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ENV 101 - Exam 4
Chapters 11, 12, 13
117
Environmental Studies
10/31/2012

Additional Environmental Studies Flashcards

 


 

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Term
When Aldo Leopold said, "The first rule to intelligent tinkering is to save all the pieces." in terms of biodiversity
he meant that we should
Definition
Not cause species to disappear
Term
We are usually referring to species diversity when we talk about biodiversity. However, genetic diversity is also important to ecological systems because diverse genes
Definition
Are necessary for a population to evolve in a changing environment
Term
Use the scenario below to answer the following questions:
Definition
Term
In this scenario, which community has the highest species richness?

There are three ecological communities, each with differing species, but all of them have 100 individual plants and animals. Community A has 21 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 50 individuals of one species and 3 each of the other 20 species. Community B has 11 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 90 individuals of one species and 2 each of the other 10 species. Community C has 11 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 10 individuals of each species.
Definition
. Community A has 21 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 50 individuals of one species and 3 each of the other 20 species.
Term
In this scenario, which communities have the same species richness?

There are three ecological communities, each with differing species, but all of them have 100 individual plants and animals. Community A has 21 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 50 individuals of one species and 3 each of the other 20 species. Community B has 11 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 90 individuals of one species and 2 each of the other 10 species. Community C has 11 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 10 individuals of each species.
Definition
Community B and C

