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EDP101
Test Two
75
Physiology
10/18/2011

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Term
Consciousness
Definition
A persons awareness of feelings, sensations, and thoughts at a given moment.
Term
Daydreaming
Definition
A form of consciousness involving fantasies, usually spontaneous, that occurs while a person is awake.
Term
Circadian Rhythms
Definition
Internal biological changes that occur on a daily schedule.
Term
What do we call a state of consciousness that can result from the use of alcohol, drugs, or hypnosis?
Definition
Altered State of Consciousness
Term
Where in the brain is our internal clock located?
Definition
Hypothalamus
Term
One of the main problems with rotating shifts is that the typical shifts are ________, whereas the body is most able to adapt to shifts that are _________.
Definition
Counterclockwise, Clockwise.
Term
Polysomnograph
Definition
Instrument that amplifies and records signals associated with biological changes taken during a night in a sleep laboratory.
Term
non-REM (NREM) Sleep
Definition
Sleep Stages 1, 2, 3, and 4; NREM sleep consists primarily of Stages 3 and 4 (deep sleep) early in the night and Stage 2 later on.
Term
Slow-Wave Sleep
Definition
Deep sleep of NREM Stages 3 and 4, chracterized by delta waves.
Term
Definition
Term
Rapid Eye Movement (REM) Sleep
Definition
Sleep stage chracterized by rapid eye movements, dreams, high levels of brain actiity, and muscle paralysis.
Term
Narcolepsy
Definition
Sleep disorder chracterized by excessive daytime sleepiness and attacks of muscle weakness (cataplexy) included by emotion, as well as hypnagogic hallucinations; the symptoms are due to the intrusion of REM sleep into waking time.
Term
Sleep Apnea
Definition
Sleep disorder characterized by pauses in breathing during sleep; most prevalent in older, overweight men.
Term
Parasomnias
Definition
Sleep disorders, other than insomnia and hypersomnia, that occur more frequently in children and often disappear without treatment.
Term
Sleepwalking
Definition
A parasomnia that occurs during Stage 4 sleep, usually in children; most often consists of sitting up in bed.
Term
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS)
Definition
The unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant up to age 1 that is not explained by autopsy, medical case information, or an investigation of the death scene.
Term
Dream
Definition
A succession of predominantly visual images experienced during sleep.
Term
Device used to measure Heart Rate
Definition
EKG
Term
Device used to measure Brain Waves
Definition
EEG
Term
Device used for measuring Eye Movements
Definition
EOG
Term
Psychoactive Substances
Definition
Chemicals that affect consciousness, perception, mood, and behavior.
Term
Learning
Definition
A relatively permanant change in behavior or the potential to make a response that occurs as a result of experience.
Term
Conditioned Stimulous (CS)
Definition
Neutral stimulus that acquires the ability to elicit a conditioned response after being paired with an unconditioned stimulus.
Term
Unconditioned Response (UR)
Definition
Reaction that is automatically produced when an unconditioned stimulus is presented.
Term
Conditioned Response (CR)
Definition
Response elicited by a conditioned stimulus that has been paired with an unditioned stimulus; is similar to the unconditioned response.
Term
Classical Condtitioning
Definition
Learning that occurs when two stimuli- a condtioned stimulus (originally a neutral stimulus) and an unconditioned stimulus- are paired and become associated with each other.
Term
Neutral Stimulus (NS)
Definition
Stimulus that, before conditioning, does not elicit a particular response.
Term
Unconditioned Stimulus (US)
Definition
Stimulus that automatically produces a response without any previous training.
Term
Spontaneous Recovery
Definition
Reappearance of an extinguished CR after the passage of time.
Term
Generalization
Definition
Occurence of responses to stimuli that are similar to a CS.
Term
Definition
Term
Phobia
Definition
Irrational fear of an activity, object, or situation that is out of proportion to the actual danger posed.
Term
Learned Motives
Definition
Motives that are learned or acquired, usually through classical conditioning.
Term
Learned Goals (Incentives)
Definition

Goals or incentives that are learned, usually through classical conditioning.

