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Embalming
Embalming Term III
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02/20/2012

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Term
Thoroughly embalmed tissues dehydrate __________ underembalmed tissues.
Definition
less than
Term
Humectants are generally used to moisturize tissues. According to the textbook, what precaution is noted when using humectants in an improper manner?
Definition
humectants can dehydrate the tissues
Term
Which is the correct statement in regards to the temperature of the water used to make the dilution of the arterial fluid?
Definition
Warm water solutions increase fluid reactions (tissues firm quickly). Cold solutions slow the formaldehyde reaction (allows better distribution and diffusion of the arterial solution throughout the body).
Term
When embalming a body with "normal" moisture content (no dehydration, no edema), what does the embalmer need to do in regards to body moisture?
Definition
add moisture
Term
Which technique can be used to help maintain a good balance of moisture in the body?
Definition
use a hypotonic solution
Term
Which technique is not a good procedure to practice to help maintain a good balance of moisture in the body?
Definition
use old (outdated) fluids - these fluids tend to be less dehydrating
Term
Which drainage technique is best to use to help maintain a good balance of moisture in a body with "normal" moisture content?
Definition
intermittent (alternate) drainage
Term
According to the textbook, which of the following is an advantage of dehydrated bodies to the embalmer?
Definition
decomposition occurs more slowly
Term
Which of the following is a cause of antemortem dehydration?
Definition
Antemortem dehydration occurs before death. Certain diseases can cause the body to loose fluid from the body cells and tissues. Examples include diseases with slow hemorrhage, febrile diseases, kidney disease, diabetes, first degree burns, some cancers, tuberculosis.
Term
What is the best treatment for abrasions that are dark brown in colour and hard?
Definition
This type of discolouration cannot be treated by bleaching and cannot be rehydrated. The only way to treat this type of dehydration (discolouration) is to cover with opaque cosmetics. It may also be wise to apply some wax to the area, especially if the abrasion creates a depression in the skin. The wax can be used to "build-up" the area. Pores and wrinkles can also be added to the area to blend in with the rest of the skin.
Term
What is the best treatment for razor burns?
Definition
This type of surface abrasion is best left to dry completely so that proper cosmetizing may take place.
Term
What is the best treatment for "flaking" or peeling skin?
Definition
apply massage cream and then wipe the area with gauze saturated with solvent
Term
Which type of fluid is least recommended to use for the arterial injection of a dehydrated body?
Definition
high index arterial fluids
Term
What is the condition of the blood in dehydrated bodies?
Definition
In dehydrated bodies, the blood will be thicker and contain more clots. Drainage will be more difficult to establish so the embalmer must make additional efforts to maintain blood drainage and try to establish uniform and even distribution of arterial solution. Since drainage is more difficult, drainage should take place using the right internal jugular vein.
Term
What is the best method of injection and drainage for edemic bodies?
Definition
For these cases it is best to start injection with the restricted cervical technique. If edema is localized in the arms or legs - then sectional embalming should be done. Since there is increased moisture in the tissues, drainage should be continuous so that as much of the edemic fluid may be drained from the body.
Term
What situation can generally be found in bodies experiencing edema?
Definition
In edemic bodies there seems to be less clots and distribution of fluid is generally good. This is most likely due to the excess moisture that dilutes and thins the blood.
Term
Which type of edema does not require the arterial injection of a stronger solution?
Definition
Since the edema is localized in the abdominal cavity around the visceral organs (ascites) - the arterial solution will not be diluted by this excess moisture and does not create a secondary dilution. Therefore it is not necessary to inject a stronger arterial solution. It will be necessary to inject more cavity fluid since the cavity fluid will be diluted by the additional moisture found in the abdominal cavity.
For the embalmer, ascites means careful cavity treatment, with reaspiration at a later time.
Term
What is the best treatment for hydrocele?
Definition
direct trocar into scrotum during cavity treatment, aspirate, then add undiluted cavity fluid
Term
Which arterial solution is least recommended to use when embalming edemic cases?
Definition
preinjection fluid followed by a strong arterial solution
Term
Which injection technique would be wise to perform when treating edemic bodies?
Definition
inject 1.5 - 2 gallons of arterial solution, stop for 30 minutes, inject another half gallon or up to 1 gallon, then stop
Term
Which of the following diseases or conditions can cause edema?
Definition
1. diseases that affect cardiac function and result in increased venous pressures
2. diseases that affect the renal system and results in small amounts of plasma proteins
3. second degree burns where skin damage will indirectly cause renal failure
Term
Which of the following treatments is not recommended to perform on edemic bodies?
Definition
surface preservation using a humectant fluid
Term
Which treatment is most effective when treating a body with ascites or hydrothorax?
Definition
With ascites and hydrothorax, cavity aspiration must be very thorough due to the increase of moisture in the cavities. The embalmer must also inject enough cavity fluid to assure preservation and disinfection. More than 16 ounces of cavity fluid per cavity should be injected. These cases should also be reaspirated and reinjected with cavity fluid.
Term
What is a basic problem usually encountered after the successful treatment of edemic hands?
Definition
With the successful treatment of edema - decomposition should not be a problem as well as swollen features. Proper treatment should solve these concerns. Cosmetic application is not really poor. The main problem encountered is that the hands will be wrinkled due to the loss of moisture in the tissues.