. Community B has 11 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 90 individuals of one species and 2 each of the other 10 species. Community C has 11 species. Of the 110 individuals, there are 10 individuals of each species.
Term
The common way that a species is defined in biology (the way it is defined in Chapter 3) is in terms of reproductive isolation. This means that all organisms that are similar enough to
Definition
Produce fertile offspring in nature
Term
You also mentioned to your friend that a new tool, DNA sequencing technology is radically changing the way species are identified. In fact, some groups that were originally thought to be far apart now seem to be closely related. Which of the following statements does not reflect the implications of using this new tool?
Definition
This tool will end the debate of what is or is not a species
Term
Approximately how many species have been identified on Earth?
Definition
A little more than 1.5 million
Term
The total number of living species is probably
Definition
Between 3 million and 50 million
Term
One of the reasons humans rely heavily on only a few food crops is because
Definition
We have not explored the cultivation of thousands of edible wild species
Term
Which of the following drugs is not derived from a naturally occurring organism?
Definition
Tetracycline
Term
Which of the following is not a benefit of biodiversity for humans?
Definition
All of these are benefits of biodiversity
Term
The pharmaceutical industry has an interest in preventing species extinction because
Definition
Undiscovered species may provide lucrative new drugs
Term
Soil formation and water purification are examples of _________ based on the biodiversity that benefit humans
Definition
Ecological services
Term
Which of the following statements is true?
Definition
Humans may have been causing extinctions thousands of years ago, but our impact has recently increased
Term
The main reason for the current high rate of animal extinctions is
Definition
Habitat destruction worldwide
Term
Which of the following would be a characteristic of an exotic plant species?
Definition
Is an opportunist that is desired by humans for food or ornamental value
Term
Habitat fragmentation usually leads to a(n)
Definition
Decrease in biodiversity
Term
Introduced (exotic) species tend to __________ the balance of ecosystems and ______ biodiversity.
Definition
Upset; decrease
Term
The zebra mussel was introduced to the Great Lakes
Definition
Accidentally in ocean-going ship ballast
Term
Introduced disease organisms are especially dangerous to new environments because they can destroy the non-native host. This happens because the disease organisms
Definition
Have not evolved with this host to achieve the normal balance for long-term success
Term
It is clear that a heavy dose of pesticides or other toxic pollutants can kill species. However, chronic exposure to pollutants seems to cause recent high mortality in marine mammals by
Definition
Causing weakened immune systems and increased vulnerability to infection
Term
The U.S. Army participated in extermination of the American bison because
Definition
Native peoples depended on the bison for food and shelter
Term
The main reason for continued trade in endangered species is
Definition
Pet lovers and collectors who like exotic species
Term
Which of the following statements about trade in endangered species is false?
Definition
Coral reefs are not affected by the endangered species trade
Term
Which of the following fish is safe and environmentally friendly to eat?
Definition
Wild salmon
Term
If you have an aquarium with saltwater fish, 75 percent of your fish probably came from
Definition
Wild fish populations caught with cyanide or nets
Term
A species in imminent danger of extinction is classified by the U.S. Endangered Species Act as
Definition
Endangered
Term
The main reason that there are relatively few invertebrates categorized as endangered species is because
Definition
We consider other groups, such as mammals, to be more interesting and desirable
Term
The objective of a species recovery plan is to
Definition
Increase an endangered species population until it is no longer endangered
Term
The U.S. Endangered Species Act officially expired in
Definition
1992
Term
Conservationists and wildlife managers use gap analysis to
Definition
Find unprotected landscapes that are rich in species
Term
Which of the following is false regarding CITES?
Definition
When implemented properly it has provided foolproof protections of endangered species
Term
Most of the tallgrass prairies in the U.S. remain untouched.
Definition
False
Term
Kudzu vine was originally brought to the U.S. to control soil erosion.
Definition
True
Term
Island ecosystems are extremely susceptible to invasive species
Definition
True
Term
Zoo animals in the U.S. today come mainly from the wild.
Definition
False
Term
"Closed canopy" forests are those in which tree crowns
Definition
Cover most of the ground
Term
_________, ___________ and ___________ are the largest producers of both paper pulp and industrial wood
Definition
Canada; Europe; the United Kingdom
Term
Which of the following statements about old-growth forests is true?
Definition
They include temperate rainforests, tropical rainforests, boreal forests and deciduous forests
Term
Developed countries produce __________ of all industrial wood and account for ________ of its consumption.
Definition
Less than half; about 80 percent
Term
Fuelwood harvests
Definition
Make up about half of all wood harvests
Term
Although most of the world's forests are shrinking, biologists are especially concerned about tropical forest loss because
Definition
They contain such high biodiversity
Term
Economically, monoculture forestry is advantageous because
Definition
It produces large quantities of a single type of tree for a particular use, such as building timber or paper
Term
"Forest management" means planning for
Definition
Sustainable harvests and forest regeneration
Term
After losing nearly all its trees in World War II, South Korea is now
Definition
About 70 percent reforested
Term
A disadvantage of monoculture forestry is that it is
Definition
Deficient in providing ecological services
Term
Which nation currently has the highest deforestation rate?
Definition
Bazil
Term
A promising approach to encourage conservation and preservation in developing countries is
Definition
Debt-for-nature swaps
Term
Milpa farming is an alternative term for
Definition
Mixed perennial polyculture
Term
Satyagraha movements in India work to achieve social and environmental goals
Definition
Through passive, peaceful methods
Term
India's Chipko Andolan movement
Definition
Saved a large portion of forests in watersheds
Term
International lending institutions are willing to cooperate in debt-for-nature swaps because
Definition
They do not really expect to recover much of their loans
Term
Debt-for-nature swaps are beneficial mainly to
Definition
All of these are correct
Term
Of all the old growth forests that stood in the United States before European settlement, how much remains today?
Definition
Less than 10 percent
Term
Economic studies show that the loss of logging jobs in Washington and Oregon resulted from *
Definition
The decreased amount of logging that was ordered to save the spotted owls
Term
The profits from a year's harvest of salmon in a British Columbia river
Definition
Are negligible compared to timber values
Term
Most commercial loggers prefer "clear-cut" harvesting because it*
Definition
Is the most efficient, cheapest harvest method using large, fast machinery instead of costly labor
Term
Why is there a need to reeducate people about the role of fire in natural systems?
Definition
People do not understand that fire is a natural part of many biological ecosystems
Term
Which of the following perspectives is not a principle of ecosystem management?
