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EMT Final
Last two sections of EMT material
196
Other
05/17/2012

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Cards

Term

Which of the following statements regarding pediatric anatomy is correct?

  • A:Relative to the overall size of the airway, a child’s epiglottis is smaller.
  • B:Airway obstruction is common in children because of their large uvula.
  • C:The child’s trachea is more rigid and less prone to collapse.
  • D:The occiput is proportionately larger when compared to an adult.
Definition
D:The occiput is proportionately larger when compared to an adult.
Term

A 5-year-old boy was struck by a car when he ran out into the street. When you arrive at the scene and approach the child, you see him lying supine approximately 15 feet from the car. Based on the child’s age and mechanism of injury, which of the following should you suspect to be his PRIMARY injury?

  • A:Head injury
  • B:Upper thorax injury
  • C:Lower leg injury
  • D:Pelvic injury
Definition
D:Pelvic injury
Term

While performing a visual inspection of a 30-year-old woman in labor, you can see the umbilical cord at the vaginal opening. After providing high-flow oxygen, you should:

  • A:massage the uterus to facilitate delivery of the fetus.
  • B:place the mother on her left side and provide rapid transport.
  • C:relieve pressure from the cord with your gloved fingers.
  • D:elevate the mother’s lower extremities and provide rapid transport.
Definition
C:relieve pressure from the cord with your gloved fingers.
Term

The transition phase of the pediatric assessment process is NOT appropriate if:

  • A:the child is unstable and needs rapid transport.
  • B:you determine that the child’s condition is stable.
  • C:a parent is available to help keep the child calm.
  • D:your transport time is greater than 30 minutes.
Definition
A:the child is unstable and needs rapid transport.
Term

Of the following, the MOST detrimental effect of gastric distention in infants and children is:

  • A:tracheal rupture.
  • B:less effective chest compressions.
  • C:acute rupture of the diaphragm.
  • D:decreased ventilatory volume.
Definition
D:decreased ventilatory volume.
Term

Which of the following statements regarding two-rescuer child CPR is correct?

  • A:The chest should not be allowed to fully recoil in between compressions as this may impair venous return
  • B:A compression to ventilation ratio of 15:2 should be delivered without pauses in compressions to deliver ventilations
  • C:Compress the chest with one or two hands to a depth that is equal to one third the diameter of the chest
  • D:The chest should be compressed with one hand and a compression to ventilation ratio of 30:2 should be delivered
Definition
C:Compress the chest with one or two hands to a depth that is equal to one third the diameter of the chest
Term

Seizures in children MOST often are the result of:

  • A:a life-threatening infection.
  • B:an inflammatory process in the brain.
  • C:an abrupt rise in body temperature.
  • D:a temperature greater than 102°F.
Definition
C:an abrupt rise in body temperature.
Term

A 5-year-old child in compensated shock secondary to severe vomiting and diarrhea would be expected to have:

  • A:slow, shallow respirations.
  • B:a weakly palpable carotid pulse.
  • C:a slow capillary refill time.
  • D:strong, bounding radial pulses.
Definition
C:a slow capillary refill time.
Term

Which of the following techniques represents the MOST appropriate method of opening the airway of an infant with no suspected neck injury?

  • A:Lift up the chin and hyperextend the neck.
  • B:Gently lift the chin while maintaining slight flexion of the neck.
  • C:Tilt the head back without hyperextending the neck.
  • D:Perform the technique as you would for an older child or adult.
Definition
C:Tilt the head back without hyperextending the neck.
Term

You arrive at the scene shortly after a 3-year-old female experienced a seizure. The child, who is being held by her mother, is conscious and crying. The mother tells you that her daughter has been ill recently and has a temperature of 102.5°F. What is the MOST appropriate treatment for this child?

  • A:Oxygen via nonrebreathing mask, place the child in a tub of cold water to lower her body temperature, and transport.
  • B:Oxygen via the blow-by technique, transport, and request a paramedic intercept so an anticonvulsant drug can be given.
  • C:Oxygen via nonrebreathing mask, avoid any measures to lower the child's body temperature, and transport at once.
  • D:Oxygen via the blow-by technique, remove clothing to help reduce her fever, and transport with continuous monitoring.
Definition
D:Oxygen via the blow-by technique, remove clothing to help reduce her fever, and transport with continuous monitoring.
Term

Which artery should you palpate when assessing for a pulse in an unresponsive 6-month-old patient?

  • A:Radial
  • B:Brachial
  • C:Femoral
  • D:Carotid
Definition
B:Brachial
Term

A 6-year-old boy presents with a high fever, a headache, and a stiff neck. He is conscious, but is not acting as a normal 6-year-old boy should. His mother told you that he vomited once before your arrival. You should be MOST concerned with:

  • A:the potential for a febrile seizure.
  • B:performing a secondary assessment at the scene.
  • C:treating him for severe dehydration.
  • D:the risk of permanent neurological damage.
Definition
D:the risk of permanent neurological damage.
Term

You are treating a 2-year-old child who has had severe diarrhea and vomiting for 3 days and is now showing signs of shock. Supplemental oxygen has been given and you have elevated his lower extremities. En route to the hospital, you note that his work of breathing has increased. You should:

  • A:begin positive-pressure ventilations and reassess the child.
  • B:lower the extremities and reassess the child.
  • C:listen to the lungs with a stethoscope for abnormal breath sounds.
  • D:insert a nasopharyngeal airway and increase the oxygen flow.
Definition
B:lower the extremities and reassess the child.
Term

Which of the following is an abnormal finding?

  • A:Heart rate of 80 beats/min in a 3-month-old infant
  • B:Rapid, irregular breathing in a newly born infant
  • C:Respiratory rate of 26 breaths/min in a 2-year-old child
  • D:Systolic BP of 100 mm Hg in a 10-year-old child
Definition
A:Heart rate of 80 beats/min in a 3-month-old infant
Term

When you begin to assess a woman in labor, she states that her contractions are occurring every 4 to 5 minutes and lasting approximately 30 seconds each. Which of the following questions would be MOST appropriate to ask next?

  • A:Has your bag of waters broken yet?
  • B:How many other children do you have?
  • C:At how many weeks gestation are you?
  • D:Have you had regular prenatal care?
Definition
C:At how many weeks gestation are you?
Term

Unlike the contractions associated with true labor, Braxton-Hicks contractions:

  • A:do not increase in intensity and are alleviated by a change in position.
  • B:may be intensified by activity and are accompanied by a pink discharge.
  • C:consistently become stronger and are not alleviated by changing position.
  • D:generally follow rupture of the amniotic sac and occur with regularity.
Definition
A:do not increase in intensity and are alleviated by a change in position
Term

The preferred method for inserting an oropharyngeal airway in a small child is to:

  • A:insert the airway with the curvature towards the roof of the mouth and then rotate it 180 degrees.
  • B:insert the airway as you would in an adult, but use an airway that is one size smaller than you would normally use.
  • C:depress the tongue with a tongue blade and insert the airway with the downward curve facing the tongue.
  • D:open the airway with the tongue-jaw lift maneuver and insert the airway until you meet slight resistance.
Definition
C:depress the tongue with a tongue blade and insert the airway with the downward curve facing the tongue.
Term

After an advanced airway device has been inserted in a 6-month-old infant in cardiopulmonary arrest, you should deliver ventilations at a rate of:

  • A:6 to 8 breaths/min.
  • B:12 to 20 breaths/min.
  • C:10 to 12 breaths/min.
  • D:8 to 10 breaths/min.
Definition
D:8 to 10 breaths/min.
Term

You are dispatched to a residence for a sick child. When you arrive and assess the child, a 4-year-old girl, you note that she has increased work of breathing and is making a high-pitched sound during inhalation. Her mother tells you that she has been running a high fever for the past 12 hours. Your MOST immediate concern should be:

  • A:preparing to treat her for a febrile seizure.
  • B:assessing the need for ventilation assistance.
  • C:determining if the child has a history of croup.
  • D:taking her temperature to see how high it is.
Definition
B:assessing the need for ventilation assistance.  
Term

You assess a newborn with cyanosis to the chest and face and a heart rate of 90 beats/min. What should you do next?

  • A:Begin artificial ventilations.
  • B:Begin chest compressions.
  • C:Resuction the mouth.
  • D:Briskly dry off the infant.
Definition
A:Begin artificial ventilations.
Term

A child typically begins to develop stranger anxiety when he or she is a/an:

  • A:infant.
  • B:neonate.
  • C:preschooler.
  • D:toddler.
Definition
D:toddler.
Term


Following delivery of a newborn and placenta, you note that the mother has moderate vaginal bleeding. The mother is conscious and alert and her vital signs are stable. Treatment for her should include:

A:carefully packing the vagina with sterile dressings.
B:treating her for shock and providing rapid transport.
C:administering oxygen and massaging the uterus.
D:massaging the uterus if signs of shock develop.
Definition
C:administering oxygen and massaging the uterus.
Term

Which of the following statements regarding crowning is true?

