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East Asia
Test 2
151
Geography
10/18/2009

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Term
Loess pain
Definition
deposit of very fine silt or dust that is laid down after having been windborne for a considerable distance; notable for its fertility under irrigation and its ability to stand in deep vertical walls
Term
alluvial plain
Definition
refers to the mud, silt, and sand deposited by rivers and streams; adjoin many larger rivers; consist of these renewable deposits that are laid down during floods, creating fertile and productive soils
Term
Karst plain
Definition
distinctive natural landscape associated with the chemical erosion of soluble limestone rock
Term
5 Forces of Gradation (Erosion)
Definition
- running water
- wind power (deserts and semi-arid places)
- moving ice/glaciers
- organisms – humans, ants, beavers
- gravity (force landslides, etc.)

Term
2 Tectonic Forces
Definition
- diastrophism
- vulcanism

Term
5 Alluvial Plains of China
Definition
- Kanto Plain – surrounds Tokyo Bay; largest plain in Japan; 4% of the land area of the country with 30% of the people
- Yamato Plain
- Tainan Plain
- Nobi Plain
- North China Plain

Term
4 Home Islands of Japan
Definition
- Honshu
- Hokkaido
- Kyushu
- Shikoku

Term
4 economic regions of Japan
Definition
- Kanto Plain
- Kansai District
- Nobi Plain
- Kitakyushu

Term
4 reasons Tibet is important
Definition
- oil
- passes in Himalaya Mountains (to India)
- headwaters of rivers
- Aksai Chin – communication access; level terrain for construction of a highway

Term
5 classes of Confucian Society
Definition
1. Scholars (to Confucius, merit meant everything)
2. Peasants (grew the food) → common
3. Artisans (people with technical skills) → people
4. Merchants (parasites) – took what peasants and artisans made and sold them for their great wealth; could corrupt society
5. Military – made up of convicts/bums

Term
plate tectonics
Definition
plates are bonded portions of the Earth’s mantle and crust, averaging 60 miles in thickness; more than a dozen plates exist; they are in motion; where plates meet, one slides under the other, crumpling the surface crust and producing significant volcanic and earthquake activity; a major mountain building force
Term
Continental Drift Theory
Definition
slow movement of continents controlled by the processes associated with plate tectonics
Term
Pacific Ring of Fire
Definition
zone of crustal instability along tectonic plate boundaries marked by earthquakes and volcanic activity that ring the Pacific Ocean basin
Term
Pangaea
Definition
vast, singular landmass consisting of most of the areas of the present-day continents; this supercontinent began to break up more than 200 million years ago when still ongoing plate divergence and continental drift became dominant processes
Term
tsunami
Definition
tidal wave; seismic (earthquake-generated) sea wave that can attain gigantic proportions and cause coastal devastation
Term
geomorphology
Definition
the geographic study of the configuration of the Earth’s solid surface – the world’s landscapes and their constituent landforms
Term
San Andreas Fault
Definition
along eastern coast of Unites States; causes many volcanoes and earthquakes; point where Pacific and North American plate meet
Term
subduction zone
Definition
and oceanic plate converges head-on with a plate carrying a continental landmass at its leading edge; the lighter the continent plate overrides the denser oceanic plate and pushes it downward; parts of the earth flowing down to the
Term
Richter scale
Definition
measures severity of earthquakes
Term
relief
Definition
vertical difference between the highest and lowest elevations within a particular areas
Term
orogeny
Definition
a process in which a section of the earth's crust is folded and deformed by lateral compression to form a mountain range.