Definition
Using scientific knowledge as the basis for management since science is free from bias
Term
In criticizing ecosystem management, one of your classmates says that it is arrogant for us to think that we can manage nature. You respond that you think she probably has a(n) ______________ worldview.
Definition
Biocentric
Term
What conclusions can you make from examining the graph?
Definition
Ecosystem "a" has the most threatened plant species
Term
Given what you know about land use, what ecosystem do you think ecosystem "a" represents? *
Definition
Wetland
Term
Places most susceptible to desertification are
Definition
Open woodlands
Term
Most public rangelands are in poor condition due to
Definition
Overcrowding of private livestock
Term
Grazing fees on public lands have changed little because
Definition
Political pressures ensure they remain low
Term
Poor people in developing countries often threaten wildlife preserves because
Definition
They need the resources to survive
Term
If managed carefully, ecotourism benefits natural areas by giving economic value to land and water resources
Definition
Without destroying them
Term
One possible solution to the problem of insufficient land area for preserves is to use ____________ to link smaller habitat areas.
Definition
Corridors
Term
Corridors have the potential to effectively enlarge which of the following?
Definition
Preserve areas
Term
Which of the preserve shapes shown has the greatest interior area relative to perimeter area? *
Definition
C. C
(Circle)
Term
Which of the preserve shapes shown would support the most species that require a core area? *
Definition
D
Term
The amount of interior area in a preserve is important because
Definition
Humans and other hardy species encroach on preserve margins AND many threatened species cannot survive environmental conditions on preserve margins
Term
The Menominee tribe in Wisconsin manage their trees using shelterwood harvesting.
Definition
True
Term
The majority of coastal wetland loss in the United States is due to
Definition
Levees that guide the Mississippi River out into the Gulf of Mexico
Term
Efforts to repair or reconstruct ecosystems are known as
Definition
Mitigation
Term
The word "mitigation" has come to mean to
Definition
Restore or create an ecosystem in exchange for a similar damaged one
Term
________________ uses chemical, physical or biological methods to remove pollution.
Definition
Remediation
Term
Restoration draws on which of the following fields of science the most?
Definition
Ecology
Term
Which of the following is not a main component of restoration of any ecosystem?
Definition
Removal of indigenous peoples
Term
A pioneer in restoration ecology who planted as many as 6000 trees every year was
Definition
Aldo Leopold
Term
The first wildlife refuge established in the United States was
Definition
Pelican Island
Term
In the United States, most reforestation projects result in
Definition
Monoculture forests
Term
The largest reforestation project in history is now taking place in
Definition
China
Term
Some of the advantages of planting trees in cities include
Definition
All of these are correct
Term
All of the following are things that can be done toward ecological restoration except
Definition
Remove native species
Term
One of the reasons that it is difficult to restore an oak savanna is that
Definition
There are no natural fires to control vegetation
Term
Protection of our forests relies on all of the following except *
Definition
Cutting down the largest trees in fire-prone areas
Term
The majority of the mixed grass section of the Great Plains has been converted to
Definition
Crop lands
Term
Wetlands control flooding by *
Definition
Temporarily storing water
Term
Problems encountered in the Florida Everglades due to modification of the natural flow of water include
Definition
Loss of 90 percent of wading bird populations in Everglades National Park and water shortages in many cities during the dry season
Term
Which of the following is false regarding Chesapeake Bay?
Definition
Sturgeon populations have increased in recent years
Term
Stream restoration techniques include all of the following except
Definition
Using small amounts of dynamite to unclog waterways
Term
Stabilizing banks is an important component of stream restoration. Which of the following is not a method of bank stabilization?
Definition
Adding soil so that the slope is at least 45 degrees
Term
Radioactive materials have been successfully removed from the soil near the Chernobyl nuclear power plant using
Definition
Sunflowers
Term
"Brown fields" is another name for
Definition
Abandoned contaminated industrial sites
Term
The most influential American forester was Aldo Leopold.
Definition
False
Term
In Vermont, most of the land is currently being used for sheep farming.
Definition
False
Term
According to your instructor, which of the following statements would be most accurate regarding the role of environmental science?*
Definition
understanding how nature works and how best to protect it
Term
As profiled in “When Good Lizards Go Bad,” the main habitat of Komodo dragons, the Komodo National Park, is in:
Definition
Indonesia
Term
According to “When Good Lizards Go Bad,” locals often fed the Komodo dragons by tying to a post a sacrificial:
Definition
goat
Term
As explained in “When Good Lizards Go Bad,” park rangers at the Komodo National Park routinely put down animals that develop a taste for human flesh.
Definition
false
Term
As detailed in “Cry of the Wild,” the pre-eminent threat to some species in Asia and Africa is now:
Definition
hunting
Term
As presented in “Cry of the Wild,” until recently, animals were killed mostly for:
Definition
subsistence
Term
As maintained in “Cry of the Wild,” the population of hippos has declined substantially in the last decade because hippos are illegally hunted for meat and ivory.
Definition
true
Term
As mentioned in “Ecosystems and Human Well-being,” the region in which the condition and management of ecosystem services is a dominant factor influencing prospects for reducing poverty is:
Definition
sub-saharan africa
Term
As explained in “Ecosystems and Human Well-being,” 70 percent of water use worldwide is for:
Definition
agriculture
Term
According to “Ecosystems and Human Well-being,” changes in ecosystems influence the abundance of human pathogens such as malaria and cholera as well as the risk of emergence of new diseases.
Definition
true
Term
According to “The Geography of Ecosystem Services,” the value of ecosystem goods and services is largely tied to their:
Definition
location
Term
As noted in “The Geography of Ecosystem Services,” the key to protecting and enhancing ecosystem services is:
Definition
geographic analysis of biophysical production functions
Term
As stated in “The Geography of Ecosystem Services,” ecosystem-protection efforts can be dangerous if they cannot make credible claims about ecological cause and effect.
Definition
Term
The author of “Ecosystem Services,” uses three examples of ecosystem services to demonstrate their importance in our lives: flood and natural disaster protection services, water services, and:
Definition
pollination services
Term
As demonstrated in “Ecosystem Services,” an example of an ecosystem that protects against coastal flooding and storms is:
Definition
mangrove trees
Term
As given in “Ecosystem Services,” the human population of the world is expected to reach 12 billion by 2050.
Definition
false
Term
As revealed in “Global Energy,” the two greatest consumers of energy in the world are the United States and:
Definition
Canada
Term
As reported in “Global Energy,” 50 years ago, Western utilities were preoccupied with the:
Definition
annual double-digit growth of electricity demand
Term
As states in “Global Energy,” by 1974 the U.S. fuel efficiency for car fleets was lower than during the mid-1930’s
Definition
true