  • A:Crowning represents the end of the second stage of labor.
  • B:Gentle pressure should be applied to the baby’s head during crowning.
  • C:Crowning always occurs immediately after the amniotic sac has ruptured.
  • D:It is safe to transport the patient during crowning if the hospital is close.
Definition
B:Gentle pressure should be applied to the baby’s head during crowning.
Term

The 5-minute Apgar assessment of a newborn reveals a heart rate of 130 beats/min, cyanosis to the hands and feet, and rapid respirations. The infant cries when you flick the soles of its feet and resists attempts to straighten its legs. These findings equate to an Apgar score of:

  • A:7
  • B:10
  • C:9
  • D:8
Definition
C:9
Term

Which of the following would MOST likely occur in conjunction with a breech presentation?

  • A:Prolapsed umbilical cord
  • B:Premature rupture of the amniotic sac
  • C:Maternal hypertension
  • D:Vertex presentation
Definition
A:Prolapsed umbilical cord
Term

You and your partner are performing CPR on a 2-year-old female in cardiac arrest. During your resuscitation attempt, you should:

  • A:hyperventilate her because she is severely hypoxic.
  • B:attach the AED pads after 5 minutes of high-quality CPR.
  • C:perform compressions and ventilations at a ratio of 30:2.
  • D:allow the chest to fully recoil in between compressions.
Definition
D:allow the chest to fully recoil in between compressions.
Term

You receive a call for a 3-year-old girl with respiratory distress. When you enter her residence, you see the mother holding the child, who does not acknowledge your presence. This finding indicates that the child:

  • A:probably is sleeping.
  • B:is reacting normally for her age.
  • C:is afraid of your presence.
  • D:has severe hypoxia.
Definition
D:has severe hypoxia.
Term

The MOST effective way to prevent cardiopulmonary arrest in a newborn is to:

  • A:perform an Apgar assessment every 5 minutes.
  • B:give blow-by oxygen as soon as it is born.
  • C:ensure effective oxygenation and ventilation.
  • D:suction its mouth and nose every 3 minutes.
Definition
C:ensure effective oxygenation and ventilation
Term

Management for a women who presents with a prolapsed umbilical cord includes all of the following, EXCEPT:

  • A:relieving pressure off of the cord by gently pulling on it.
  • B:lifting the baby’s head off of the umbilical cord.
  • C:placing the mother in a position that elevates her hips.
  • D:ensuring that the cord stays moist during transport.
Definition
A:relieving pressure off of the cord by gently pulling on it
Term

Which of the following statements regarding the length-based resuscitation tape measure is correct?

  • A:The resuscitation tape estimates a child’s age based on his or her height.
  • B:The red end of the tape measure is placed at the heel of the child’s foot.
  • C:The tape measure can be used in children who weigh up to 75 pounds.
  • D:It is not a reliable tool in children who are less than 5 years of age.
Definition
C:The tape measure can be used in children who weigh up to 75 pounds.
Term

After determining that a woman in labor will not deliver imminently, you begin transport. While en route, the mother tells you that she feels the urge to push. You assess her and see the top of the baby's head bulging from the vagina. You should:

  • A:ask the mother to take short, quick breaths until you arrive at the hospital.
  • B:allow the head to deliver and check for the location of the cord.
  • C:prepare the mother for an emergency delivery and open the obstetrics kit.
  • D:advise your partner to stop the ambulance and assist with the delivery.
Definition
D:advise your partner to stop the ambulance and assist with the delivery.
Term

When assessing a 30-year-old female who was sexually assaulted, it is MOST important for you to:

  • A:have a female EMT perform the assessment.
  • B:disallow her from showering or changing clothes.
  • C:recognize that the patient is a walking crime scene.
  • D:ensure that all life-threatening injuries are treated.
Definition
D:ensure that all life-threatening injuries are treated.
Term

A 3-year-old boy is found to be in cardiopulmonary arrest. As you begin one-rescuer CPR, your partner prepares the AED. The appropriate compression to ventilation ratio for this child is:

  • A:3:1
  • B:30:2
  • C:15:2
  • D:5:1
Definition
B:30:2
Term

You and your partner are performing CPR on an infant with suspected sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS). An important aspect in dealing with such cases is:

  • A:focusing all of your attention on the infant, with little parental interaction.
  • B:carefully inspecting the environment in which the infant was found.
  • C:remembering that most infants with SIDS can be successfully resuscitated.
  • D:discouraging the presence of the parents during your resuscitation attempt.
Definition
B:carefully inspecting the environment in which the infant was found.
Term

You are assessing a 5-year-old boy with major trauma. His blood pressure is 70/40 mm Hg and his pulse rate is 140 beats/min. and weak. The child's blood pressure:

  • A:indicates decompensated shock.
  • B:suggests increased intracranial pressure.
  • C:is appropriate based on his age.
  • D:reflects adequate compensation
Definition
A:indicates decompensated shock.
Term

A sudden onset of respiratory distress in a 5-year-old child with no fever is MOST likely the result of:

  • A:a progressive upper airway infection.
  • B:infection of the lower airways.
  • C:inflammation of the upper airway.
  • D:a foreign body airway obstruction.
Definition
D:a foreign body airway obstruction.
Term

A 4-year-old boy ingested an unknown quantity of drain cleaner. He is awake and alert, has a patent airway, and adequate breathing. You should:

  • A:give 15 mL of ipecac and contact medical control.
  • B:administer 1 g/kg of activated charcoal.
  • C:contact poison control and give him oxygen.
  • D:give oxygen and perform a head-to-toe exam.
Definition
C:contact poison control and give him oxygen.
Term

In which of the following situations would the EMT MOST likely deliver a baby at the scene?

  • A:Contractions are 8 to 10 minutes apart and irregular.
  • B:The amniotic sac has ruptured and contractions occur regularly.
  • C:A tornado has struck and blocked the only route to the hospital.
  • D:The hospital is 15 miles away and crowning is not present.
Definition
C:A tornado has struck and blocked the only route to the hospital.
Term

After attaching the AED to a 7-year-old child in cardiac arrest, you push the analyze button and receive a shock advised message. After delivering the shock, you should:

  • A:assess for a carotid pulse.
  • B:open the airway and ventilate.
  • C:reanalyze the cardiac rhythm.
  • D:immediately perform CPR.
Definition
D:immediately perform CPR.
Term

Following delivery of a newborn, the 21-year-old mother is experiencing mild vaginal bleeding. You note that her heart rate has increased from 90 to 120 beats/min and she is diaphoretic. In addition to administering high-flow oxygen, treatment should include:

  • A:uterine massage and transport.
  • B:internal vaginal pads and treating for shock during transport.
  • C:placing her on her left side and transport.
  • D:treating for shock and uterine massage during transport.
Definition
D:treating for shock and uterine massage during transport.
Term

General guidelines when assessing a 2-year-old child with abdominal pain and adequate perfusion include:

  • A:examining the child in the parent’s arms.
  • B:separating the child from the parent to ensure a reliable examination.
  • C:placing the child supine and palpating the abdomen.
  • D:palpating the painful area of the abdomen first.
Definition
A:examining the child in the parent’s arms.
Term

Your assessment of a 5-year-old child reveals that he is unresponsive with a respiratory rate of 8 breaths/min and a heart rate of 50 beats/min. Treatment for this child should include:

  • A:high-flow oxygen via nonrebreathing mask and rapid transport.
  • B:back slaps and chest thrusts while attempting artificial ventilations.
  • C:positive-pressure ventilation, chest compressions, and rapid transport.
  • D:assisted ventilation with a bag-mask device and rapid transport.
Definition
C:positive-pressure ventilation, chest compressions, and rapid transport.
Term

You arrive at a residence shortly after a 4-year-old boy experienced an apparent febrile seizure. The child is conscious, alert, and crying. His skin is flushed, hot, and moist. His mother tells you that the seizure lasted about 2 minutes. You should:

  • A:give him acetaminophen or ibuprofen.
  • B:allow the mother to take her child to the doctor.
  • C:provide supportive care and transport.
  • D:begin rapid cooling measures at once.
Definition
C:provide supportive care and transport.
Term

A 30-year-old woman is 22 weeks pregnant with her first child. She tells you that her rings are not fitting as loosely as they usually do and that her ankles are swollen. Her blood pressure is 150/86 mm Hg. She is MOST likely experiencing:

  • A:a condition unrelated to pregnancy.
  • B:preeclampsia.
  • C:gestational diabetes.
  • D:a hypertensive emergency.
Definition
B:preeclampsia.
Term

The function of the uterus is to:

  • A:provide a cushion and protect the fetus from infection.
  • B:provide oxygen and other nutrients to the fetus.
  • C:dilate and expel the baby from the cervix.
  • D:house the fetus as it grows for 40 weeks.
Definition
D:house the fetus as it grows for 40 weeks.
Term

A 5-year-old child experienced partial-thickness burns to his head, anterior chest, and both upper extremities. What percentage of his total body surface area has been burned?

  • A:45%
  • B:54%
  • C:72%
  • D:63%
Definition
A:45%
Term

A 7-year-old child has an altered mental status, high fever, and a generalized rash. You perform your assessment and administer supplemental oxygen. En route to the hospital, you should be MOST alert for:

  • A:respiratory distress.
  • B:hypotension.
  • C:combativeness.
  • D:convulsions.
Definition
D:convulsions.
Term

Which of the following signs is MOST indicative of inadequate breathing in an infant?

