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Exam 1
chapters 1,4,5 and 11
42
Anatomy
09/15/2010

Additional Anatomy Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Levels of Organization
Definition

Chemical- atoms & molecules

 

cell- smallest unit of life

 

tissue- smiliar cells grouped together to perform a function Four major tissues: epithelial tissues, muscle tissues, nervous tissue, connective tissue

 

organ- two or more tissues working together to perform a specific function

 

System- organ system- organs working together to perform an overall function

Organism- made up of many organ systems

Term
Homeostasis 
Definition
existence and maintenance of a relatively constant environment within the body
Term
effector
Definition
produces output=response (glands/muscle)
Term
receptor 
Definition
sends information to control center
Term
negative feedback
Definition

response counteracts deviation in body

 

-any deviation from the set point is made smaller or resisted until normal range is attained

 

most body functions are controlled with negative feedback

 

 

Ex: when the body drops below a set normal temperature, the brain send signals to have muscle contractions (shiver) to help raise the core temp.

 

Term
positive feedback
Definition

not homeostatic response

 

-rare in healthy persons

 

-response intensifies deviation until major event happens

 

Ex: mother giving birth.. her uterus is stretched more and more near end of pregnancy.This stimulates more uterine contractions until the baby is born then positive feedback.

Term
supine
Definition
lying face upward, on back
Term
prone
Definition
lying face downward, on stomach
Term
superior (Cranial)
Definition

up, top of the body, structure above another

 

Ex: the chin is superior to the navel

Term
inferior (caudal)
Definition

down, lower part of body; structure below another

 

Ex: the naval is inferior to chin

Term
anterior (ventral)
Definition

front of body

 

Ex: the navel is anterior to the spine

Term
posterior (dorsal)
Definition

back of the body

 

Ex: the spine is posterior to the breastbone.

Term
cephalic 
Definition

head

 

closer to the head than another structure (usually synonymous with superior)

 

Ex: the chin is cephalic to the navel

Term
caudal
Definition

tail

 

closer to the tail than another (usually synonymous with inferior)

 

Ex: the navel is caudal to the chin

Term
ventral
Definition

belly

 

toward the belly (synonymous with anterior) 

 

Ex: the naval is ventral to the spine

Term
dorsal 
Definition

back

 

toward the back (synonymous with posterior)

 

Ex: the spine is dorsal to the breastbone

Term
proximal
Definition

nearest

 

closer to the point of attachment to the body than another structure

 

Ex: the elbow is promixal to the wrist

Term
distal 
Definition

to be distant

 

farther from the point of attachment to the body than another structure 

 

Ex: the wrist is distal to the elbow

Term
lateral
Definition

side

 

away from the midline of the body

 

Ex: the nipple is lateral to the breastbone

Term
medial 
Definition

middle

 

toward the midline fo the body

 

Ex: the bridge of the nose is medial to the eyes

Term
superficial
Definition

toward the surface

 

toward or on the surface 

 

Ex: the skin is superficial to muscle

Term
deep
Definition

deep

 

away from the surface, internal

 

Ex: the lungs are deep to the ribs

Term
Ectoderm
Definition

outer

 

forms skin and nervous system (Embryonic tissue)

Term
Mesoderm
Definition

middle

 

forms muscle, bone and blood vessels ( Embryonic tissues)

Term
Endoderm
Definition

inner

 

forms lining of digestive tract and derivatives 

Term
epithelial tissues
Definition
cover surfaces, line cavaties and form secretory parts of glands
Term
connective tissue
Definition
connect other tissues, support, protect, transport (blood), and insulate (fat)
Term
muscle tissue
Definition
movement
Term
nervous tissue
Definition
recognizing and responding to stimuli (changes in environment), transfer information
Term
sagittal 
Definition
divides body into right and left portions 
Term
median plane
Definition
is a sagittal plane that passes through the midline of the body
Term
horizontal plane
Definition
plane runs parallel to the ground, dividing the body into superior and inferior portions.
Term
Frontal (coronal)
Definition
plane that runs vertically from right to left and divides the body into anterior and posterior parts.
Term
longitudinal section
Definition
a cut through the long axis of the organ 
Term
cross section
Definition
a cut at right angles to the long axis 
Term
oblique
Definition
a cut made across the long axis at an angle not equal to 90 degree right angle
Term
Abdomen quadrants 
Definition
it is formed by horizontal and vertical lines meeting through the naval.These lines form the quadrants right-upper , left-upper, right-lower, left-lower. Subdivisions are made by 9 regions: epigastric, right and left hypochondriac, umbillica, right and left lumbar, hypogastric, right and left iliac. Clinicians use the quadrants and regions as reference points for locating underlying organs.
Term
thoracic cavity
Definition

space enclosed by the ribs, sternum, and vertebral column and is divided into left and right parts by the mediastinum

 

Contains three small cavities:

 Pericardial cavity- surrounding heart

Two Pleural cavities- associated with ribs and surrounds each lung

Term
abdominal cavity
Definition
contains the stomach, intestines, liver, spleen, pancreas, and kidneys. The abdominopelvic cavity contains a serous membrane cavity called Peritoneal
Term
pleural cavity
Definition
surounds each lung, which is covered by visceral pleura. Parietal pleura line the inner surface of the thoracic wall, the lateral surfaces of the mediastinum, and the superior surface of the diaphragm.
Term
Characteristics of Life
Definition

Organization

 

Metabolism

 

Growth

 

Reproduction

 

Development

 

Responsiveness

 

 

Term
Definition