mass?
Term
cP
Definition
Clear sunny days with very cold nights would be associated with what type of air mass?
Term
cP air mass moving over warm water
Definition
Cumuliform cloud development would be most likely in which of the following?
Term
late fall and early winter when cold, dry polar air moves over the relatively warm water
Definition
Lake-effect snows are best developed around the Great Lakes during
Term
cP, warm
Definition
The lake effect occurs when a __ air mass moves over a _____ body of water
Term
Eastern
Definition
Generally, the greatest lake effect snow fall will be on the _______ shore of the Great Lakes.
Term
mP
Definition
During the winter, an air mass that moves into coastal sections of Oregon and Washington from the northwest would most likely be
Term
the prevailing winds aloft are westerly
Definition
Wintertime mP air masses are less common along the Atlantic coast of North America than along the Pacific coast mainly because:
Term
mP
Definition
The designation for a cool, moist air mass is
Term
mP
Definition
What type of air mass would be responsible for snow showers on the western slopes of the Rockies
Term
mP
Definition
What type of air mass would be responsible for persistent cold, damp weather with drizzle along the east coast of North America?
Term
mT
Definition
What type of air mass would be responsible for hot, muggy summer weather in the eastern half of the United States?
Term
mT
Definition
The air mass with the highest actual water vapor content is
Term
mT
Definition
In Southern California, which air mass is mainly responsible for heavy rains, flooding in low-lying valleys, and melting of snow at high elevations?
Term
mT
Definition
During the spring, which air mass would most likely bring record-breaking high temperatures to the eastern half of the United States?
Term
mT
Definition
What type of air mass would be responsible for daily afternoon thunderstorms along the Gulf Coast?
Term
cT
Definition
What type of air mass would be responsible for heavy summer rain showers in southern Arizona?
Term
Stable
Definition
An mT air mass lying above a cold ground surface represents a(n) _______ situation
Term
mP
Definition
What type of air mass would be responsible for summer afternoon thunderstorms along the eastern slopes of the Sierra Nevada Mountains in California?
Term
cT
Definition
Which air mass forms over North America only in summer?
Term
cT
Definition
What type of air mass would be responsible for hot, dry summer weather in southern Arizona?
Term
Cool, moist, and conditionally unstable
Definition
A maritime polar air mass that reaches the Pacific Coast is:
Term
Upslope Snow
Definition
During winter, easterly winds along the front range of the Rocky Mountains provide excellent conditions for:
Term
Widespread precipitation and storminess
Definition
Along the boundary between continental polar and maritime tropical air masses, __________ ____________ and _________ is often found.
Term
A front
Definition
On a weather map, the transition zone between two air masses with sharply contrasting properties is marked by
Term
a front is regenerating or strengthening
Definition
The word "frontogenesis" on a weather map would mean that:
Term
Northern Mexico and the southwestern US
Definition
Continental tropical air masses are typically found in
Term
Low Pressure
Definition
Fronts are associated with:
Term
Temperature
Definition
The only indication on the station model of past weather conditions is the:
Term
a dew point front and a boundary marking a strong horizontal change in atmospheric moisture
Definition
A drylines is
Term
Tropopause
Definition
An upper-air front involves downward motion of the:
Term
generally, precipitation covers a much broader area with a cold front
Definition
When comparing an "average" cold front to an "average" warm front, which of the following is NOT correct?
Term
a stationary front
Definition
Alternating lines of blue and red on a surface weather chart indicate
Term
the winds blow parallel to the front
Definition
A stationary front does not move because:
Term
Followed by cooler air
Definition
A true cold front on a weather map is always
Term
It is colored purple on a weather map
Definition
Which of the following is NOT correct concerning a cold front?
Term
Cold Front
Definition
On a weather map, this front, drawn in blue, represents a region where colder air is replacing warmer air
Term
Falls, rises
Definition
Before the passage of a cold front the pressure normally _____, and after the passage of a cold front the pressure normally ______.
Term
Cold Front
Definition
Squall lines most often form ahead of a
Term
Cold fronts
Definition
In winter, thunderstorms are most likely to form along
Term
East to west
Definition
A "back door" cold front moving through New England would most likely have winds shifting from ____ to ____
Term
a cold front that moves into New England from the Atlantic Ocean
Definition
A "back door" cold front describes which of the following situations?
Term
A "backdoor" coldfront
Definition
A cold front that moves into New England from the east or northeast is called
Term
it has warm air ahead (in advance) of it
Definition
Which of the following is NOT correct concerning a warm front?
Term
A warm front may be approaching
Definition
A halo around the sun or moon indicates that rain may be on the way because the halo indicates
Term
With a warm front in winter
Definition
A frontal inversion would probably be best observed:
Term
cirrus, cirrostratus, altostratus, nimbostratus
Definition
In winter, which sequence of clouds would you most likely expect to observe as a warm front with precipitation approaches your location?
Term
Overruning
Definition
The rising of warm air up and over cold air is called
Term
Rises and cools
Definition
At a warm front, the warm air:
Term
Snow, sleet, freezing rain, rain
Definition
During the winter as you travel toward a warm front, the most likely sequence of weather you would experience is
Term
Cold-type occluded front
Definition
-On a weather map where cold air is replacing cool air, what type of front is drawn?
Term
a cold front overtakes a warm front
Definition
Occluded fronts may form as:
Term
Has cold surface air behind it
Definition
A cold-type occluded front
Term
Cold Front
Definition
What type of weather front would be responsible for the following weather forecast? "Increasing cloudiness and warm today with the possibility of showers by this evening. Turning much colder tonight. Winds southwesterly becoming gusty and shifting to northwesterly by tonight."