Term
centripetal forces
Definition
forces that unite and bind a country together; such as a strong nation culture, shared ideological objectives, and a common faith
Term
technopoles
Definition
planned techno-industrial complex (ex. California’s Silicon Valley) that innovates, promotes, and manufactures the products of the postindustrial informational economy
Term
Pinyin
Definition
the standard system of Romanized spelling for transliterating Chinese
Term
vulcanism
Definition
help build up surface of the earth; plateaus, hills, mountain chains
Term
diastrophism
Definition
forces in the mantle of the earth that can bend, fold, and break the rock layers of the earth
Term
centrifugal force
Definition
term employed to designate forces that tend to divide a country; such as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences
Term
Kuomintang
Definition
a nationalist party founded in China under Sun Yat-sen in 1912, and led by Chiang Kai-shek from 1925. It held power from 1928 until the Communist Party took power in October 1949, and it subsequently formed the central administration of Taiwan
Term
Chian Kai-shek
Definition
political and military leader of China in the 20th Century
Term
Mandarin
Definition
the standard literary and official form of Chinese based on the Beijing dialect, spoken by over 730 million people : [as adj. ] Mandarin Chinese.
Term
Taipai
Definition
the capital of Taiwan, in the northern part of the country; pop. 2,718,000
- Kaohsiung – the chief port of Taiwan, on the southwestern coast; pop. 1,390,000
Term
Kaohsiung
Definition
the chief port of Taiwan, on the southwestern coast; pop. 1,390,000
Term
archipelago
Definition
set of islands grouped closely together, usually elongated into chain
Term
peninsula
Definition
comparatively narrow, finger-like stretch of land extending from the main landmass into the sea (ex. Florida, Korea)
Term
island
Definition
piece of land surrounded by water
Term
Gobi
Definition
a barren plateau in southern Mongolia and northern China
Term
Takla Makan
Definition
a desert in the Xinjiang autonomous region of northwestern China that lies between the Kunlun Shan and Tien Shan mountains and forms the greater part of the Tarim Basin
Term
Jakota Triangle
Definition
Japan, Korea, and Taiwan
Term
buffer state
Definition
country or set of countries separating ideological or political adversaries
Term
European Nation State
Definition
a sovereign state whose citizens or subjects are relatively homogeneous in factors such as language or common descent
Term
landfill
Definition
a place to dispose of refuse and other waste material by burying it and covering it over with soil, esp. as a method of filling in or extending usable land
Term
Kanto Plain
Definition
surrounds Tokyo Bay; largest plain in Japan; 4% of the land area of the country with 30% of the people and 23% of manufacturing; Kawasaki (motorcycles); Yokohama (port and ship building center); Yokosuka (US Naval base)
Term
Yokohama
Definition
a seaport in central Japan on Kanto Plain, on the southern side of the island of Honshu; pop. 3,220,000. It is a major port and the second largest city in Japan
Term
Kawasaki
Definition
an industrial city in eastern Japan on Kanto Plain, on the southeastern coast of the island of Honshu; pop. 1,174,000; major industrial center for motorcycles
Term
Yokosuka
Definition
US Naval Base on Kanto Plain
Term
Tokyo
Definition
the capital of Japan, located on the northwestern shores of Tokyo Bay, on the southeastern part of the island of Honshu; pop. 8,163,000. Formerly called Edo, it was the center of the military government under the shoguns 1603–1867. Renamed Tokyo in 1868, it replaced Kyoto as the imperial capital
Term
Osaka
Definition
a port and commercial city in central Japan, on the island of Honshu; pop. 2,642,000
Term
Kobe
Definition
a port in central Japan, on the island of Honshu; pop. 1,477,000. The city was severely damaged by an earthquake in 1995
Term
Nagoya
Definition
a city in central Japan, on the southern coast of the island of Honshu; pop. 2,155,000
Term
Yawata
Definition
steel
Term
Hiroshima
Definition
a city in southwestern Japan, on the southern coast of the island of Honshu; pop. 1,086,000. It was the target of the first atom bomb, which was dropped by the U.S. on August 6, 1945, and resulted in the deaths of about one third of the city's population of 300,000. This, with a second attack on Nagasaki three days later, led to Japan's surrender and to the end of World War II
Term
Nagasaki
Definition
a city and port in southwestern Japan, on the western coast of Kyushu island; pop. 445,000. On August 9, 1945, it became the target of the second atom bomb dropped by the U.S