  • A:Abdominal breathing
  • B:Expiratory grunting
  • C:Sunken fontanels
  • D:Heart rate of 130 beats/min
Definition
B:Expiratory grunting
Term

When you attempt to assess a 22-year-old woman who has been sexually assaulted, she orders you not to touch her. Your MOST appropriate initial action should be to:

  • A:transport the patient without performing an assessment.
  • B:ask a female EMT to attempt to assess the patient.
  • C:obtain a signed refusal and return to service.
  • D:explain to the patient that she must be examined.
Definition
B:ask a female EMT to attempt to assess the patient.
Term

The purpose of the pediatric assessment triangle is to:

  • A:form a general impression of the child without touching him or her.
  • B:identify if the child has a medical condition or a traumatic injury.
  • C:determine if the child’s problem is respiratory or circulatory in nature.
  • D:detect immediate life threats through a quick hands-on assessment.
Definition
A:form a general impression of the child without touching him or her.
Term

In order to maintain neutral alignment of an 18-month-old child’s airway, you should:

  • A:hyperextend the head.
  • B:pad in between the shoulder blades.
  • C:place a rolled towel behind the head.
  • D:ensure that the head is slightly flexed.
Definition
B:pad in between the shoulder blades.
Term

A newborn is considered to be premature if it:

  • A:is born to a heroin-addicted mother.
  • B:weighs less than 6.5 pounds.
  • C:has meconium in or around its mouth.
  • D:is born before 37 weeks gestation.
Definition
D:is born before 37 weeks gestation.
Term

A prolapsed umbilical cord is dangerous because the:

  • A:baby’s head may compress the cord, cutting off its supply of oxygen.
  • B:cord might pull the placenta from the uterine wall during delivery.
  • C:cord may be wrapped around the baby’s neck, causing strangulation.
  • D:mother may die of hypoxia due to compromised placental blood flow.
Definition
A:baby’s head may compress the cord, cutting off its supply of oxygen.
Term

A 4-year-old boy with a tracheostomy tube is experiencing respiratory distress. He has intercostal retractions, a heart rate of 80 beats/min, an oxygen saturation of 85%, and thick secretions in his tracheostomy tube. You should:

  • A:ventilate through the tracheostomy tube.
  • B:carefully suction the tracheostomy tube.
  • C:place an oxygen mask over the tracheostomy tube.
  • D:remove the tracheostomy tube and clean it.
Definition
B:carefully suction the tracheostomy tube.
Term

Oxygen and other nutrients are transferred to the developing fetus via the:

  • A:uterine blood vessels.
  • B:umbilical vein.
  • C:umbilical arteries.
  • D:amniotic fluid.
Definition
B:umbilical vein
Term

Upon delivery of the baby’s head, you note that the umbilical cord is wrapped around its neck. You should:

  • A:keep the cord warm and moist and transport without delay.
  • B:make one attempt to gently remove the cord from around its neck.
  • C:give the mother high-flow oxygen and transport her on her side.
  • D:immediately clamp and cut the cord and continue the delivery.
Definition
B:make one attempt to gently remove the cord from around its neck.
Term

Which of the following parameters is the LEAST reliable when assessing the perfusion status of a 2-year-old child?

  • A:Systolic blood pressure
  • B:Skin color and temperature
  • C:Capillary refill time
  • D:Presence of peripheral pulses
Definition
A:Systolic blood pressure
Term

Following an apparent febrile seizure, a 4-year-old boy is alert and crying. His skin is hot and moist. Appropriate treatment this child includes:

  • A:keeping the child warm and providing transport.
  • B:rapidly cooling the child in cold water.
  • C:allowing the parents to transport the child.
  • D:offering oxygen and providing transport.
Definition
D:offering oxygen and providing transport.
Term

Which of the following is the MOST common cause of shock in infants and children?

  • A:Dehydration
  • B:Cardiac failure
  • C:Severe allergic reaction
  • D:Accidental poisoning
Definition
A:Dehydration
Term

After the baby’s head delivers, it is usually tilted:

  • A:with the face up.
  • B:anteriorly, with the chin up.
  • C:posteriorly, to one side.
  • D:posteriorly, face down.
Definition
C:posteriorly, to one side.
Term

Which of the following is a sign of an altered mental status in a small child?

  • A:Consistent eye contact with the EMT.
  • B:Recognition of the parents.
  • C:Inattention to the EMT’s presence.
  • D:Fear of the EMT's presence.
Definition
C:Inattention to the EMT’s presence.
Term

Which of the following is a more reliable indicator of perfusion in children than it is in adults?

  • A:Capillary refill
  • B:Blood pressure
  • C:Heart rate
  • D:Respiratory rate
Definition
A:Capillary refill
Term

Following the initial steps of resuscitation, a newborn remains apneic and cyanotic. You should:

  • A:immediately resuction its mouth and nose.
  • B:gently flick the soles of its feet for up to 60 seconds.
  • C:start CPR if the heart rate is less than 80 beats/min.
  • D:begin ventilations with a bag-mask device.
Definition
D:begin ventilations with a bag-mask device.
Term

You are assessing a 26-year-old woman who is 38 weeks pregnant and is in labor. She tells you that she was pregnant once before, but had a miscarriage at 19 weeks. You should document her obstetric history as:

  • A:gravida 2, para 0.
  • B:gravida 2, para 1.
  • C:gravida 0, para 2.
  • D:gravida 1, para 1.
Definition
A:gravida 2, para 0. 
Term

Upon delivery of a baby’s head, you see that the umbilical cord is wrapped around its neck. Initial treatment for this condition should include:

  • A:clamping and cutting the umbilical cord.
  • B:keeping the cord moist and providing rapid transport.
  • C:trying to remove the cord from around the neck.
  • D:gently pulling on the cord to facilitate removal.
Definition
C:trying to remove the cord from around the neck
Term

You should assist with the delivery of the baby's head by:

  • A:carefully rotating its head to where it is facing up when it delivers.
  • B:placing your fingers on the bony part of the skull and applying gentle pressure.
  • C:grasping each side of the baby’s head and gently pulling to facilitate delivery.
  • D:placing the palm of your hand firmly against the back of the baby’s skull.
Definition
B:placing your fingers on the bony part of the skull and applying gentle pressure.
Term

The appropriate technique for performing two-rescuer CPR on a 4-year-old child includes:

  • A:30 compressions to 2 ventilations, compressing the chest one third the depth of the chest, and delivering each breath over 1 second.
  • B:15 compressions to 2 ventilations, compressing the sternum with your thumbs, and delivering at least 100 compressions per minute.
  • C:30 compressions to 2 ventilations, compressing the sternum with the heel of both hands, and delivering each breath over 1 to 2 seconds.
  • D:15 compressions to 2 ventilations, compressing the sternum with the heel of your hand, and ventilating until visible chest rise occurs.
Definition
D:15 compressions to 2 ventilations, compressing the sternum with the heel of your hand, and ventilating until visible chest rise occurs.
Term

You are dispatched to a residence where an 8-year-old boy was pulled from a swimming pool. When you arrive, a neighbor is performing rescue breathing on the child. After confirming that the child is not breathing, you should:

  • A:ask the neighbor how long the child was submerged under the water.
  • B:begin chest compressions and reassess in 2 minutes.
  • C:tell the neighbor to continue rescue breathing as you apply the AED.
  • D:assess for a carotid pulse for no more than 10 seconds.
Definition
D:assess for a carotid pulse for no more than 10 seconds.
Term

Which of the following injuries is MOST indicative of child abuse?

  • A:Bruising to the upper back
  • B:Burned hand with splash marks
  • C:Small laceration to the chin
  • D:Multiple bruises to the shins
Definition
A:Bruising to the upper back
Term

You have just delivered a baby girl. Your assessment of the newborn reveals that she has a patent airway, is breathing adequately, and has a heart rate of 130 beats/min. Her face and trunk are pink, but her hands and feet are cyanotic. You have clamped and cut the umbilical cord, but the placenta has not yet delivered. You should:

  • A:massage the lower part of the mother’s uterus until the placenta delivers.
  • B:keep the newborn warm, give oxygen to the mother if needed, and transport.
  • C:reassess the newborn every 5 minutes and transport after the placenta delivers.
  • D:give the newborn high-flow oxygen via a nonrebreathing mask and transport.
Definition
B:keep the newborn warm, give oxygen to the mother if needed, and transport.
Term

A 34-year-old woman, who is 36 weeks pregnant, is having a seizure. After you protect her airway and ensure adequate ventilation, you should transport her:

  • A:in a semisitting position.
  • B:in the supine position.
  • C:in the prone position
  • D:on her left side.
Definition
D:on her left side.
Term

A 3-year-old female presents with respiratory distress. She is conscious, crying, and clinging to her mother. She has mild intercostal retractions and an oxygen saturation of 93%. The MOST effective way of delivering oxygen to her involves:

  • A:ventilations with a flow-restricted, oxygen-powered device.
  • B:asking the mom to hold an oxygen mask near her face.
  • C:gently restraining her and assisting her ventilations.
  • D:a nonrebreathing mask with the flow rate at 6 to 8 L/min.
Definition
B:asking the mom to hold an oxygen mask near her face.
Term

