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Endterm F.C.'s
Endterm 1/10/12
150
Economics
01/09/2012

Additional Economics Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Case that established the precedent of "clear and present danger" when determining what is free speech?
Definition
Schneck v. U.S.
Term
Famous case that declared segregation to be illegal in the public setting?
Definition
Brown V. Board of education
Term
Case which was used to expand the right to an attorney to all felony cases?
Definition
Giddeon V. Wainwright
Term
Case which set exclusionary rules to use of evidence found In police searches?
Definition
Mapp V. Ohio
Term
Case which established the mandate of one person one vote??
Definition
Reynolds V. Sims
Term
Case that established the reading of specific rights to the accused criminal at arrest?
Definition
Miranda V. Arizona
Term
Case which tested free speech and established that non violent, non disruptive protest is protected speech
Definition
Tinker V. DES moines
Term
Supreme court case that established school personal could search students while at school?
Definition
New jersey V. TLO
Term
Case that challenged affirmative action laws and mandated that quotas can not be used?
Definition
California V. Bakke
Term
Case that determined flag burning was protected as free speech
Definition
Texas V. Johnson
Term
Group of people with similar beliefs about government?
Definition
Political party
Term
When two or more parties compete for control and many times a coalition government has to be formed?
Definition
Multi-party system
Term
Term that describes when two or more parties join together In order to make a majority Ina multi-party system?
Definition
Coalitions
Term
A person who favors less government or a government that is less invovled In peoples lives and is less open to reforming ideas?
Definition
Conservative
Term
Term that describes people who want more government involvement and are more open to reform?
Definition
Liberal
Term
A person who is somewhere between liberal and conservative?
Definition
Moderate
Term
Term for a district or area?
Definition
Precint
Term
Term that describes a public document that explains what the party believes?
Definition
Party platform
Term
Term that refers to what the party's policy is on a single issue?
Definition
Party plank
Term
Meeting held every four years?
Definition
National convention
Term
Movement that is begun by the people?
Definition
Grassroots
Term
Elections that do not allow the use of political parties?
Definition
Non- partisan election
Term
Generic term for what the majority of the public may believe on an issue?
Definition
Public opinion
Term
Group of people with similar beliefs about an issue?
Definition
Interest groups
Term
Term that refers to a person who has already formed an opinion or listens only to one side?
Definition
Bias
Term
Term that refers to a person who hasn't made a decision and is willing to go listen to all sides of an issue?
Definition
Impartial
Term
Act of trying to influence legiators to support a certain issue?
Definition
Lobbying
Term
All the people who are eligible to vote In an election?
Definition
Electorate
Term
Term that refers to the idea that people do not care about politicL issues?
Definition
Apathy
Term
Process of selecting candidates to run for office?
Definition
Nomination
Term
Special elections which are usually held around may that are used to nominate candidates?
Definition
Primary elections
Term
Process of using advertisements against your opponent?
Definition
Negative advertising
Term
Groups that are formed In order to raise monEy for candidates running for office?
Definition
PAC's
Term
Proposed legislation that would limit the Amount or money used by candidates to run for office because of the influence that the campaign donors may recieve
Definition
Campaing finance reform
Term
Term that refers to the way most elections are won, not by Majority bit by getting the most votes
Definition
Plurality
Term
Process where voters uncertain states are able to put proposed legislation on the general ballOt to be approved or rejected by voters?
Definition
Initiative
Term
Proceeds where legislators place proposed bills on the general ballot for approval after the legislators have passed the bill?
Definition
Referendum
Term
A voter may encounter one of these when exiting voting places?
Definition
Exit polls
Term
Voting for only one party
Definition
Straight ballot
Term
Voting for candidates from either political party
Definition
Split ticket
Term
Voting that is done before election day because unable to vote on election day?
Definition
Absentee ballot
Term
Speci election between two candidates who did not achieve a majority of the vote
Definition
Runoff elections
Term
Head of the state executive branchand leader of the stare goverent
Definition
Govenor
Term
Elected person that is similAr to the vice president but on the state level
Definition
Lieutenant governor
Term
Name foe the north Carolina legislAture
Definition
General assembly
Term
Recent north Carolina case about funding issues In locAl goverents
Definition
Leandro case
Term
Local version pc the constitution
Definition
Charter
Term
Group of people who govern the affairs of the county government
Definition
County commissioners
Term
Hired official who runs the day to day operations of county or city governments
Definition
Manager
Term
Local law enforcement officer
Definition
Sherrif
Term
Local medical officer who establishes the cause of death and conducts autopsies
Definition
Coroner
Term
Local official who is responsible for the upkeep of all county records
Definition
Clerk
Term
Local official who is incharge of prosecuting criminal cases on the local level
Definition
District attorney
Term
Term for local laws
Definition
Ordiniances
Term
Official recognition from the state of a local governments power
Definition
Incorporation
Term
Term that refers to addition of more land into a city or town
Definition
Annexation
Term
Type of city goverenment with an all Elected leadership
Definition
Mayor council
Term
Type of city government with an elected council who makes law and a hired official who carries out those policies
Definition
Council manger
Term
Group of officials who make determinations about what type of buildings and the uses of the buildings that are allowed n certain areas
Definition
Zonong board
Term
Most important local tax source based ona persons belongings and is a very stable form of taxes
Definition
Propertg taxes
Term
Type of charge that someone who actually uses a service is charged?
Definition
User fees
Term
Laws that are based o. Agreements and conflicts between individuals
Definition
Civil law
Term
Right of americans to be released if they are not formally charged with a crime after being detained by police
Definition
Habeus corpus
Term
Type of law that would punish a person without a trial?
Definition
Bills of attainder
Term
Type of law that might try to punish someone for an act in the past that is now considered illegal?
Definition
Ex post facto
Term
Term explaining the idea that an accident was caused the caresless actions of Another person
Definition
Negligence
Term
Court order to stop an action
Definition
Injunction
Term
Legal term for the laws, statutes, passed by our government
Definition
Penal code
Term
Legal term for taking the property of another person
Definition
Laceny
Term
Legal term for taking someones property money through false statements of trickery
Definition
Fraud
Term
LegAl term foe how a person steals from their employer
Definition
Embezzelment
Term
Idea that punishments are used in order to help someone be a better citizen
Definition
Rehabilitaion
Term
Laws that require judges impose certain sentences uncertain situations
Definition
Mandatory sentence
Term
Initial court appearance
Definition
Prelimenary hearing
Term
Formal process of a grand jury finding that enough evidence exists to take a defendant to court
Definition
Indictment
Term
Coirt hearin when a defendant issues their plea of guilty or not guilty
Definition
Arraignment
Term
Process where a defendant agrees to plead guilty on order to receive a lighter punishment
Definition
Plea bargaining
Term
Legal term for the people who represent the government ina criminal case
Definition
Prosecutors
Term
Term that refers to the questioning of q witness by the attorney on the opposing side with the intent of discrediting that witness testimony
Definition
Cross examination
Term
People who aren't yet of age
Definition
Juveniles
Term
Idea that there is a limit of goods In the world
Definition
Scarcity
Term
value assigned to a product according to the forces of the supply and deman
Definition
Price
Term
Economic idea that suppliers will sully more of a product as the price goes up
Definition
Law of supply
Term
Economic idea that buyers will deman more of a product as price decrease
Definition
La of demand
Term
Point where supply curve and the demand curve intersect
Definition
Market price
Term
Situation when demAnd is greater than the supply of a product
Definition
Shortage
Term
Situation when supply is greater than demand
Definition
Surplus
Term
IdeA that a persons demand for a product will reach a max no matter the price
Definition
Diminishong utility
Term
Idea that supplier will reach a point when increased production will not increase profits
Definition
Diminishing return
Term
Economic term for the amount of work produced ina given amount of time
Definition
Productivity
Term
Term describing the situation when one nation produces a product better or cheaper than other nations
Definition
Comparative advantage
Term
Idea of dividing labor Into individual tasks I order to increase productivity