Term
Warm front
Definition
What type of weather front would be responsible for the following weather forecast? "Increasing high cloudiness and cold this morning. Clouds increasing and lowering this afternoon with a chance of snow or rain tonight. Precipitation ending tomorrow morning. Turning much warmer. Winds light easterly today becoming southeasterly tonight and southwesterly tomorrow."
Term
Warm-type occluded front
Definition
What type of weather front would be responsible for the following weather forecast? "Cool today with rain becoming heavy by this afternoon. Slightly warmer tomorrow. Winds southeasterly becoming westerly to northwesterly by tomorrow morning."
Term
Cold-type occluded front
Definition
What type of weather front would be responsible for the following weather forecast? "Light rain and cold today with temperatures just above freezing. Southeasterly winds shifting to westerly tonight. Turning colder with rain becoming mixed with snow, then changing to snow
Term
Norway
Definition
The polar front theory of a developing wave cyclone was conceived in
Term
C.G. Rossby
Definition
Which of the scientists below was not one of the meteorologists who helped develop the polar front theory of a developing wave cyclone?
Term
Ahead of an advancing cold front
Definition
On a surface weather map that shows an open wave cyclone, the warm sector can be observed
Term
When the system first becomes occluded
Definition
According to the model of the life cycle of a wave cyclone, the storm system is normally most intense
Term
Anticyclone
Definition
Which below is not a name given to a large cyclonic storm system that forms in the middle latitudes?
Term
Heat energy stored in the ground
Definition
In the polar front theory of a developing wave cyclone, energy for the storm is usually derived from all but which of the following?
Term
Bomb
Definition
Another term for explosive cyclogenesis used by meteorologists is:
Term
Cyclogenesis
Definition
The development or strengthening of a middle latitude storm system is called:
Term
California
Definition
Which region is not considered to be a region where cyclogenesis often occurs?
Term
The central pressure is increasing
Definition
A building anticyclone means
Term
Diverging
Definition
For cyclogenesis to occur along a frontal wave, the winds aloft directly above the wave should be:
Term
Convergence
Definition
The piling up of air above a region is called:
Term
Increase
Definition
If the flow of air into a surface low pressure area is greater than the divergence of air aloft, the surface pressure in the center of the low will
Term
Convergence of air aloft
Definition
Which of the following is NOT associated with rising air motions?
Term
Development or strengthening
Definition
Cyclogenesis is the ___________ or _____________ of a mid-latitude cyclone
Term
On the downside of a mountain
Definition
A lee-side low forms
Term
along the Atlantic coast of North America
Definition
Northeasters (or nor'easters) are midlatitude storms commonly found:
Term
Northeast
Definition
A surface low pressure area with a deep upper-level trough to the west will tend to move toward the:
Term
Southeast
Definition
When a deep upper-level trough is located to the east of a surface anticyclone, the surface anticyclone will tend to move toward the
Term
The surface low will probably weaken
Definition
When an upper-level low lies directly above a surface low
Term
A cut-off low
Definition
An upper-level pool of cold air that has broken away from the main flow is called
Term
West
Definition
For a surface storm system to intensify, the upper-level low (or trough) should be located to the ____ of the surface low.
Term
Converging, diverging
Definition
Developing low pressure areas generally have __________ air near the surface and _________ air aloft
Term
Polar Lows
Definition
Strong storms that develop over water, poleward of the polar front, are called:
Term
True
Definition
True/False:

Like hurricanes, polar lows have a clear area in their center
Term
Decrease, intensify
Definition
When upper-level divergence of air above a surface low pressure area is stronger than the convergence of surface air, the surface pressure will decrease and the storm itself will intensify
Term
A decrease in the central pressure
Definition
If the outflow of air around a surface high pressure area is greater than the convergence of air aloft, you would observe
Term
Thousands of kilometers
Definition
Longwaves in the middle and upper troposphere usually have lengths on the order of:
Term
West
Definition
An upper-level trough that shows retrograde motion would probably be moving toward the
Term
Longwaves
Definition
Rossby waves are also known as
Term
West to east, faster
Definition
Atmospheric shortwaves usually move ____ to _____ at a speed that is ______ than longwaves.
Term
Faster, weaken
Definition
Atmospheric shortwaves usually move ______ than longwaves, and ______ when they move through a longwave ridge
Term
A shortwave
Definition
A small, moving disturbance imbedded in a longwave is called
Term
Baroclinic
Definition
On an upper-level chart where the isotherms cross the isobars (or contours) and temperature advection occurs, the atmosphere is called
Term
wave cyclones can intensify into large storm systems, strong wind speed shear exists from the surface up to at least the 500 mb level, rising and descending air motions exist, temperature advection is occurring (all of these)

Definition
During baroclinic instability
Term
the earths vorticity is zero at the poles
Definition
Which of the following statements is NOT correct about vorticity?
Term
Anticyclonically, increase
Definition
If we assume that the absolute vorticity of flowing air is conserved, air moving northeastward will bend ________________ to compensate for the ________ in the earth's vorticity.
Term
storms (extratropical cyclones) that form on the eastern (lee) side of a mountain range
Definition
Lee-side lows are
Term
Increase
Definition
The planetary vorticity of an air parcel moving from low toward high latitude in the Northern Hemisphere will:
Term
The spin of air parcels
Definition
Vorticity refers to:
Term
Surface temperature contrasts are not large and the Coriolis force is weak in the tropics
Definition
The type of weather system known as a 'mid-latitude cyclone' CANNOT form over the tropical ocean because: