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Exam 1
Chap 1-6
72
Psychology
02/05/2013

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Placenta
Definition
permits food and oxygen to reach the organism and have waste carried away
Term
umbilical cord
Definition
appears as a tiny stalk that eventually grows to 1-3ft. long and a vein that delivers blood with nutrients and 2 arteries that remove waste products
Term
Embryo
Definition
last from implantation through 8 weeks; during 6 weeks all groundwork is set for body structure and internal organs
Term
fetus
Definition
9th week - birth
Term
teratogen
Definition
any environment agent that causes damage during the prenatal period
Term
anoxia
Definition
inadequate oxygen supply
Term
FASD
Definition
a range of physical, mental, and behavioral outcomes caused by prenatal alcohol exposure
Term
rapid eye movement sleep (REM)
Definition
eyes dart beneath the lids;heart rate, blood pressure, and breathing are uneven;slight body movement
Term
non-rapid eye movement sleep (NREM)
Definition
body is almost motionless and heart rate, breathing, and brain-wave activity are slow and even
Term
preterm infants
Definition
born several weeks or more before their due date
Term
small-for-date
Definition
babies below their expected weight considering length of the pregnancy
Term
states of arousal
Definition
degrees of sleep and wakefulness
Term
trimesters
Definition
3 equal time periods
Term
brain plasticity
Definition
a highly plastic cerebral cortex, in which many areas are not yet committed to specific functions, has a high capacity for learning. If a part of the cortex is damaged, other parts can take over tasks it would have handled
Term
cerebal cortex
Definition
surrounds the rest of the brain; largest most complex brain structure (85% brain weight & containing the greatest # of neurons and synapses)
Term
classical conditioning
Definition
a neutral stimulus is paired with a stimulus that leads to a reflexive response
Term
conditioned response
Definition
the response is elicits
Term
conditioned stimulus
Definition
the neutral stimulus by itself produces a response similar to the reflexive response
Term
contrast sensitivity
Definition
explains early patterns preferences;if babies are sensitive to the contrast in 2 or more patterns, they prefer the one with more contrast
Term
differentiation theory
Definition
infants actively search for invariant features of the environment-those that remain stable-in a constantly changing perceptual world
Term
dynamic systems theory of motor development
Definition
mastery of motor skills involves acquiring increasingly complex systems of action. when motor skills work as a system, separate abilities blend together, each cooperating with others to produce more effective ways of exploring and controlling the environment
Term
experience-expectant brain growth
Definition
the young brain's rapidly developing organization, which depends o ordinary experiences-opportunities to see and touch objects, to hear language and other sounds, and to move about and explore the environment
Term
experience-dependent brain growth
Definition
consists of additional growth and refinement of established brain structures as a result of specific learing experiences that occur throughout our lives, varying widely across individuals and cultures
Term
habituation
Definition
a gradual reduction in the strength of a response due to repetitive stimulation
Term
imitation
Definition
copying the behavior of another
Term
intermodal perception
Definition
we make sense of these running streams of light, tactile, odor, and taste information by perceiving them as unified wholes
Term
lateralization
Definition
specialization of the 2 hemispheres
Term
myelination
Definition
the coating of neural fibers with an insulating fatty sheath that improves the efficiency of message transfer
Term
neurons
Definition
nerve cells that store and transmit information
Term
neurotransmitters
Definition
chemical released when sending messages; crosses the synapse
Term
nonorganic failure to thrive
Definition
a growth disorder resulting from lack of parental love;present at 18 months of age
Term
operant conditioning
Definition
infants act on the environment and stimuli that follows their behavior change the probability that the behavior will occur again
Term
proximodistal trend
Definition
growth proceeds, literally, from near to far- from the center of the body outward
Term
punishment
Definition
removing a desirable stimulus or presenting an unpleasant one to decrease the occurrence of a response
Term
recovery
Definition
a new stimulus- a change in the environment- causes responsiveness to return to a high level, an increase
Term
reinforcer
Definition
a stimulus that increases the occurrence of a response
Term
statistical learning capacity
Definition
repeatedly occurring sequences of sounds-they acquire a stock of speech structures for which they will later learn meanings, long before they start to talk around age 12 months
Term
synapses
Definition
tiny gaps where fibers from different neurons come close together but do not touch
Term
synptic pruning
Definition
returns neurons not needed at the moment to an uncommitted state so they can support future development
Term
unconditioned response
Definition
the reflex
Term
unconditioned stimulus
Definition
must consistently produce a reflex
Term
What is human development as a field of study?