A 29-year-old woman, who is 38 weeks pregnant, presents with heavy vaginal bleeding, a blood pressure of 70/50 mm Hg, and a heart rate of 130 beats/min. She is pale and diaphoretic, and denies abdominal cramping or pain. Her signs and symptoms are MOST consistent with a/an:

  • A:ruptured ovarian cyst.
  • B:placenta previa.
  • C:ruptured ectopic pregnancy.
  • D:abruptio placenta.
Definition
B:placenta previa.
Term

If a woman is having her first child, the first stage of labor:

  • A:is typically very short and only lasts about 2 hours.
  • B:generally does not allow time for you to transport.
  • C:is usually the longest and lasts an average of 16 hours.
  • D:is shorter than in women who have had other children.
Definition
C:is usually the longest and lasts an average of 16 hours.
Term

You are responding to a call for a 2-year-old child who fell from a second-story window. With the mechanism of injury and the age of the patient in mind, you should suspect that the primary injury occurred to the child’s:

  • A:abdomen.
  • B:chest.
  • C:lower extremities.
  • D:head.
Definition
D:head.
Term

Appropriate treatment for an 18-year-old woman with severe vaginal bleeding may include all of the following, EXCEPT:

  • A:high concentrations of oxygen.
  • B:covering the vagina with a trauma dressing.
  • C:placing sterile dressings into the vagina.
  • D:keeping her warm with blankets.
Definition
C:placing sterile dressings into the vagina.
Term

During your assessment of a woman in labor, you see the baby's arm protruding from the vagina. The mother tells you that she needs to push. You should:

  • A:encourage the mother to push and give her high-flow oxygen.
  • B:gently push the protruding arm back into the vagina.
  • C:cover the arm with a sterile towel and transport immediately.
  • D:insert your gloved fingers into the vagina and try to turn the baby.
Definition
C:cover the arm with a sterile towel and transport immediately.
Term

Immediately upon delivery of a newborn’s head, you should:

  • A:cover the eyes.
  • B:suction the mouth.
  • C:dry the face.
  • D:suction the nose.
Definition
B:suction the mouth.
Term

Supplemental oxygen via the blow-by technique is MOST appropriate for a child who presents with respiratory difficulty and:

  • A:is agitated, tachycardic, and clinging to his or her parent.
  • B:has a heart rate of 70 beats/min and signs of physical exhaustion.
  • C:has facial cyanosis and a decreased level of consciousness.
  • D:is breathing with a significant reduction in tidal volume.
Definition
A:is agitated, tachycardic, and clinging to his or her parent
Term

You are dispatched to a residence for a child having a seizure. When you arrive at the scene, the 4-year-old child’s grandfather tells you that he has had several full body seizures over the past 20 minutes, but never woke up in between the seizures. The child’s skin is hot and flushed. This is MOST indicative of:

  • A:a febrile seizure.
  • B:an absence seizure.
  • C:a focal motor seizure.
  • D:status epilepticus.
Definition
D:status epilepticus.
Term

Treatment for a responsive 4-year-old child with a mild airway obstruction, who has respiratory distress, a strong cough, and normal skin color, includes:

  • A:oxygen, back slaps, transport.
  • B:abdominal thrusts until the object is expelled.
  • C:assisting ventilations, back slaps, transport.
  • D:oxygen, avoiding agitation, transport.
Definition
D:oxygen, avoiding agitation, transport.
Term

You will know that the third stage of labor has ended when:

  • A:the baby’s head is visible at the vaginal opening.
  • B:the entire baby has delivered.
  • C:the mother’s contractions become regular.
  • D:the placenta has delivered.
Definition
D:the placenta has delivered.
Term

Which of the following signs or symptoms is more common in children than adults following an isolated head injury?

  • A:Nausea and vomiting
  • B:Tachycardia and diaphoresis
  • C:Altered mental status
  • D:Changes in pupillary reaction
Definition
A:Nausea and vomiting
Term

Which of the following assessment parameters is a more reliable indicator of perfusion in infants than adults?

  • A:Pulse quality
  • B:Level of orientation
  • C:Capillary refill
  • D:Blood pressure
Definition
C:Capillary refill
Term

A 3-year-old child has a sudden onset of respiratory distress. The mother denies any recent illnesses or fever. You should suspect:

  • A:croup.
  • B:foreign body airway obstruction.
  • C:lower respiratory infection.
  • D:epiglottitis.
Definition
B:foreign body airway obstruction.
Term

You are caring for a 6-year-old child with a possible fractured arm and have reason to believe that the child was abused. How should you manage this situation?

  • A:Call the police and have the parents arrested.
  • B:Inform the parents of your suspicions.
  • C:Transport the child to the hospital regardless of the parents’ wishes.
  • D:Advise the parents that the child needs to be transported.
Definition
D:Advise the parents that the child needs to be transported.
Term

The MAIN reason why small children should ride in the backseat of a vehicle is because:

  • A:their legs are highly prone to injury from striking the dashboard.
  • B:they can experience severe injury or death if the airbag deploys.
  • C:they are much less likely to be ejected from the vehicle.
  • D:the back of the front seat will provide a cushion during a crash.
Definition
B:they can experience severe injury or death if the airbag deploys.
Term

After clearing the airway of a newborn who is not in distress, it is MOST important for you to:

  • A:apply blow-by oxygen.
  • B:obtain an APGAR score.
  • C:keep the newborn warm.
  • D:clamp and cut the cord.
Definition
C:keep the newborn warm
Term

The MOST important initial steps of assessing and managing a newborn include:

  • A:keeping the infant warm and counting respirations.
  • B:suctioning the airway and obtaining a heart rate.
  • C:drying and warming the infant and obtaining an APGAR score.
  • D:clearing the airway and keeping the infant warm.
Definition
D:clearing the airway and keeping the infant warm.
Term

A 30-year-old woman has severe lower abdominal pain and light vaginal bleeding. She tells you that her last menstrual period was 2 months ago. On the basis of these findings, you should suspect:

  • A:a normal pregnancy.
  • B:a ruptured ovarian cyst.
  • C:an ectopic pregnancy.
  • D:a spontaneous abortion.
Definition
C:an ectopic pregnancy.
Term

Upon assessing a newborn immediately after delivery, you note that the infant is breathing spontaneously and has a heart rate of 80 beats/min. What is the MOST appropriate initial management for this newborn?

  • A:Assess the newborn’s skin condition and color.
  • B:Initiate positive-pressure ventilations.
  • C:Start chest compressions and contact medical control.
  • D:Provide blow-by oxygen with oxygen tubing.
Definition
B:Initiate positive-pressure ventilations.
Term

Your assessment of a mother in labor reveals that a fetal limb is protruding from the vagina. Management of this situation should include:

  • A:positioning the mother in a semi-Fowler’s position, administering oxygen, and providing transport.
  • B:giving the mother 100% oxygen and attempting to manipulate the protruding limb so that delivery can occur.
  • C:positioning the mother with her hips elevated, administering high-flow oxygen, and providing transport.
  • D:applying gentle traction to the protruding limb to remove pressure of the fetus from the umbilical cord.
Definition
C:positioning the mother with her hips elevated, administering high-flow oxygen, and providing transport.
Term

A 4-year-old girl fell from a third-story window and landed on her head. She is semiconscious with slow, irregular breathing and is bleeding from her mouth and nose. You should:

  • A:open her airway with the jaw-thrust maneuver while manually stabilizing her head, suction her oropharynx, and assist her ventilations.
  • B:suction her oropharynx, open her airway with the jaw-thrust maneuver, insert an oropharyngeal airway, and assist her ventilations.
  • C:manually stabilize her head, open her airway with the jaw-thrust maneuver, insert a nasopharyngeal airway, and suction her oropharynx.
  • D:open her airway by carefully tilting her head back, suction her oropharynx, and administer high-flow oxygen via nonrebreathing mask.
Definition
A:open her airway with the jaw-thrust maneuver while manually stabilizing her head, suction her oropharynx, and assist her ventilations.
Term

You are called to a local park for a 7-year-old boy with respiratory distress. During your assessment, you find that the patient is wheezing and has widespread hives and facial edema. What should you suspect has occurred?

  • A:Poison oak exposure
  • B:Heat illness
  • C:Acute asthma attack
  • D:Allergic reaction
Definition
D:Allergic reaction
Term

A 5-year-old boy complains of pain to the right lower quadrant of his abdomen. Assessment of this child's abdomen should include:

  • A:palpating the left upper quadrant first.
  • B:avoiding palpation of the abdomen.
  • C:palpating the right lower quadrant first.
  • D:auscultating bowel sounds for 2 minutes.
Definition
A:palpating the left upper quadrant first.
Term

A 9-year-old girl was struck by a car while she was crossing the street. Your assessment reveals a large contusion over the left upper quadrant of her abdomen and signs of shock. Which of the following organs has MOST likely been injured?

  • A:Liver
  • B:Pancreas
  • C:Spleen
  • D:Kidney
Definition
C:Spleen
Term

Prevention of cardiac arrest in infants and small children should focus primarily on:

  • A:keeping the child warm.
  • B:ensuring adequate ventilation.
  • C:providing immediate transport.
  • D:avoiding upsetting the child.
Definition
B:ensuring adequate ventilation.
Term

You should suspect physical abuse of a 4-year-old child if you encounter:

  • A:bruises to the anterior tibial area.
  • B:clinging to the parent during your assessment.
  • C:purple and yellow bruises to the thighs.
  • D:curious siblings who are watching you.
Definition
C:purple and yellow bruises to the thighs.
Term

Which position is MOST appropriate for a mother in labor with a prolapsed umbilical cord?

  • A:Left lateral recumbent
  • B:Supine with legs elevated
  • C:Supine with hips elevated
  • D:Left side with legs elevated
Definition
C:Supine with hips elevated
Term

When is it MOST appropriate to clamp and cut the umbilical cord?

  • A:As soon as the cord has stopped pulsating
  • B:After the placenta has completely delivered
  • C:Before the newborn has taken its first breath
  • D:Immediately following delivery of the newborn
Definition
A:As soon as the cord has stopped pulsating
Term

While functioning at a large-scale terrorist incident, it is important to:

  • A:identify the person or persons responsible for the event.
  • B:begin immediate treatment of the most critically injured.
  • C:avoid placing any casualty in a "delayed" treatment status.
  • D:use triage and base patient care on available resources.
Definition
D:use triage and base patient care on available resources.
Term

Which of the following situations is an example of abandonment?

  • A:An EMT gives a verbal report to an emergency nurse.
  • B:An EMT transfers care of a patient to a paramedic.
  • C:A paramedic transfers care to an advanced EMT.
  • D:An EMT departs the scene after a paramedic arrives
Definition
C:A paramedic transfers care to an advanced EMT.
Term

Upon arriving at a scene in which a tanker truck overturned and is spilling an unknown liquid on the ground, you should:

  • A:quickly identify the material.
  • B:park upwind from the scene.
  • C:turn off your warning lights.
  • D:stay downhill from the scene.
Definition
B:park upwind from the scene.
Term

Which of the following situations presents the greatest risk for suicide?

  • A:A man who was recently diagnosed with stage 1 lung cancer
  • B:A woman who quit her job for one that pays a lot more
  • C:An EMT who saved a drowning child and receives no media attention
  • D:A woman who is planning a family trip, but gets called away to work
Definition
A:A man who was recently diagnosed with stage 1 lung cancer
Term

Proper body mechanics when lifting and moving a patient include:

  • A:maintaining a slight curvature of your back.
  • B:twisting at the waist when moving around a corner.
  • C:keeping the weight as close to you as possible.
  • D:using the muscles of your lower back to lift.
Definition
C:keeping the weight as close to you as possible.
Term

Which of the following statements regarding the high-efficiency particulate air (HEPA) respirator is correct?

  • A:A HEPA respirator should be placed on any patient with tuberculosis.
  • B:A HEPA respirator is necessary only if the patient with suspected tuberculosis is coughing.
  • C:A surgical mask provides better protection against tuberculosis than a HEPA respirator.
  • D:Long sideburns or a beard will prevent the proper fit of a HEPA respirator.
Definition
D:Long sideburns or a beard will prevent the proper fit of a HEPA respirator.
Term

A 30-year-old woman crashed her car into a tree at a high rate of speed. She is conscious and alert and has stable vital signs. She has some small lacerations and abrasions to her arms and face, but no obviously life-threatening injuries. As you are loading her into the ambulance, she tells you that she does not want to go to the hospital. You should:

  • A:advise her that she is probably too emotionally upset to be able to refuse EMS treatment and transport.
  • B:obtain a signed refusal from the patient and ask a law enforcement officer to transport her to the hospital.
  • C:ask a law enforcement officer to administer a breathalyzer test to determine if she has been drinking alcohol.
  • D:advise the patient that she should be transported to the hospital because of the seriousness of the crash.
Definition
D:advise the patient that she should be transported to the hospital because of the seriousness of the crash.
Term

After arriving at a mass-casualty incident where other ambulances are already present, you should notify the dispatcher and then:

  • A:repeat the triage process.
  • B:obtain information from the fire service commander.
  • C:initiate care for the most critically injured patients.
  • D:report to the incident commander.
Definition
D:report to the incident commander.
Term

A 70-year-old man with a history of emphysema and congestive heart failure is in cardiac arrest. His wife tells you that he collapsed about 5 minutes before your arrival. Your partner begins one-rescuer CPR as you prepare the AED. As you are applying the AED pads, the man’s wife tells you that she wants you to let him die in peace. You should:

  • A:perform rescue breathing only and contact medical control.
  • B:continue performing CPR and ask her if he has a living will.
  • C:cease resuscitation only if the AED does not indicate a shock.
  • D:comply with her request and cease all resuscitative efforts.
Definition
B:continue performing CPR and ask her if he has a living will. 
Term

Whiletreating a patient in cardiac arrest, you turn the AED on and attach the pads to the patient. However, when theAED begins to analyze the patient's cardiac rhythm, it signals"low battery" and then shuts off. The patient subsequently died. Which of the following statements regarding this scenariois MOST correct?

  • A:You and your partner may be held liable for negligence.
  • B:Most errors associated with the AED involve equipment failure.
  • C:The manufacturer of the AED will be held liable for negligence.
  • D:The crew that preceded you may be held liable for negligence.
Definition
A:You and your partner may be held liable for negligence.
Term

The safest emergency vehicle operator is one who:

  • A:has a positive attitude.
  • B:is physically fit.
  • C:drives with lights and siren.
  • D:drives with due regard.
Definition
D:drives with due regard.
Term

When requesting medical direction for a patient who was involved in a major motor-vehicle accident, you should do all of the following, EXCEPT:

  • A:use proper medical terminology when speaking.
  • B:use radio codes to describe the situation.
  • C:question an order if it seems to be inappropriate.
  • D:describe the severity of damage to the patient’s vehicle.
Definition
B:use radio codes to describe the situation.
Term

Your partner, a veteran EMT of 20 years, has been showing up late to work with increasing frequency over the last several shifts. When he arrives, he is in a bad mood and is clearly not interested in being at work. His behavior is MOST consistent with:

  • A:acute stress.
  • B:drug use.
  • C:burnout.
  • D:delirium.
Definition
C:burnout.
Term

You arrive at the scene where a man fell approximately 30 feet and landed on his head. He is unresponsive, has agonal gasps, and a weak carotid pulse. Further assessment reveals an open head injury with exposed brain matter. Upon identifying this patient as an organ donor, you should:

  • A:manage the patient aggressively and provide rapid transport.
  • B:request authorization from medical control not to initiate care.
  • C:provide rapid transport only because the patient likely will not survive.
  • D:recognize that the patient’s injuries disqualify him as an organ donor.
Definition
A:manage the patient aggressively and provide rapid transport.
Term

You are cleaning the back of the ambulance after transporting a patient with major trauma. Which of the following contaminated items should NOT be placed in a plastic biohazard bag?

  • A:Suction canister
  • B:Rigid suction catheter
  • C:Blood-soaked gauze pads
  • D:Plastic IV catheter
Definition
D:Plastic IV catheter
Term

You arrive at the scene of an 80-year-old woman who is weak and lightheaded. Her son, who called 911, is present and asks you to transport his mother to the hospital. You should:

  • A:take the woman’s vital signs and apply supplemental oxygen if necessary.
  • B:assess the woman and determine if she wishes to be treated and transported.
  • C:advise the son that he can probably drive his mother to the hospital.
  • D:comply with the son’s request and transport the woman to the hospital.
Definition
B:assess the woman and determine if she wishes to be treated and transported.
Term

After assisting a patient with her epinephrine auto-injector, you should dispose of the device by:

  • A:giving it to the patient to have it refilled.
  • B:placing the device in a puncture proof container.
  • C:replacing the cover and putting it in a trash can.
  • D:placing the device in a red biohazard bag.
Definition
B:placing the device in a puncture proof container.
Term

The ultimate goal of any EMS quality improvement program is to:

  • A:provide protocols to all EMTs and hold them accountable if protocols are not followed.
  • B:deliver a consistently high standard of care to all patients who are encountered.
  • C:recognize all EMTs who demonstrate consistency in providing competent patient care.
  • D:ensure that all personnel receive an adequate number of continuing education hours.
Definition
B:deliver a consistently high standard of care to all patients who are encountered.
Term

Which of the following actions demonstrates an EMT's knowledge of crime scene preservation?

  • A:Advising a law enforcement officer after moving a coffee table to access a critically injured patient.
  • B:Placing a knife in a plastic zip-lock bag and giving it to a law enforcement officer for safe-keeping.
  • C:Requesting approval from law enforcement before controlling severe bleeding from a patient's arm.
  • D:Carefully cutting through the hole in a patient's clothing that was made by a large caliber firearm.
Definition

A:Advising a law enforcement officer after moving a coffee table to access a critically injured patient.

Term

You arrive at the scene of a young male who was stabbed when a burglar broke into his house. Law enforcement officers are present. The patient, who is unresponsive with several stab wounds to the chest, is lying in a narrow space between a couch and coffee table. You should:

  • A:move the coffee table, begin patient care, and notify a police officer.
  • B:treat the patient where he is, without moving the coffee table.
  • C:move the coffee table, document what you did, and begin treatment.
  • D:obtain permission from law enforcement before moving any furniture.
Definition
A:move the coffee table, begin patient care, and notify a police officer.
Term

Proper guidelines for safe reaching include all of the following, EXCEPT:

  • A:keeping your back in a locked-in position.
  • B:avoiding twisting of your back.
  • C:avoiding hyperextension of your back.
  • D:reaching no more than 30” in front of your body.
Definition
D:reaching no more than 30” in front of your body.
Term

You are the first ambulance to arrive at the scene of a motor-vehicle crash. As you approach the scene, you see three patients, two who have been ejected from their vehicles and the other who is still in his vehicle. You should:

  • A:begin triaging and treating the most critically injured.
  • B:notify the local trauma center so they can prepare for the patients.
  • C:call medical control and apprise him or her of the situation.
  • D:request additional ambulances to respond to the scene.
Definition
D:request additional ambulances to respond to the scene.
Term

You are called to transport a terminal cancer patient from a skilled nursing facility to the emergency department for evaluation of a possible kidney infection. As you are reviewing the transfer paperwork, you see that the patient has a valid "do not attempt resuscitation" order. During transport, you should:

  • A:perform CPR for only 2 minutes if the patient develops cardiac arrest.
  • B:monitor the patient because a DNR order prohibits you from providing care.
  • C:provide supportive care, such as oxygen, and keep the patient comfortable.
  • D:disregard the DNR order because it is only valid in the hospital setting.
Definition
C:provide supportive care, such as oxygen, and keep the patient comfortable.
Term

Upon arriving at the scene of a multiple vehicle crash, you can see that at least two patients have been ejected from their vehicles. You should:

  • A:treat the most critical patient first.
  • B:request at least one more ambulance.
  • C:immediately triage the two patients.
  • D:gather all of the patients together.
Definition
B:request at least one more ambulance.
Term

Medical control has ordered you to administer one tube of oral glucose to your patient with a blood glucose reading of 48 mg/dL. Immediately after receiving this order, you should:

  • A:repeat the order back to medical control word for word.
  • B:document the order on the prehospital care report.
  • C:ask medical control to repeat the order word for word.
  • D:administer the medication and reassess the patient.
Definition
A:repeat the order back to medical control word for word.
Term

While caring for an emotionally disturbed 30-year-old male, he suddenly becomes violent and needs to be physically restrained. During the restraint procedure, you should:

  • A:place him in a prone position and secure straps across his back.
  • B:maintain communication with him and closely monitor his airway.
  • C:approach the patient from the front and converge on him quickly.
  • D:ensure that at least three people are available to safely restrain him.
Definition
B:maintain communication with him and closely monitor his airway. 
Term

In most states, the EMT is required to report which of the following occurrences?

  • A:Animal bite
  • B:Drug overdose
  • C:Motor vehicle crash
  • D:Injury to a minor
Definition
A:Animal bite
Term

As an EMT, your primary responsibility is to:

  • A:provide competent patient care.
  • B:keep yourself as safe as possible.
  • C:transport all patients to the hospital.
  • D:ensure the safety of your partner.
Definition
B:keep yourself as safe as possible.
Term

You are caring for a 6-year-old child with a swollen, painful deformity to the left forearm. As you communicate with the parents of this child, you should:

  • A:use appropriate medical terminology at all times.
  • B:make sure that they remain aware of what you are doing.
  • C:tell them that the child will be transported to the hospital.
  • D:ask them repeatedly how the child was injured.
Definition
B:make sure that they remain aware of what you are doing.
Term

You are called to treat a 55-year-old man who is experiencing difficulty breathing. After making contact with your patient, he extends his arm out to allow you to take his blood pressure. This is an example of:

  • A:actual consent.
  • B:implied consent.
  • C:informed consent.
  • D:formal consent.
Definition
A:actual consent.
Term

You are called to a residence for a woman in cardiac arrest. Shortly after starting CPR, the patient’s husband presents you with an unsigned document that states “do not attempt resuscitation.” You should:

  • A:continue CPR until you have contacted medical control for guidance.
  • B:contact medical control prior to continuing any resuscitative efforts.
  • C:stop all resuscitative efforts in accordance with the document.
  • D:stop CPR until the document can be validated by a physician.
Definition
A:continue CPR until you have contacted medical control for guidance.
Term

While you are inside a crashed vehicle assessing a patient who is entrapped, the rescue team should be:

  • A:awaiting specific instructions from you as to how to proceed with the extrication process.
  • B:preparing for a simple extrication process since you were obviously able to access the patient.
  • C:actively extricating the patient using whichever extrication method they deem necessary.
  • D:assessing exactly how the patient is trapped and determining the safest way to extricate.
Definition
D:assessing exactly how the patient is trapped and determining the safest way to extricate.
Term

The primary feature associated with exposure to a vesicant agent is:

  • A:tachycardia.
  • B:muscle twitching.
  • C:vomiting blood.
  • D:skin blistering.
Definition
D:skin blistering.
Term

Which of the following scene size-up findings is LEAST suggestive of an unsafe environment?

  • A:A large man standing in his yard awaiting your arrival
  • B:The sound of breaking glass as you approach a residence
  • C:Screaming and yelling coming from inside a residence
  • D:Liquid draining from a car that struck a telephone pole
Definition
A:A large man standing in his yard awaiting your arrival
Term

How does a unified incident command system differ from a single incident command system?

  • A:In a unified incident command system, a single incident commander is identified and will function as such, regardless of the type of incident
  • B:In a unified incident command system, one agency with several incident commanders has the majority of responsibility for incident management
  • C:In a unified incident command system, plans are made in advance by all agencies that assume a shared responsibility for decision making
  • D:In a unified incident command system, a single person is in charge of the entire incident, even if multiple agencies respond to the scene
Definition
C:In a unified incident command system, plans are made in advance by all agencies that assume a shared responsibility for decision making
Term

When providing care to multiple patients at the scene of a mass-casualty incident, your goal should remain focused on:

  • A:transporting patients to the hospital.
  • B:keeping all bystanders at a safe distance.
  • C:initiating CPR for those in cardiac arrest.
  • D:immobilizing all patients at the scene.
Definition
A:transporting patients to the hospital.
Term

The role of triage officer at a mass-casualty incident should be assumed by the:

  • A:most knowledgeable EMS provider.
  • B:EMS medical director via telephone communication.
  • C:first EMS provider who is willing to perform the task.
  • D:EMS provider with the most years in EMS
Definition
A:most knowledgeable EMS provider.
Term

Which of the following patients has the highest priority at the scene of a mass-casualty incident?

  • A:38-year-old woman who remains apneic after you manually open her airway
  • B:29-year-old man who is pulseless and apneic with an abdominal evisceration
  • C:44-year-old unresponsive man with an open head injury and agonal gasps
  • D:35-year-old unresponsive woman with snoring respirations and severe burns
Definition
D:35-year-old unresponsive woman with snoring respirations and severe burns
Term

Which of the following statementsBEST describes a mass-casualty incident?

  • A:More than five patients are involved.
  • B:More than three vehicles are involved in the incident.
  • C:At least half of the patients are critically injured.
  • D:The number of patients overwhelms your resources.
Definition
D:The number of patients overwhelms your resources.
Term

You have completed your prehospital care report and left a copy at the hospital when you realize that you forgot to document a pertinent finding on the front of the report. You should:

  • A:attach an addendum to the original run report.
  • B:take no action and report the event to your supervisor.
  • C:write the information on the original run report.
  • D:complete a new run report and add the information.
Definition
A:attach an addendum to the original run report.
Term

During the triage process, which of the following injuries or conditions would classify a patient as a high priority?

  • A:A large avulsion to the arm and an altered mental status
  • B:Pulselessness and apnea
  • C:Partial-thickness burns with no respiratory difficulty
  • D:Unilateral femur fracture and tachycardia
Definition
A:A large avulsion to the arm and an altered mental status
Term

Failure of the EMT to obtain consent from a responsive patient before taking his or her blood pressure may constitute:

  • A:negligence.
  • B:battery.
  • C:assault.
  • D:abandonment.
Definition
B:battery.
Term

When is it MOST appropriate to complete your prehospital care report for a critically ill or injured patient?

  • A:Promptly after the primary assessment
  • B:After the ambulance has been restocked at the station
  • C:As soon as all patient care activities are completed
  • D:Any time before you arrive at the hospital
Definition
C:As soon as all patient care activities are completed
Term

Following a call in which a 6-week-old infant in cardiac arrest did not survive, your partner is exhibiting significant anxiety and irritability. How can you MOST effectively help him?