Term
Sapporo
Definition
a city in northern Japan, capital of the island of Hokkaido; pop. 1,672,000
Term
Seto Inland Sea
Definition
connects Pacific Ocean to Sea of Japan
Term
Kurile Islands
Definition
a chain of 56 islands between the Sea of Okhotsk and the North Pacific Ocean, stretching from the southern tip of the Kamchatka peninsula to the northeastern corner of the Japanese island of Hokkaido. They are the subject of dispute between Russia and Japan
Term
Sakhalin Island
Definition
a large Russian island in the Sea of Okhotsk, situated off the coast of eastern Russia and separated from it by the Tartar Strait; capital, Yuzhno-Sakhalinsk. From 1905 to 1946, it was divided into the northern part, held by Russia, and the southern part, occupied by Japan
Term
Kyoto
Definition
an industrial city in central Japan, on the island of Honshu; pop. 1,461,000. Founded in the 8th century, it was the imperial capital from 794 until 1868
Term
Kansai District
Definition
on Yamato Plain; Osaka (major city); Kobe (port); 15% manufacturing
Term
Nobi Plain
Definition
Nagoya (major city) – headquarters of Nissan Motors; Chubu District; 15% manufacturing
Term
Meiji Restoration
Definition
the period when Japan was ruled by the emperor Meiji Tenno, marked by the modernization and westernization of the country; revolution; capital moves from Kyoto to Tokyo; industrialize and modernize Japan; by 1905 Japan 6th most powerful nation, defeated Russians
Term
Ainu
Definition
a member of an aboriginal people of Japan, physically distinct (with light skin color and round eyes) from the majority population; the language of this people, of unknown affinity; Caucasians, mainly hunters and gatherers, small numbers; 20,000 still live in Hokkaido
Term
Manchukuo
Definition
a mountainous region that forms the northeastern portion of China and comprises the provinces of Jilin, Liaoning, and Heilongjiang. In 1932, it was declared an independent state by Japan and renamed Manchukuo; it was restored to China in 1945
Term
Shogun
Definition
a hereditary commander-in-chief in feudal Japan. Because of the military power concentrated in his hands and the consequent weakness of the nominal head of state (the mikado or emperor), the shogun was generally the real ruler of the country until feudalism was abolished in 1867; answers to emperor; military leader and commands Samurai
Term
Shinto
Definition
religion of Japan; animistic religion; natural features are seen to be supernatural powers or holy features (waterfalls, volcanoes, rivers, lakes); Sun goddess protects Japan form all its enemies; Emperor is son of Sun goddess; worshiped as a god before WWII
Term
Samurai
Definition
a member of a powerful military caste in feudal Japan, esp. a member of the class of military retainers of the daimyos; knights who fight on horses; carry swords and spears
Term
70-year rule
Definition
applies in Tokyo and San Andreas Fault (San Fransisco); should have big earthquake every 70 years to release tension and pressure
Term
Front Japan
Definition
along Pacific Coast – biggest cities and most industrial development because they realize they have to trade – easiest from the coast
Term
Back Japan
Definition
on the Sea of Japan; no great cities; Sapporo – 1 million people; only big city not on Front Japan
Term
Toyama
Definition
on Honshu; leading industrial on Japanese Sea coast
Term
Tokaido Megalopolis
Definition
45-55% of Japan’s population and 75-80% of heavy industry
Term
Aquaculture
Definition
use of a river segment or an artificial pond for raising and harvesting food products, including fish, shellfish, and seaweed (esp. Japan)
Term
Kyongsang
Definition
province in Korea
Term
Cholla
Definition
province in South Korea
Term
Seoul
Definition
the capital of South Korea, located in the northwestern part of the country, on the Han River; pop. 10,628,000
Term
DMZ
Definition
demilitarized zone, an area from which warring parties agree to remove their military forces
Term
Busan
Definition
largest port city in South Korea
Term
Pyongyang
Definition
the capital of North Korea; pop. 2,000,000; oldest city on Korean Peninsula
Term
38th Parallel
Definition
boundary between Russian forces and America
Term
Kim Il Sung
Definition
(1912–94), Korean communist statesman; first premier of North Korea 1948–72 and president 1972–94; precipitated the Korean War 1950–53; maintained a one-party state; 1950 – invaded South Korea; Armistice 1953; moved to North and captured Pyongyang; becomes leader and invests in creating missiles, etc.