Definition
studying change and constancy throughout the lifespan
Term
What influences development?
Definition
age-graded, history-graded, and nonnormative
Term
attachment 196
Definition
strong affectionate tie we have with special people in our lives that leads us to fell pleasure when we interact with them and to be comforted by their nearness in times of stress
Term
autonomy versus shame and doubt 184
Definition
conflict of toddler hood; resolved favorably when parents provide young children with suitable guidance and reasonable choices
Term
avoidant attachment 198
Definition
infants seem unresponsive to the parents when she is present; don't get distressed when she leaves and slow to greet when she returns
Term
basic emotions 185
Definition
happiness, interest, surprise, fear, anger, sadness, and disgust-universal in humans and have long evolutionary history of promoting survival
Term
basic trust versus mistrust 184
Definition
balance of care is sympathetic and loving, psychological conflict of the 1st year
Term
compliance 208
Definition
show clear awareness of caregivers' wishes and expectations and can obey simple requests and commands
Term
delay of gratification 208
Definition
waiting for an appropriate time and place to engage in a tempting act
Term
difficult child 190
Definition
10%; irregular in daily routines, slow to accept new experiences, and tends to react negatively and intensely
Term
disorganized/disoriented attachment 198
Definition
patterns reflect the greatest insecurity;when reunited, infants show confusion, contradictory behaviors
Term
easy child 190
Definition
40%; quickly establishes regular routines in infancy;cheerful and adapts easily to new experiences
Term
emotional self-regulation 189
Definition
strategies we use to adjust our emotional state to a comfortable level of intensity so we can accomplish our goals
Term
empathy 208
Definition
the ability to understand another's emotional stand and FEEL WITH that person, or respond emotionally in a similar situation
Term
ethological theory of attachment 196
Definition
infant's emotional tie to the caregiver as an evolved response that promotes survival;most widely accepted view
Term
goodness-to-fit model 194
Definition
how temperament and environment together can produce favorable outcomes
Term
inhibited, or shy child 191
Definition
who reacts negatively to and withdraw from novel stimuli
Term
internal working model 197
Definition
set of explanations about the availability of attachment figures and their likelihood of providing support during times of stress
Term
resistant attachment 198
Definition
before separation, infants seek closeness to the parents and often fail to explore
Term
secure attachment 198
Definition
babies use parents as a secure base
Term
secure base 186
Definition
point from which to explore, venturing into the environment, and then returning for emotional support
Term
self-conscious emotions 188
Definition
second-order set of feelings, including guilt, shame, embarrassment, envy, and pride
Term
self-recognition 207
Definition
identification of the self as a physically unique being
Term
sensitive care giving 200
Definition
responding promptly, consistently, and appropriately to infants and holding them tenderly and carefully
Term
separation anxiety 197
Definition
becoming upset when their trusted caregiver leaves
Term
slow-to-warm-up child 190
Definition
15%; inactive, shows mild, low-key reactions to environment stimuli, is negative in mood, and adjusts slowly to new experiences
Term
social referencing 188
Definition
actively seeking emotional information from a trusted person in an uncertain situation
Term
social smile 185
Definition
6-10 months; parents comm. evoke a broad grin
Term
stranger anxiety 186
Definition
expressed fear towards unfamiliar adults
Term
temperament 190
Definition
early-appearing, stable individual differences in reactivity and self-regulation
Term
uninhibited, or sociable, child 191
Definition
display positive emotion to and approach novel stimuli