  • A:Allow him to voice his feelings to you.
  • B:Report his behavior to the medical director.
  • C:Recommend at least 12 hours of sleep.
  • D:Tell him that he needs psychiatric help.
Definition
A:Allow him to voice his feelings to you.
Term

Upon arriving at the scene of an overturned tanker truck, you see a clear liquid leaking from the rear of the tank. The driver is still in the vehicle and you can see that his face is covered with blood. You should:

  • A:ensure that the ambulance is downwind and downhill from the tanker.
  • B:request fire department assistance if they are not already en route.
  • C:approach the rear of the tanker to identify the type of fluid leaking.
  • D:put on gloves, a gown, and a mask and quickly remove the driver.
Definition
B:request fire department assistance if they are not already en route.
Term

You and your partner have secured a trauma patient to a long backboard and are preparing to lift the backboard onto the stretcher. When doing so, you should:

  • A:lift the backboard from the sides instead of from the ends.
  • B:ensure that the strongest EMT is positioned at the head of the backboard.
  • C:recall that most of the patient’s weight is at the foot end of the backboard.
  • D:be sure to lift the backboard with the powerful muscles of your back.
Definition
B:ensure that the strongest EMT is positioned at the head of the backboard
Term

Who has ultimate authority for all issues regarding patient care at the scene of a mass-casualty incident?

  • A:EMS medical director
  • B:Incident commander
  • C:Treatment officer
  • D:Most experienced EMT
Definition
A:EMS medical director
Term

The EMT should avoid focusing all of his or her attention on a single critical patient during the triage process because:

  • A:three EMTs are required to effectively manage a critical patient.
  • B:the patient will most likely die before he or she can be transported.
  • C:other patients may die of problems that may have been corrected.
  • D:all of his or her supplies will likely be depleted on that one patient.
Definition
C:other patients may die of problems that may have been corrected.
Term

The MOST effective means of preventing the spread of disease is:

  • A:effective handwashing.
  • B:wearing a mask with all patients.
  • C:wearing gloves with all patients.
  • D:up-to-date immunizations.
Definition
A:effective handwashing.
Term

Upon arriving at the scene of a crash involving a large truck, you immediately note the presence of an orange placard on the side of the tank that the truck is pulling. This indicates that the vehicle is carrying a/an ______________ agent.

  • A:corrosive
  • B:flammable
  • C:explosive
  • D:radioactive
Definition
C:explosive
Term

A patient who presents with severe bradycardia, hypersalivation, vomiting, and excessive tearing has MOST likely been exposed to:

  • A:phosgene.
  • B:VX.
  • C:chlorine.
  • D:anthrax.
Definition
B:VX.
Term

As soon as you begin transport of a patient to the hospital, you should:

  • A:conduct a detailed examination.
  • B:contact medical control.
  • C:advise dispatch of your status.
  • D:notify the receiving facility.
Definition
C:advise dispatch of your status.
Term

When driving in emergency mode on a multilane highway, the emergency vehicle operator should keep to the:

  • A:center lane so the traffic can flow around the ambulance.
  • B:right shoulder so that traffic flow is not disrupted.
  • C:extreme right lane so motorists can yield to the left.
  • D:extreme left lane so motorists can yield to the right.
Definition
D:extreme left lane so motorists can yield to the right.
Term

Your actions at the scene of a critically injured patient who was shot during a robbery should include:

  • A:performing a primary assessment only.
  • B:caring for the patient while manipulating the scene minimally.
  • C:providing care when the police authorize you to.
  • D:starting immediate care as you would with any other patient.
Definition
B:caring for the patient while manipulating the scene minimally.
Term

Following an apparent terrorist attack, numerous people present with shortness of breath and persistent coughing. A green haze is noted in the area in which the patients are located. Which of the following agents should you suspect they were exposed to?

  • A:Tabun (GA)
  • B:V agent (VX)
  • C:Phosgene oxime
  • D:Chlorine (CL)
Definition
D:Chlorine (CL)
Term

While en route to the scene of an injured person, dispatch advises you that law enforcement personnel are at the scene. This indicates that:

  • A:the scene is safe for you to enter.
  • B:a crime has been committed.
  • C:the scene is potentially unsafe.
  • D:the patient is critically injured.
Definition
C:the scene is potentially unsafe.
Term

A man armed with a shotgun has taken two people hostage and has shot one of them. Upon arriving at the scene, you should:

  • A:have the incident commander guide you to a shielded staging area and wait for the tactical team to bring the patient to you.
  • B:leave your lights and siren on because this will let the injured person know that you have arrived and are there to help.
  • C:be sure and turn up your portable radio loud enough so that you can remain aware of the entire situation.
  • D:inform the incident commander that you will assume responsibility for the entire incident since there is a confirmed patient.
Definition
A:have the incident commander guide you to a shielded staging area and wait for the tactical team to bring the patient to you.
Term

The scene size-up includes all of the following components, EXCEPT:

  • A:determining if the scene is safe.
  • B:evaluating the mechanism of injury.
  • C:assessing the need for assistance.
  • D:donning personal protective gear.
Definition
D:donning personal protective gear.
Term

When the incident command system is activated at the scene, you should expect to:

  • A:receive instructions and then function independently.
  • B:be assigned one responsibility for the duration of the incident.
  • C:report back to your section officer in between assignments.
  • D:be immediately directed to the established treatment area.
Definition
C:report back to your section officer in between assignments.
Term

When called to the scene of a structural fire to stand by in case any injuries occur at the scene, you should:

  • A:park the ambulance close to the fire so you can rapidly access any patients.
  • B:enter the structure with the firefighters so you can provide immediate care to any victims.
  • C:depart the scene and return to service after the fire has been completely extinguished.
  • D:ensure that your ambulance does not block or hinder other arriving fire apparatus.
Definition
D:ensure that your ambulance does not block or hinder other arriving fire apparatus.
Term

You arrive at the scene of a traffic accident in which multiple vehicles are involved. You see at least two patients lying on the road and are not moving. You should:

  • A:notify medical control for advice.
  • B:begin triaging the patients.
  • C:request additional ambulances.
  • D:begin immediate patient care.
Definition
C:request additional ambulances.
Term

Which of the following is considered minimum personal protective equipment (PPE) when suctioning an unresponsive patient's airway?

  • A:Gloves, gown, and eye protection
  • B:Gloves, head cover, and eye protection
  • C:Gloves and a mask
  • D:Gloves and full facial protection
Definition
D:Gloves and full facial protection
Term

Which of the following statements regarding the use of an escort vehicle when en route to an emergency call is correct?

  • A:An escort vehicle should be used only if you are unfamiliar with the patient’s location.
  • B:An escort vehicle will allow you to arrive at the scene quicker.
  • C:With an escort vehicle, the risk of an accident at an intersection is reduced significantly.
  • D:To avoid getting separated from the escort vehicle, you should closely follow it.
Definition
A:An escort vehicle should be used only if you are unfamiliar with the patient’s location.
Term

When calling your radio report to the receiving hospital, you should:

  • A:include the patient’s name.
  • B:break your report into 60-second increments.
  • C:be brief, concise, and factual.
  • D:only give your report to a physician.
Definition
C:be brief, concise, and factual.
Term

You are giving a presentation to a group of laypeople on the importance of calling EMS immediately for cardiac arrest patients. What point should you emphasize the MOST?

  • A:Cardiac drug therapy is the most important EMS treatment.
  • B:Rapid transport significantly reduces patient mortality.
  • C:Laypeople are incapable of providing adequate CPR.
  • D:CPR and defibrillation are key factors in patient survival.
Definition
D:CPR and defibrillation are key factors in patient survival.
Term

Which of the following practices will provide you with the highest degree of safety when responding to an emergency call?

  • A:Routinely using the lights and siren
  • B:Wearing your seatbelt and shoulder harness
  • C:Always requesting fire department assistance
  • D:Asking the police to escort you to the scene
Definition
B:Wearing your seatbelt and shoulder harness
Term

The information that would be of LEAST pertinence when educating the public on injury prevention is:

  • A:how to provide rescue breathing.
  • B:teaching children to wear bicycle helmets.
  • C:building a childproof fence around a pool.
  • D:the proper usage of child safety seats.
Definition
A:how to provide rescue breathing.
Term

According to the United States Department of Transportation (USDOT), minimum staffing for a basic life support ambulance includes:

  • A:at least two EMTs in the patient compartment.
  • B:an EMT who functions as the driver.
  • C:at least one EMT in the patient compartment.
  • D:a minimum of two EMTs in the ambulance.
Definition
C:at least one EMT in the patient compartment.
Term

The immobilization device MOST appropriate to use for a patient with multiple injuries and unstable vital signs is the:

  • A:scoop immobilization device.
  • B:long spine board immobilization device.
  • C:vest-style immobilization device.
  • D:short spine board immobilization device.
Definition
B:long spine board immobilization device.
Term
Definition
Term

When sizing up a motor-vehicle crash in which a small passenger car struck a bridge pillar and sustained severe damage, you should:

  • A:immediately approach the vehicle and determine if it is stable.
  • B:break the driver’s side window and gain rapid access to the patient.
  • C:ensure that there are no hazards and then try to open one of the doors.
  • D:disconnect the battery cables and then request heavy extrication tools.
Definition
C:ensure that there are no hazards and then try to open one of the doors.
Term

While caring for an injured patient, you remove blood-soaked clothing in order to treat his injuries. You should dispose of the clothing by:

  • A:leaving it at the scene.
  • B:placing it in a biohazard bag.
  • C:placing it in a regular trash can.
  • D:leaving it at the hospital.
Definition
B:placing it in a biohazard bag.
Term

The __________________ creates a secure loop at the working end of a rope, which can be used to attach the end of therope to a fixed object ora piece of equipment.