Term
Kwangju
Definition
a city in southwestern South Korea; pop. 1,145,000
Term
Ulsan City
Definition
an industrial port on the southern coast of South Korea; pop. 683,000
Term
Hyundai
Definition
ships and autos in South Korea
Term
KTX
Definition
bullet trains (over 200 miles per hour) – connecting Seoul with Kyongsan and Cholla
Term
Inchon-Songdo
Definition
a port on the western coast of South Korea, on the Yellow Sea, near Seoul; pop. 1,818,000. It was the site of a successful invasion by U.S. troops in 1950 that enabled them to return Seoul to South Korea
Term
Chaebol
Definition
(in South Korea) a large business conglomerate, typically a family-owned one
Term
Kitakyushu
Definition
a port in southern Japan, on the northern coast of Kyushu island; pop. 1,026,000; Yawata Steel (in Yawata); only coal mines in Japan; 12% manufacturing
Term
Manchuria
Definition
a mountainous region that forms the northeastern portion of China and comprises the provinces of Jilin, Liaoning, and Heilongjiang. In 1932, it was declared an independent state by Japan and renamed Manchukuo; it was restored to China in 1945
Term
SEZ
Definition
Special Economic Zone; ex. South Korea
Term
Pudong
Definition
district of Shanghai
Term
Shanghai
Definition
a city on the eastern coast of China, a port on the estuary of the Yangtze River; pop. 7,780,000. Until World War II, Shanghai contained areas of British, French, and American settlement. It was the site in 1921 of the founding of the Chinese Communist Party
Term
Beijing
Definition
the capital of China, in the northeastern part of the country; pop. 6,920,000. It became the country's capital in 1421, at the start of the Ming period, and survived as the capital of the Republic of China after the revolution of 1912
Term
Hong Kong
Definition
a former British dependency on the southeastern coast of China that was returned to China in 1997; pop. 6,850,000; one of the world's major financial and manufacturing centers
Term
Macau
Definition
a Special Administrative Region (SAR) of the People’s Republic, formerly a Portuguese dependency, on the southeastern coast of China; pop. 467,000; capital, Macao City; developed by the Portuguese as a trading post and became the chief center of trade between Europe and China in the 18th century
Term
economic tiger
Definition
small but extremely wealthy area
Term
Sichuan
Definition
a province in west central China; capital, Chengdu
Term
Chongqin
Definition
a city in Sichuan province, in central China, on the Yangtze River; pop. 2,960,000. It was the capital of China from 1938 to 1946
Term
Shenyang
Definition
a city in northeastern China; pop. 4,500,000; capital of the province of Liaoning
Term
Harbin
Definition
a city in northeastern China, the capital of Heilongjiang province, on the Songhua River; pop. 3,597,000
Term
Guangzho
Definition
a city in southern China, the capital of Guangdong province; pop. 3,918,000. It is the leading industrial and commercial center of southern China
Term
Pearl River Delta
Definition
river in southern China that flows from Guangzhou (Canton) south to the South China Sea and forms part of the delta of the Xi River; lower reaches widen to form the Pearl River estuary, an inlet between Hong Kong and Macau
Term
Overseas Chinese
Definition
people of Chinese birth/descent living outside territories
Term
Singapore
Definition
a country in Southeast Asia; capital, Singapore City; established as a trading post under the East India Company in 1819, the most important commercial center and naval base in Southeast Asia
Term
Hexi (Gansu) Corridor
Definition
