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ENV 101 - Exam 2 pt 1
first 50 questions on study guide
47
Environmental Studies
09/30/2012

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Term
What is the difference in the adaptation of a sled dog's (such as a Husky) thick coat of hair to help it withstand the cold temperatures of Arctic winters and a dog that adapts to cold temperatures in the fall by growing a thickened coat? The adaptation of the sled dog best describes adaptation at the ____________ level while the dog exposed to seasonal colder temperatures has _____________.
Definition
Population; physiological modifications at the individual level
Term
Evolution occurs as a result of
Definition
Better survival or reproduction rates by individuals with a particular characteristic
Term
Which of the following is a physiological modification used to adapt to environmental conditions?
Definition
Leaves becoming thick and leathery on a plant growing in a dry, hot climate
Term
Natural selection will ultimately make a species
Definition
Better adapted to its environment
Term
Regular lawn mowing selects for short-headed rather than tall-headed dandelions because
Definition
Short flowers have less competition when the lawn is mowed often
Term
Tolerance limits are _______ that limit a species' survival.
Definition
Any environmental conditions
Term
A species can withstand a wide range of pH as an adult but the juveniles can only withstand a narrow range of pH. The abiotic factor, pH, would best be described as a
Definition
Stress factor
Term
Which of the following fish species would be the best indicator of clean, well-oxygenated water?
Definition
Rainbow trout
Term
Populations are most critically limited by
Definition
Any of these, depending on the system
Term
Indicator species, such as lichens, generally have a ___________ tolerance range for a ___________.
Definition
Narrow; critical factor
Term
A species can withstand a narrow range of temperature. Above 100F there are no species present. In the range from 97F to 100F and 90F to 94F there are a few species present. Below 90F there are no species present.

11. What would you label the range of temperature from 90F to 94F for this particular species?
Definition
Zone of physiological stress
Term
What would you label the range of temperature from 95F to 96F for this particular species in the scenario?
Definition
Optimal range
Term
A generalist is a species that
Definition
Occupies a variety of ecological niches
Term
Certain night-active moths and day-active birds are specialized nectar feeders. How do these species coexist if they are using the same resource for food?
Definition
They do not compete for the nectar because they feed at different times of the day
Term
Humans can best be described as
Definition
Generalists
Term
Resource partitioning leads species to
Definition
All of these would be a result of resource partitioning
Term
Resource partitioning tends to lead to a high degree of _______ in species
Definition
Specialization
Term
Intraspecific competition is competition among ________ for resources
Definition
Members of a single species
Term
Which of the following is not a common strategy for successful interspecific competition?
Definition
The life cycle of dragonflies (the larva live in the water)
Term
An especially effective strategy for reducing intraspecific competition is
Definition
Different ecological niches for juveniles and adults
Term
Symbiosis means
Definition
A relationship in which both species benefit
Term
In the partnership of a lichen, the fungus provides _________ and the relationship is best described as
Definition
structure and moisture-holding ability; mutualism
Term
A keystone species is a species whose presence
Definition
Influences the population size of many other species in its community
Term
In a commensal relationship,
Definition
One species benefits while the other neither suffers nor benefits
Term
A biological community's productivity is a measure of
Definition
amount of biomass produced in the community
Term
"Abundance" describes the total number of _________ while "diversity" describes the number of _________.
Definition
Organisms in a community; species in a community
Term
In a biological community where diversity is great, such as a tropical rainforest, the abundance of any one species is likely to be
Definition
Small
Term
As a rule, near the Earth's north and south poles,
Definition
Neither abundance nor diversity is high
Term
Complexity in an ecological community has to do with the number of
Definition
species at each trophic level
Term
A community with hundreds of different types of primary producers, a few herbivores and only one carnivore,
has
Definition
Little complexity
Term
A community that changes very little over time is said to have great
Definition
Constancy
Term
In the coastal forest of Oregon an area was clear-cut for logging. Trees at the edge of the clearing and 200 meters into the forest died within a few months after the logging began. What is the best explanation for the death of the trees?
Definition
increased sunlight, wind and temperature negatively affected the trees
Term
A "closed community" has a
Definition
Narrow ecotone
Term
A climax community is one that
Definition
Is relatively stable and long lasting
Term
Primary succession occurs when a community develops ____________ while secondary succession occurs when one ________.
Definition
On unoccupied ground; biological community replaces another
Term
As ecological development proceeds, a biological community
Definition
Becomes more diverse
Term
The most common reason that introduced species cause trouble is because they
Definition
Disrupt pre-existing niches
Term
Which of the following migrations is likely to cause the extinction of a native species?
Definition
The introduction of a predator onto an island originally free from predators
Term
A biome is described by
Definition
Broadly similar environmental conditions
Term
Location of specific biomes can be predicted based on
Definition
Precipitation and temperature
Term
In the graph of precipitation and temperature, desert biomes would fall in the area marked by the letter
Definition
A
Term
Neo and Trinity are in a biome that has relatively stable temperatures and abundant rainfall. They have a graph of precipitation and temperature similar to the one shown. Which letter marks the biome they are located in?
Definition
C
Term
Cloud forests are found in ________ areas in tropical regions.
Definition
Cool mountainous
Term
Neo finds himself sweating in a moist forest but there aren't many streams or wetlands. He is amazed by the tremendous amount of biodiversity including an abundance of biting mosquitoes. Has he inadvertently gotten closer to his goal of finding a boreal forest?
Definition
No - the description is that of a tropical rainforest
Term
A biome absent from North America is the
Definition
Tropical rainforest
Term
Which of the following is an example of a specialization that plants in the desert may have?
Definition
All of these are adaptations of plants living in desert conditions
Term
Tropical seasonal forests are specially adapted to tolerate
Definition
Annual cycles of severe drought and heavy rain