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Equine Viral Diseases
Encephalidites, Influenza, Rhinopneumonitis, Equine Viral Arteritis, Equine Infectious Anemia and Rabies
32
Veterinary Medicine
10/22/2011

Additional Veterinary Medicine Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

Two types of Arboviruse

Encephalidites

Definition
  • Eastern/Western/Venezuelan Encephalomyelitis (Sleeping Sickness)

 

  • West Nile Virus
Term
Arboviruses Route of Exposure
Definition
  • Bite of infected mosquito
  • Reservoir host-birds
  • Horse is a dead end host
  • Human is a dead end host
  • Prepatent period 3-5 days
Term
Arboviruses Symptoms
Definition
  • Fever
  • Depression/stupor
  • Impaired vision
  • Convulsions
  • Incoordination
  • Circling
  • Head pressing
  • Death
Term
Arboviruses Treatment
Definition

Supportive care

  • NSAIDs
  • Antibiotics
  • Fluid replacement
  • Physical support/protection

Prognosis: Guarded to poor

Older animals more severely affected

 

Term
Prevention of Aroboviruses
Definition

Vaccination

  • every 3-4 months during mosquito seasons

Mosquito Control

Term
How is Equine Influenza Virus Transmitted?
Definition
  • Aerosol transmission
  • Virus is species specific
Term

What are factors affecting susceptibility to Equine Influenza Virus?

 

Definition
  • Age usually young (2-3 years old)
  • Population density (high density causes more stress)
  • Stress ( racetracks, training/show stables)
Term
What are symptoms of Equine Influenza Virus?
Definition
  • Fever
  • Depression
  • Loss of appetite
  • Nasal discharge
  • Cough
  • Muscle soreness/stiffness
Term
What treatment do you use for Equine Influenza virus?
Definition

Supportive care

  • NSAIDs
  • Antibiotics
  • Rest

Symptoms resolve in 4-7 days although a dry cough may persist

 

Term
Whats the rule of thumb for rest?
Definition
1 week of rest for each degree of fever
Term
Complications with Equine Influenza virus
Definition
  • Failure to treat
  • Continued Stress/training during dz can cause cardiomyopathy and pleuropneumonia
Term
How do you prevent Equine Influenza virus?
Definition
  • Vaccinate young horses prior to departure for training center/racetrack
  • At risk population,booster vaccination every 60-90 day
Term
How is Rhinopneumonitis transmitted?
Definition

Direct-aerosol

 

Term
What are symptoms of Rhinopneumonitis respiratory disease?
Definition

Flu-like symptoms

  • Fever
  • Depression
  • loss of appetite
  • Cough
  • Nasal discharge
  • Lymph node enlargement
Term
What are symptoms of Rhinopneumonitis neurologic disease?
Definition
  • Weakness
  • Ataxia
  • Paralysis (Can last up to 30 days. Horses can completely recover with supportive care.)
Term
Symptoms of Rhinopneumonitis reproductive disease
Definition
  • Late term abortion (last trimester)

Birth of term foals

  • Weak
  • Fail to thrive
  • Death within several days to weeks
Term
How do you treat Rhinopneumonitis?
Definition

Supportive care

  • NSAIDs
  • Antibiotics
  • Intensive nursing care for recumbent horses
  • Complications of protracted recumbency (Decubital ulcers, Pneumonia, colic)
Term
How do you prevent Rhinopneumonitis?
Definition

Vaccination

  • Pregnant mares at 5th, 7th, 9th months of gestation
  • At risk populations every 60-90 days
Term
How is Equine Viral Arteritis is transmitted?
Definition
  • Aerosol (virus praticles rapidly diluted in open-air environment)
  • Carrier state in accessory sex glands of the stallion
  • Endemic in Standardbreds
Term
What are symptoms of equine viral arteritis?
Definition

Variable

  • Limb edema
  • Urticaria(hives)
  • Fever
  • Loss of appetite
  • Abortion
  • Respiratory symptoms
Term
How do you treat Equine Viral Arteritis?
Definition

Supportive care

  • NSAIDs
  • Antibiotics
  • +/- Antihistamines
  • Rest
Term
How do you diagnosis Equine Viral Arteritis?
Definition
  • Virus isolation
  • Serology
  • Ongoing outbreak and consistent symptoms
Term
How do you prevent equine viral arteritis?
Definition
  • Vaccination
  • Isolation of affected horses and consistent symptoms
Term
How is Equine Infectious Anemia(Swamp fever) transmitted?
Definition

Mechanical vectors-blood transfer

  • Virus viable in horsefly for 15-30 minutes
  • Proximity of horses required for disease transmission

Pre-patent period 1-3 weeks is average but may be up to 3 months

Term
What are symptoms of equine infectious anemia?
Definition
  • Anemia
  • Weight loss
  • Unthriftiness
  • Recurrent fever
Term
What is the treatment for equine infectious anemia?
Definition

NO CURE

  • Reportable Disease
  • Infected animals are managed by State Department of Agriculture at approved facility
  • Culling of infected animals
Term
How do you diagnosis equine infectious anemia?
Definition
  • Coggins Test (required for interstate movement of horses)
Term
How is rabies transmitted?
Definition

Bite of infected animal

Wildlife sources of infection

  • Fox
  • Skunk
  • Raccoon

 

Term
What are symptoms of rabies?
Definition

Dumb/Paralytic form (most common EQ form)

  • Weakness/incoordination
  • Tail paralysis/urine dribbling/scald on hind legs
  • Colic

Aggressive Form

  • Photophobia
  • Belligerence
  • Grinding of teeth/obsessive chewing
  • Seizures
Term
How do you diagnosis rabies?
Definition

Ante-mortem

  1. Fluorescent Antibody Test
  • Full thickness skin biopsy
  • Cheek epithelial cells

Post mortem

  • Submit brain and spinal cord to laboratory
Term
How do you treat rabies?
Definition
NO Cure always fatal
Term
How do you prevent rabies?
Definition

Vaccination

  • Rabvac-3 (Ft.Dodge) -only FDA approved rabies vaccine for horses

Avoid Exposure

  • Wire mesh fencing preventing wildlife access