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Exam 1 Drug List
N/A
96
Pharmacology
10/17/2011

Additional Pharmacology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Acetazolamide (Diamox)
Definition

-a diuretic

-renal lecture

-treat altitude sickness, glaucoma and seizures and idiopathic intracranial hypertension

-carbonic anhydrase inhibitor

Term
Albuterol
Definition

-beta 2 selective agonist-asthma med

Term
Allopurinol
Definition

-lec 8, reduces the production of uric acid, used to treat gout

Term
Alonidine
Definition

-Cardio II

-a centrally acting adrenergic blocker, used to treat hypertension when pt does not respond to other things

Term
Amiloride
Definition

-potassium sparing diuretic, blocks epithelial sodium channel

-renal lecture

Term
Amiodarone
Definition

-Cardio I, antidysrhythmic agent

-class III, thus it is a potassium channel blocker (SBPC)

-alters repolarization phase of heart contraction

-too toxic for long term use, can cause optic neuritis and corneal deposits

Term
Amlodipine
Definition

 -long acting calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension, and angina.

Term
Amoxicillin
Definition

-GI lecture

-antimicrobial, used for eradication of H. Pylori

-usually with clarithromycin

Term
Amphetamine
Definition

-lect. 4

-a sympathomimetic, facilitates the release of NE

Term
Aspirin (Ecotrin)
Definition

-too much can reduce the release of prostaglandins which protect the stomach lining, causing ulcers.

-irreversibly inhibits cyclooxygenases (lect 9) by covalent acetylation. Cyclooxygenases produce thromboxane

-also for anti-platelet aggregation, used to treat MI, tries to prevent thrombus formation

-used to reduce side effects of Niacin (flush and gout)

Term
Atenolol
Definition

-beta 1 blocker, anti-anginal, antihypertensive

Term
Atorvastatin
Definition

-statin=HMG CoA Reductase inhibitor

-inhibit enzymes used in LDL synthesis

-antihyperlipidemic

-reduce LDL and cholesterol levels

Term
Atropine
Definition

-a muscarinic (ANS) antagonist (lec 3)

-a cyclopegic mydriatic

-antidote is physostigmine

Term
Beclomethasone
Definition

-a corticosteroid used to treat asthma, prevents wheezing and shortness of breath, reduces swelling in the airways

Term
Benoxinate
Definition

-ester linked local anesthetic

-ester of para-aminobenzoic acid (PABA)

Term
Bismuth Subsalicylate (Pepto Bismol)
Definition

-GI lecture

-a mucosal protective agent, against H. pylori

-an antidiarrhetic by inhibiting the formation of diarrhea producing prostaglandins

-SE is salicylism (nausea, vomiting, also can occur with too much aspirin)

Term
Bupivacaine
Definition

-amide linked local anesthetic (lec5)

-minor surgeries, spinal anesthesia, much the same as lidocaine

Term
Calcium Carbonate (Tums)
Definition

-an antacid used to treat heartburn, acid indigestion and upset stomach

-lec 10

-dietary calcium supplement

Term
Captopril
Definition

-an ACE inhibitor

-used to treat CHF and HTN

-prevents angiotensin production which decreases blood volume

-SE: photosensitivity and hyperkalemia

Term
Cetirizine
Definition

-an antihistamine used to treat allergies

Term
Chlorthalidone
Definition

-a thiazide-like diuretic (has longer duration than a thiazide diuretic)

-inhibits Na reabsorption and thus increases urinary excretion of Na and water

-acts on distal convoluted and collecting ducts

-used to treat HTN, edema (in case of CHF, renal failure, cirrhosis etc. )

-SE: hypokalemia, jaundice, 

Term
Cholestyramine
Definition

-bile acid sequestrant

-cardio II

-antihyperlipidemic

-binds with bile salts to form an insoluble complex that gets excreted, this causes the liver to synthesize more bile salt from cholesterol

-SE are constipation, steatorrhea and inability to absorb lipid soluble vitamins (DAKE)

Term
Clarithromycin
Definition

-antimicrobial agent used to treat H. Pylori, with amoxicillin

-also eliminates the normal flora that protects the mouth-thrush

Term
Colestipol
Definition

-also a bile acid sequestrant

-cardio II lecture

Term
Cromolyn (Nasalcrom)
Definition

-a mast cell stabilizer thus preventing reaction to histamines, may produce coughing upon inhalation

-lect 9

-allergy med

-used to treat allergic rhinitis

Term
Cyclosporine
Definition

-long term management of dry eye

-takes awhile to being working

Term
Digoxin
Definition

beta adrenergic blocker used to treat hypertension, angina, CHF, MI and arrhythmias

-a cardia glycoside, inhibits sodium pump which increases intracellular Ca.

-narrow therapeutic index (is natural)

-can be dangerous so use digitoxin instead

-treat heart flutters

Term
Diphenhydramine
Definition

-an antihistamine, used to treat asthma

-hypnotic effect ( crosses BBB)

-­histamine receptor antagonist

Term
Dipyridamole
Definition

-lecture 8

-anti platelet aggregation, inhibits adenosine deaminase and phosphodiesterase, thus inhibiting platelet function

Term
Edrophonium
Definition

-cholinesterase inhibitor (reversible)

-similar category as physostigmine

Term
Esomeprazole
Definition

-GI lecture

-a proton pump inhibitor, reduces secretion of acid in stomach

Term
Etomidate
Definition

-lec 5

-an intravenous anesthetic

Term
Fenofibrate
Definition

-Cardio II

-antihyperlipidemic, a fibric acid derivative

-inhibit TG production, decrease VLDL levels, increase HDL

-block lipolysis of stored TG and inhibit hepatic uptake of FA

-SE: muscle weakness, blurred vision, nosebleeds.

Term
Fexofenadine (Allegra)
Definition

-an antihistamine, used to treat allergies, does not cross BBB

Term
Fluticasone
Definition

-glucocorticoid, resp lecture

-treat asthma

Term
Furosemide
Definition

-a loop diuretic, the most potent diuretic, inhibits reabsorption of Na and Cl, increasing excretion ofo H20, Na, Cl and K

- treat acute pulmonary edema, CHF

-SE: hyponatremia, ototoxicity, hypokalemia

Term
Gemfibrozil
Definition

-an antihyperlipidemic, a fibric acid derivative

-inhibits TG production, inhibits TG lipolysis and hepatic uptake of FA, similar to fenofibrate

Term
Halothane
Definition

-an inhaled anesthetic

Term
Heparin
Definition

-a short term injectable anticoagulant

-prevents formation of clots

-may prolong bleeding time

-inhibits conversion of prothrombin to thrombin & fibrinogen to fibrin

-SE: Bleeding, fever, low platelet count (thrombocytopenia)

Term
Homatropine
Definition

-a  muscarinic antagonist like atropine

-a mydriatic

Term
Hydralazine
Definition

-Cardio II

-a vasodilator, direct relaxation of vascular SkM, decreasing BP

-used in combo with beta blockers and diuretics

-SE headache and tachycardia

Term
Hydrochlorothiazide
Definition
-a thiazide diuretic
Term
Indomethacin
Definition

-inhibits prostaglandin production which allows the ductus arteriosus to close

Term
Ipratropium
Definition

-muscarinic receptor antagonist

-used to treat beta blocker-induced bronchospasm

-inhaled

Term
Ketamine
Definition

-intravenous anesthetic

-same category as etomidate

Term
Labetolol
Definition

-Cardio II

-used to treat severe hypertension

- selective alpha and non selective beta blocker

-decreases BP

Term
Lidocaine
Definition

-local anesthetic, topical

Term
Lisinopril
Definition

-ACE inhibitor, treats HTN

-Cardio II

-prevents Angiotension Converting Enzyme from producing angiotensin II from I, which decreases blood volume

-SE: photosensitivity, hyperkalemia

Term
Loperamide (Imodium)
Definition

-antidiarrheal

-cannot cross BBB

-GI lecture

-antimotility agent, slows movement

-an opioid derivative, alters neural influence on intestine, promoting absorption of fluids and electrolytes