Term
What was the CS in the case of Little Albert
Definition
Rat
Term
Taste aversions seem to be specific examples of what type of learning?
Definition
Classical Conditioning
Term
Operant Conditioning
Definition
Learning that occurs when the participant must make a response to produce a change in the environment. 
Term
Law of Effect
Definition
Thorndike's view that reinforcers promote learning, whereas punishers lead to the unlearning of responses.
Term
Reinforcer
Definition
Event or stimulus that increases the frequency of the response that it follows.
Term
Positive Reinforcer
Definition
Event or stimulus presented after the target response that increases the likelihood that this response will occur again.
Term
Negative Reinforcer
Definition
Event or stimulus removed after the target response, thereby increasing the likelihood that this response will occur again.
Term
Positive Reinforcement
Definition
Increase in the frequency of a target behavior (response) that occurs when a behavior is followed by presentation of a positive reinforcer.
Term
Negative Reinforcement
Definition
Increase in the frequency of a target behavior (response) that occurs when a negative reinforcer is removed or terminated; escape conditioning and avoidance conditioning are examples.
Term
Primary Reinforcer
Definition
Stimulus that has innate reinforcing properties.
Term
Secondary Reinforcer
Definition
Stimulus that acquires reinforcing properties by being associated with a primary reinforcer.
Term
Shaping
Definition
A form of operant conditioning in which a desired response is taught by reinforcement of successive responses that more closely resemble the target response.
Term
Extinction
Definition
A general term for the reduction and elimination of behaviors; in classical conditioning, extinction occurs when repeated presentation of the CS alone leads to a reduction in the strength of the CR; in operant conditioning, extinction occurs when a behavior is no longer followed by a reinforcer.
Term
Discriminative Stimulus
Definition
Stimulus or signal telling the participant that responding will be reinforced.
Term
Cumulative Record
Definition
Results of a series of operant conditioning trials, shown as rate of responding.
Term
Schedule of Reinforcement
Definition
Preset pattern for delivering reinforcement.
Term
Continuous Reinforcement
Definition
Reinforcement that follows every target response.
Term
Intermittent (or partial) Reinforcement
Definition
Reinforcement that does not follow every target response.
Term
Ratio Schedule
Definition
Reinforcement schedule in which reinforcement is based on the number of responses; the number may be set (FR Schedule) or may vary from one reinforcement to the next (VR schedule).
Term
Interval Schedule
Definition
Reinforcement schedule based on the passage of time and in which a single response at the end of the designated interval is reinfoced; intervals may be set (FI schedule) or may vary from one reinforcement to the next (Vi schedule).
Term
In which type of conditioning is the learner's behavior important in bringing about the learning?
Definition
Operant Conditioning
Term
What is the graph that shows the pattern of a rat's responding in a Skinner box?
Definition
Cumulative Record
Term
The effect of _____ is to decrease the likelihood or rate of a target response.
Definition
Punishment
Term
What is the partial reinforcement effect?
Definition
Extinction after partial reinforcement is more difficult.
Term
What two opposing processes are involved in creating discriminative stimuli?
Definition
Discrimination and Generalization
Term
Motivation
Definition
Physiological and psychological factors that account for the arousal, direction, and persistence of behavior.
Term
Instincts
Definition
Unlearned species-specific behaviors that are more  complex than reflexes and triggered by environmental events called releasing stimuli.
Term
Drive
Definition
Internal motivational state created by a physiological need.
Term
Drive-Reduction Theory
Definition
Theory that views motivated behavior as directed toward the reduction of a physiological need.
Term
Optimum-Level Theory
Definition
Theory that the body functions best at a specific level of arousal, which varies from one individual to another.
Term
Cognitive Dissonance
Definition
Aversive state produced when an individual holds two incompatible thoughts or cognitions.
Term
Hierarchy of Needs
Definition
Maslow's view that basic needs must be satisfied before higher-level needs can be satisfied.
Term
Self-Actualization
Definition
Need to develop one's full potential; the highest level of Maslow's hierarchy.
Term
Maslow's Hierarchy
Definition

Self-Actualization Needs

Esteem Needs

Belongingness and Love Needs

Safety Needs

Basic Physiological Needs

Term
Drives serve to activate responses that are aimed at reducting the dive, thereby returning the body to a more normal state called ______.
Definition
Homeostasis.
Term
Obesity
Definition
Body weight of 20% or more in excess of desirable body weight.
Term
Body Mass Index (BMI)
Definition
A numerical index calculated from a person's height and weight that is used to indicate health status and disease risk.
Term
Anorexia Nervosa
Definition
A potentially life-threatening eating disorder occuring primarily in adolescent and young adult females; an intense fear of becoming fat leads to self-starvation and weight loss accompanied by a strong belief that one is fat despite objective evidence to the contrary.
Term
Bulimia Nervosa
Definition
Eating disorder in which a victim alternatively consumes large amounts of food (gorging) and then empties the stomach (purging), usually by induced vomiting.
Term
Achievement
Definition
Manipulation of the environment according to established rules to attain a desired goal.
Term
Emotion
Definition
Physiological changes and conscious feelings of pleasantness or unpleaseantness, aroused by external and internal stimuli, that lead to behavioral reactions.