  • A:Figure eight on a bite
  • B:Figure eight knot
  • C:Half hitch
  • D:Clove hitch
Definition
A:Figure eight on a bite
Term

At the scene of a mass-casualty incident, you notice a bystander who is emotionally upset. An appropriate action to take would be to:

  • A:notify the police and have the bystander removed.
  • B:assign the bystander a simple, non-patient-care task.
  • C:tell the bystander to leave the scene at once.
  • D:have the bystander assist you with patient care.
Definition
B:assign the bystander a simple, non-patient-care task.
Term

Which of the following is an example of the EMT providing care based on standing orders?

  • A:After confirming that a patient’s blood pressure is adequate, the EMT contacts medical control and requests permission to assist the patient with his prescribed nitroglycerin.
  • B:Following assessment of a patient with a terminal illness, the EMT notifies the patient’s personal physician to determine whether he or she requires any special care.
  • C:The EMT defibrillates a patient with the automated external defibrillator, directs immediate resumption of CPR, and then contacts medical control for further guidance.
  • D:Prior to administering oral glucose to a patient with hypoglycemia, the EMT confirms the proper dosage and requests authorization from the base station physician.
Definition
C:The EMT defibrillates a patient with the automated external defibrillator, directs immediate resumption of CPR, and then contacts medical control for further guidance.
Term

When using the power lift to lift a stretcher, you should:

  • A:maintain a slight inward curve to your back.
  • B:place your hands palms down on the stretcher.
  • C:ensure that you lift with your palms facing up.
  • D:bend at the waist and keep your back straight.
Definition
C:ensure that you lift with your palms facing up.
Term

You receive a call at 3:00 a.m. for a patient who is slumped over the steering wheel of his car, which is parked on the shoulder of the road. Your unit and a police officer arrive at the scene at the same time. You should:

  • A:stay in your unit until the police officer checks the patient.
  • B:approach the vehicle from the front to ensure maximum visibility.
  • C:shine a spotlight in the side view mirror of the patient’s vehicle.
  • D:park the ambulance 25 feet in front of the patient’s vehicle.
Definition
A:stay in your unit until the police officer checks the patient.
Term

A set of regulations and ethical considerations that define the extent or limits of an EMT’s job is called:

  • A:scope of practice.
  • B:a duty to act.
  • C:the Medical Practices Act.
  • D:confidentiality.
Definition
A:scope of practice.
Term

As you step out of the ambulance at the scene of a nighttime motor vehicle crash on the highway, your MOST immediate concern should be:

  • A:the presence of oncoming traffic.
  • B:rapid assessment of all injured patients.
  • C:placing safety flares by the ambulance.
  • D:whether the car will catch on fire.
Definition
A:the presence of oncoming traffic.
Term

In which of the following situations is an emergency move of a patient from his or her wrecked vehicle clearly indicated?

  • A:The patient has an altered mental status; diaphoresis; and rapid, shallow breathing.
  • B:Gas is leaking from the vehicle and there is a small fire in the engine compartment.
  • C:The patient appears unresponsive and a high-power line is lying across the hood.
  • D:Your primary assessment reveals that the patient has signs and symptoms of shock.
Definition
B:Gas is leaking from the vehicle and there is a small fire in the engine compartment.
Term

You are called to a local state park where a hiker fell from a cliff into a thick, wooded area with rough terrain. It is cold and foggy and a thunderstorm is approaching. You will MOST likely move the patient to the ambulance by:

  • A:placing the patient in a basket stretcher and using at least four people to carry him to the ambulance.
  • B:requesting a helicopter to hoist the patient out of the wooded area and carry him to a site near the ambulance.
  • C:assisting the patient in walking from the wooded area to the ambulance if his injuries are not life-threatening.
  • D:bringing the ambulance stretcher to the patient, loading him onto it, and removing him from the wooded area.
Definition
A:placing the patient in a basket stretcher and using at least four people to carry him to the ambulance.
Term

A conscious and alert92-year-old woman with chest pain is refusing EMS treatment and transport to the hospital. Her family insists that you transport her. This situation isMOST appropriately managed by:

  • A:advising the patient of the risks of refusing care.
  • B:transporting the patient as the family wishes.
  • C:transporting the patient as you explain your actions.
  • D:obtaining a signed refusal from a family member.
Definition
A:advising the patient of the risks of refusing care.
Term

Which of the following components is NOT part of an injury or illness prevention program?

  • A:Inspecting the home of young parents for child safety locks
  • B:Training a group of daycare employees on infant and child CPR
  • C:Educating teenage students on the dangers of drinking and driving
  • D:Teaching new parents how to properly install a child safety seat
Definition
B:Training a group of daycare employees on infant and child CPR
Term

Which of the following situations would necessitate treatment using implied consent?

  • A:A 17-year-old pregnant woman with an isolated extremity injury
  • B:A 25-year-old man who is restless and has severe chest pain and diaphoresis
  • C:A 65-year-old man who is confused and suspected of having a severe stroke
  • D:An 18-year-old man who is now fully alert after receiving oral glucose
Definition
C:A 65-year-old man who is confused and suspected of having a severe stroke
Term

A 52-year-old woman crashed her minivan into a tree. She is pinned at the legs by the steering wheel and is semiconscious. After gaining access to the patient, you should:

  • A:perform a primary assessment and provide any life-saving care before extrication.
  • B:immediately apply high-flow oxygen to the patient and allow extrication to begin.
  • C:have the fire department disentangle the patient and quickly remove her from the car.
  • D:rapidly assess her from head to toe, obtain vital signs, and apply a cervical collar.
Definition
A:perform a primary assessment and provide any life-saving care before extrication.
Term

You are dispatched to a call for an unresponsive patient. Which of the following is the MOST important information that you should initially obtain from the dispatcher?

  • A:The exact location of the patient
  • B:Whether or not the patient is breathing
  • C:The patient’s sex and approximate age
  • D:The call back number of the caller
Definition
A:The exact location of the patient
Term

All of the following are considered key components at the scene of a mass-casualty incident, EXCEPT:

  • A:an adequately staffed treatment area.
  • B:a supply area near the treatment area.
  • C:an on-scene emergency physician.
  • D:an on-site communication system.
Definition
C:an on-scene emergency physician.
Term

Most crashes involving ambulances occur:

  • A:at intersections.
  • B:at stop signs.
  • C:on the highway.
  • D:at stop lights.
Definition
A:at intersections.
Term

While caring for a trauma patient, blood splashes into an EMT’s eyes. This is an example of:

  • A:transmission.
  • B:indirect contact.
  • C:exposure.
  • D:infection.
Definition
C:exposure.
Term

Which of the following is the MOST practical method of standard precautions when treating multiple patients during a mass-casualty incident?

  • A:Thoroughly washing your hands in between patient contacts
  • B:Asking each patient you treat if he or she has a communicable disease
  • C:Changing your gloves in between contact with different patients
  • D:Placing clean gloves over soiled gloves in between patient contacts
Definition
C:Changing your gloves in between contact with different patients
Term

While triaging patients at a mass-casualty incident, you encounter a responsive middle-aged female with a respiratory rate of 26 breaths/min. What should you do next?

  • A:Administer high-flow oxygen at once
  • B:Triage her as immediate (red tag)
  • C:Assess her ability to follow commands
  • D:Assess for bilateral radial pulses
Definition
D:Assess for bilateral radial pulses
Term

The technique of rapid extrication from a vehicle involves:

  • A:grabbing the patient by his or her clothing, protecting his or her spine as much as possible, and dragging him or her from the vehicle.
  • B:applying a cervical collar, grasping the patient by the clothing, and quickly removing him or her onto the stretcher.
  • C:applying a vest-style extrication device, sliding a long backboard under the patient’s buttocks, and removing him or her from the vehicle.
  • D:manually stabilizing the head, applying a cervical collar, and removing the patient from the vehicle onto a long backboard.
Definition
D:manually stabilizing the head, applying a cervical collar, and removing the patient from the vehicle onto a long backboard.
Term

While en route back to your station from the emergency department, you discover that you forgot to include vital patient information on the front of your patient care report (PCR). Having left a copy of your PCR with the emergency department staff, you should:

  • A:document the information on the front of your original PCR.
  • B:notify the emergency department staff and advise them of your error.
  • C:do nothing, since you already left a copy of the PCR at the hospital.
  • D:include the information on an addendum and furnish it to the hospital.
Definition
D:include the information on an addendum and furnish it to the hospital.
Term

Which of the following vaccinations is NOT currently recommended by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC)?

  • A:Measles, mumps, rubella
  • B:Smallpox
  • C:Tetanus, diphtheria, and pertussis
  • D:Hepatitis B
Definition
B:Smallpox
Term

While assisting a paramedic in starting an IV on a patient, you are inadvertently stuck by the contaminated needle while attempting to place it in the sharps container. You should:

  • A:seek medical care as soon as possible.
  • B:notify your supervisor and request an HIV test.
  • C:cease patient care immediately.
  • D:hold the paramedic liable for the needle stick.
Definition
A:seek medical care as soon as possible.
Term
Definition