Term
Losartan
Definition

-angiotensin II receptor blocker, not the same as an Ace inhibitor

-blocks vasoconstriction and aldosterone secretion

-use to treat HTN and CHF

-Se: cough and hyperkalemia

Term
Mannitol
Definition

-renal lecture

-osmotic diuretic

-used in case of acute angle closure

-increase rate of Na and Cl excretion, removing excess ECF decreasing edema

Term
Mepivacaine
Definition

-anesthetic lecture

-a local anesthetic

-amide linked

Term
Metoclopramide
Definition

-used to treat nausea

-couldnt find in lectures

Term
Metoprolol
Definition

-an antihypertensive, beta blocker

-cardio II

Term
Minoxidil
Definition

-used to treat hypertension

-a vasoldilator

-aka Rogaineàhair growth

-common symptom is HA

Term
Misoprostol
Definition

-treatment of peptic ulcers

-GI lecture

-a prostaglandin analog, reduces the concentration and amount of stomach acid

Term
Montelukast
Definition

respiratory lecture

-leukotriene modulator

-CysLT receptor antagonist

-used to treat asthma

Term
Nedocromil
Definition

-respiratory lecture

-mast cell stabilizer (inhibit degranulation and subsequent release of histamine, which happens in response to allergens)

-SE: bitter taste, throat irritation

Term
Niacin
Definition

Cardio II

-good for increasing good cholesterol

-an antihyperlipidemic

-SE: thrush and gout

-decreases VLDL, LDL and total cholesterol

-take aspirin first to reduce SE

Term
Nicotine
Definition

-­a nicotinic agonist, thus stimulates parasympathetic

-lec 3

Term
Nifedipine
Definition

-­calcium channel blocker used to treat BP and angina

-Cardio II

-similar to verapamil

-Ca channel blockage causes dilation of coronary vessels

-antihypertensive

Term
Nitrous oxide
Definition

-inhalation anesthetic

-an analgesic

(anesthetic =hypnotic +analgesic+ paralytic)

Term
Omeprazole
Definition

-GI lecture

-proton pump inhibitor

-diminishes secretion of acid into stomach, treat GERD

Term
Phentolamine
Definition

-adrenergic receptor antagonist

-sympatholytic

-nonselective alpha blocker

Term
Phenylephrine
Definition

-direct adrenergic agonist

-alpha 1 selective

-dilation drop

Term
Physostigmine
Definition

-a  reversible cholinesterase inhibitor, similar to edrophonium

-glaucoma med

-cause prolonged action of Ach

Term
Pilocarpine
Definition

-a muscarinic agonist

-parasympathomimetic

-treats dry mouth in Sjrogens and radiotherapy patients, also used to treat glaucoma

Term
Prazosin
Definition

-Cardio II

-a peripherally acting blocker

Term
Procaine
Definition

-­local anesthetic

-reduces sodium permeability, increasing electrical threshold and thus inhibiting neural impulses

-also slows propogation

Term
Proparacaine
Definition

-ester linked local anesthetic

-ester of meta-aminobenzoic acid

Term
Propanolol
Definition

-beta blocker used to treat hypertension

-Cardio II lecture

Term
Pseudoephedrine (Sudafed)
Definition

-sympathomimetic amine

-indirectly stimulates adrenergic receptors

-facilitates release of NE from presynaptic neurons

Term
Psyllium (Metamucil)
Definition

-a fiber supplement

-absorbs excess water and stimulates bowel elimination, reduces symptoms of constipation and diarrhea.

Term
Ranitidine
Definition

GI lecture

-an antisecretory drug

-H2-histamine receptor antagonist

-blocks gastric acid secretion

Term
Salmeterol
Definition

-respiratory lecture

-beta 2 adrenergic agonist

-increases cAMP concentrations

-longer duration of action than albuterol

-relaxes the lung, treats asthma

Term
Scopolamine
Definition

-ANS lecture

-muscarinic antagonist

 

- cycloplegic mydriatic

-treats motion sickness

 

 

 

 

Term
Senna
Definition

-GI lecture

-a stimulant laxative

-helps to stimulate bowel movement and intestinal secretion

Term
Simvastatin
Definition

-Cardio II

-antihyperlipidemic

-HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitor

Term
Spironolactone
Definition

-potassium sparing diuretic

-works by antagonizing the aldosterone receptor thus decreasing  Na reabsorption, thus more is excreted and water along with it.