Definition
Division of labor
Term
Economic idea that larger business can operate at a more efficient rate because of it's bulk
Definition
Economics of scale
Term
Economic idea that a person Loses the chance to do something when you make a choice
Definition
Opportunity costs
Term
Economic idea that you deliberately make a decision on do so knowing the other options would be lost
Definition
Tradeoff
Term
Land, labor, resources, management
Definition
Factors of production
Term
Money used to start or run a business
Definition
Capital
Term
Machines or tools that are used to produce other goods
Definition
Capital goods
Term
Primitive economy where almost everything is madE by hand
Definition
Traditional economy
Term
Eco omit situation where the government is in control of the factors of production
Definition
Command economy
Term
Economic situation where individuals make most of the choices
Definition
Market economy
Term
Individuals and government share power over economic decisions
Definition
Mixed economy
Term
EconOmit system where the government takes a handsoff policy as proposed by Adam smith
Definition
Laissez fAire
Term
AnOther name for a market economy
Definition
Capitalism
Term
Business that is owned by one person
Definition
Sole propiertorship
Term
Where two or more own. Business
Definition
Partnership
Term
Business owned by a lot of people
Definition
Corporation
Term
Piece if owner ship on a corporation
Definition
Share stock
Term
Piece of profits from a corporation
Definition
Dividend
Term
Economic idea that a person only risks the amount they have invested within a corporation
Definition
Limited liability
Term
Ups and owns of th economy
Definition
Business cycle
Term
Value of all foods and services
Definition
Gdp
Term
General rise In the value of goods or services
Definition
Inflation
Term
Survey of many foods and services
Definition
Cpi
Term
How the government taxes and spends money
Definition
Fiscal policy
Term
How the government regulates the amount of money in circulAltion
Definition
Monetary policy
Term
Policy of allowing less money to be created within the economy
Definition
Tight money policy
Term
Policy of allowing more money into the economy
Definition
Easy money policy
Term
Business that controls most or all the supply of a particular good or service
Definition
Monopoly
Term
Two or more businesses becoming one large business
Definition
Merger
Term
Two or more businesses act as one big business
Definition
Trust
Term
Relaxation of rules governing a type of business
Definition
Deregulation
Term
Group of workers who join together I order to gain better condition
Definition

Labor union
Term
Process where workers get together and make demands
Definition
Collective bargaining
Term
Owner tactic where they fire troublesome workers
Definition
Blacklist
Term
Laws in many states which allow workers to choose wether to join the union or not
Definition
Right to work laws
Term
Process where two or groups withina dispute go to a third pArty to give a suggestion
Definition
Mediation
Term
Go to a third party for a decision
Definition
Arbitration
Term
Tax that is based on the Ability of a person to pay And people who make more money should pay more
Definition
Progressive tax
Term
Tax that is pAid on equal percentage
Definition
Regressive tax
Term
Tax that is based on the money one earns
Definition
Income tax
Term
Tax tha is places on alcohol, gas, cigarettes
Definition
Exicise tax
Term
Tax rate that is placed upon items as they are imported into the nation
Definition
Tariff
Term
Economic term for money that is recieved
Definition
Revenue
Term
Economic term for the money that is spent
Definition
Expenditures
Term
Term describing the process of spending more money than is brought in
Definition
Deficit
Term
Idea that a budget should never spend more money than it gets
Definition
Balanced budget
Term
Price paid to borrow money
Definition
Interest
Term
Item of value that is promised in order to borrow a large sum of money
Definition
Collateral
Term
Place where shares of corporations or mutual funds are sold on the market
Definition
Stock market
Term
Economic fund that combines the money of many investors and is operated by a professional fund manager who makes the j vestments decisions
Definition
Mutual fund
Term
These are certificates issued to investors who loan their money to businesses or governments and are repAid with interest
Definition
Bonds
Term
Items which are traded out of the nation
Definition
Exports
Term
Itmes which are traded Into th nation
Definition
Imports
Term
Economic term describing the relationship between a nations imports and exports
Definition
Balance of trade
Term
Situation when a nation is importing more good than it is exporting
Definition
Trade deficit
Term
NAFTA
Definition
Nafta
Term
Group of European nations joined together in a free trade union
Definition
European union
Term
World council that seeks to alleviate world pronlems
Definition
United nations
Term
Part of the untited nations which oversees the security and peace of the world
Definition
Security council