Term
Which condition is least likely to occur in a burn victim?
Definition
liver failure
Term
True or False:Desiccated fingertips that are dark brown and wrinkled can be successfully restored with hypodermic injection of an arterial fluid.
Definition
FALSE - According to Mayer, desiccated tissue cannot be restored through hypodermic injection.
Term
List eight (8) recommended treatments to minimize postembalming dehydration when embalming
Definition
1) Use a moderate strength arterial solution. The textbook says to use a 1.5 - 2.0 % solution. These solutions will be able to add moisture to the tissues. An embalmer should also use a large volume of chemical to assure preservation of the tissues.
2) Use a coinjection fluid with the arterial solution. The coinjection fluid will reduce the dehydrating effects of the arterial chemical and will help to add moisture.
3) Use a humectant coinjection fluid with the arterial solution. Humectants will slow down the process of dehydration and will assist the tissues in retaining its moisutre.
4) Use a large volume of solution to add moisture to the tissues. The large volume will rehydrate the tissues and replenish the moisture that has been lost.
5) Use intermittent or alternate drainage. These drainage techniques will assist the tissues in retaining more arterial solution and to reduce short circuits. This will lead to better and more uniform distribution and penetration of chemical.
6) Apply massage cream to exposed skin surfaces during and after embalming. Massage cream will protect the skin surface by creating a barrier that will prevent further dehydration of these tissues.
7) Avoid excessive massage of the hand and face. Excessive manipulation will cause damage to the protective barrier of the skin. The skin will then be more prone to loosing moisture to the surrounding air.
8) Avoid the exposure of air currents to the body. Air currents from ventilation systems will quickly dehydrate exposed tissues.
9) After embalming, do not store her body so that it is exposed to air currents. Air currents from ventilation systems will quickly draw the moisture from her tissues and dehydrate exposed areas.
Term
Describe the problems that edema will create.
Definition
The problems that the generalized edema will create are:
1. The affected tissues are swollen with fluid.
2. When edema gravitates or moves from a region, the skin can wrinkle and appear distorted.
3. Fluid can leak from intravenous or invasive punctures through the skins surface by gravitation, through hypodermic needle punctures, surgical incisions, and incisions made for embalming purposes.
4. Arterial fluid is diluted (secondary dilution)
5. Decomposition is speeded.
6. The possibility of separation of the skin layers (skin slip) is increased.
Term
Describe the condition of Mrs. Heaton's body due to chronic renal failure and the problems it will cause for the embalmer
Definition
1. She will have an increase in toxic wastes in her blood and tissues of her body.
2. The retention of toxic wastes results in acidosis, where her tissues will become acidic.
3. There would have been a decrease in her cardiac function which would have led to congestive heart failure and pulmonary edema.
4. Gastric ulcers and gastrointestinal bleeding
5. Her skin will be sallow as a result of anemia experienced. The sallow color is due to the retention of urochrome.
The problems that will be present during the embalming process are:
1. Her body will rapidly decompose.
2. The edema present will dilute the arterial solution.
3. Waste products in the bloodstream and tissues neutralize the formaldehyde.
4. The sallow color can deepen after embalming and become more pronounced creating a cosmetic problem.
5. The tissues will not firm normally because the proteins of the body have been altered.
6. Her body will have a very high preservative demand.
7. Skin infections may be caused by uremic pruritus.
8. Sites of gastrointestinal bleeding may be sites of arterial fluid loss and sources of purge.
The treatments recommended when embalming Mrs. Heaton are:
1. Use strong arterial solutions (Special purpose with a high index).
2. Use restricted cervical injection with drainage from the right internal jugular vein.
3. Dye should be used to counterstain the sallow color and trace distribution.
4. Discolorations should be a secondary concern and then treated with cosmetics.
5. Thorough aspiration of the cavities should be performed. (A minimum of 2 to 3 bottles of undiluted cavity fluid should be used.)
6. After several hours Mrs. Heaton should be re aspirated and re injected.
7. When necessary sectional injection should be used.
8. Hypodermic injection and compresses of undiluted cavity fluid should be used when needed.
Term
Hardening of the arteries.
Definition
Arteriosclerosis
Term
Term used to describe the condition that results due to a clot or a rupture in a small artery in the brain.
Definition
Cerebrovascular accident
Term
Any factor within the arteries or veins that restricts arterial fluid distribution or blood drainage.
Definition
Intravascular resistance
Term
Blood clot attached to the wall of a blood vessel.
Definition
Thrombi
Term
Another term for "cerebrovascular accident".
Definition
Stroke
Term
Term used to describe the cavity of a vessel.
Definition
Lumen
Term
Widening of a blood vessel.
Definition
Vasodilation
Term
Inflammation of an artery.
Definition
Arteritis
Term
Narrowing of a blood vessel.
Definition
Vasoconstriction
Term
Hardening of the arteries.
Definition
Arteriosclerosis
Term
A condition that results due to decreased heart function.
Definition
Congestive heart failure
Term
Inflammation of a vein.
Definition
Phlebitis
Term
Any factor outside the arteries and veins that restricts arterial fluid distribution or blood drainage.
Definition
Extravascular resistance
Term
The treatment of disease with chemical agents and drugs.
Definition
Chemotherapy
Term
Localized dilation of an artery.
Definition
Aneurysm
Term
Free moving blood clot.
Definition
Emboli