-SE: hyperkalemia, thirst, dry mouth and drowsiness

-works on distal convoluted tubule and collecting duct

-same category as amiloride

Term
Streptokinase
Definition

renal lecture

-thrombolytic agent (‘ase’ suffix)

-stimulates conversion of plasminogen to plasmin which then hydrolyzes the fibrin, dissolving the clot

-treat severe pulmonary embolism, DVT & arterial thromboembolism, MI and stroke

-may cause allergic reaction and thus is not used often. 

Term
Sucralfate
Definition

­GI lecture

-mucosal protectant

-binds to positively charged tissue proteins and mucin, protecting ulcers from acid by forming viscous barriers

-also inhibits pepsin, binds bile salts and stimulates mucosal PGs

-cannot be used in combo with PPI, will counteract each other since sucralfate requires acid to form the protective layer

Term
Terbutaline
Definition

­a short acting B2 agonist, same category as albuterol

-used to treat wheezing

-works by increasing cAMP

-stimulates dilation of bronchioles

Term
theophylline
Definition

-used to treat asthma

-works by inhibiting phosphodiesterase enzymes, resulting in more cAMP production and dilation of bronchioles

-is related to caffeine

Term
Thiopental
Definition

-an intravenous anesthetic

-a barbiturate

-used for extensive procedures

-has a quick induction

-also known as truth serum

-treats pain

Term
Ticlopidine
Definition

renal lecture

-antiplatelet agent

-prevents clot formation in arteries (as opposed to anticoagulants which prevent thrombosis in veins)

-sometimes used with aspirin 

Term
Tropicamide
Definition

-short acting antimuscarinic

-mydriatic and cycloplegic

Term
Tubocurarine
Definition

­ANS lecture

-ganglionic/nicotinic blocker

-block both symp and parasymp transmission

-used only to treat hypertensive emergencies during surgery

Term
Verapamil
Definition

­Cardio II

-antihypertensive Calcium channel blocker

-causes constipation

Term
Verteporfin
Definition

-lec 10 opthalmic dyes

­active ingredient in Visudyne therapy

-binds to LDL, gets attracted to new vessels, causes vessels to burn up when exposed to red laser diode

-treatment for wet macular degeneration

Term
Warfarin
Definition

-renal lecture

-long term use anticoagulants

-does not dissolve clots, just prevents them from getting larger

-resembles vit K

-interferes with vitK dependent clotting factors

-SE: bleeding, teratogenicity (fetal malformations)

-antidote is vit K

Term
Zafirlukast
Definition

-­leukotriene receptor antagonist

-respiratory lecture

-used to treat asthma

Term
Zileuton
Definition

-respiratory

-lipooxygenase inhibitor used to treat allergies and asthma

-blocks leukotriene synthesis and thus inhibits inflammation

Term
Name the 7 types of Antihypertensive drugs
Definition

alpha blockers

beta blockers

renin inhibitors

calcium channel blockers

ace inhibitors

diuretics

angiotensin II receptor blockers

Term
Name 4 types of diuretics and an example of each
Definition

Loop (furosemide)

Potassium-sparing (Spironolactone & Amiloride)

Thiazide/thiazide-like (Hydrochlorothiazide/Chlorthalidone)

Osmotic (Mannitol)

Term
Name 4 drug types for treatment of hyperlipidemia
Definition

HMG CoA Reductase Inhibitors

Bile Acid Sequestrants

Cholesterol Absorption Blockers

Fibrates (Fibric Acid Derivative)

Niacin is also a miscellaneous one..

Term
Differentiate between Amiloride, Amiodarone and Amlodipine.
Definition

Amiloride is a potassium sparing diuretic

Amiodarone is an potassium channel blocker used as an antidysrhythmic agent

Amlodipine is a calcium channel blocker used to treat hypertension and angina