a province in northwestern central China, between Mongolia and Tibet; capital, Lanzhou. This narrow, mountainous province forms a corridor through which the Silk Road passed
Term
Malaysia (Pinang)
Definition
a country in Southeast Asia; pop. 23,522,000; capital, Kuala Lumpur
Term
Dalai Lama
Definition
the spiritual head of Tibetan Buddhism and, until the establishment of Chinese communist rule, the spiritual and temporal ruler of Tibet; each Dalai Lama is believed to be the reincarnation of the bodhisattva Avalokiteshvara, reappearing in a child when the incumbent Dalai Lama dies; the present Dalai Lama, the fourteenth incarnation, escaped to India in 1959 following the invasion of Tibet by the Chinese
Term
Mao Zedong
Definition
(1893–1976), Chinese statesman; chairman of the Communist Party of the Chinese People's Republic 1949–76; head of state 1949–59. A cofounder of the Chinese Communist Party in 1921 and its effective leader from the time of the Long March (1934–35), he eventually defeated both the occupying Japanese and rival Kuomintang nationalist forces to create the People's Republic of China in 1949
Term
Karamay
Definition
in North Xinjiang; sit of worst fire in Chinese history (324 dead)
- Urumqi – the capital of Xinjiang autonomous region in northwestern China; pop. 1,110,000
Term
Lhasa
Definition
the capital of Tibet; pop. 140,000. It is situated in the northern Himalayas at an altitude of c. 11,800 feet (3,600 m) on a tributary of the Brahmaputra River. Known as the Forbidden City until the 20th century because it was closed to foreign visitors, it was the seat of the Dalai Lama until 1959
Term
Tibet (Xizang)
Definition
a mountainous region in Asia on the northern side of the Himalayas, since 1965 forming an autonomous region in the west of China; pop. 2,196,000; ruled by Buddhist lamas since the 7th century, it was conquered by the Mongols in the 13th century and the Manchus in the 18th; China extended its authority over Tibet in 1951 but gained full control only after crushing a revolt in 1959, during which the country's spiritual leader, the Dalai Lama, escaped to India
Term
Sinkiang (Xinjiang)
Definition
an autonomous region in northwestern China, on the border with Mongolia and Kazakhstan; pop. 15,170,000; capital, Urumqi. A remote mountainous region, it includes the Tien Shan and Kunlun Shan mountains, the Taklimakan Desert, and the arid Tarim Basin
Term
Yumen-Lanzhou
Definition
a city in northern China, on the upper Yellow River, capital of Gansu province; pop. 1,480,000
Term
Strait of Malacca
Definition
the channel between the Malay Peninsula and the Indonesian island of Sumatra, an important sea passage linking the Indian Ocean to the South China Sea; ports of Melaka and Singapore lie on this strait
Term
Liao River
Definition
a river in northeastern China that rises in Inner Mongolia and flows about 900 miles (1,450 km) east and then south to the Gulf of Liaodong at the head of the Gulf of Bo Hai
Term
Xi Jiang
Definition
the principal river in China. It rises as the Jinsha in the Tibetan highlands and flows south and then east for 3,964 miles (6,380 km) through central China before it enters the East China Sea at Shanghai; also called Yangtze
Term
Himalaya Mountains
Definition
a vast mountain system in southern Asia that extends for 1,500 miles (2,400 km) from Kashmir east to Assam. The Himalayas consist of a series of parallel ranges that rise up from the Ganges River basin to the Tibetan plateau. The backbone is the Great Himalayan Range, the highest mountain range in the world, with several peaks rising to over 25,000 feet (7,700 m), the highest being Mount Everest
Term
Aksai Chin
Definition
a region of the Himalayas occupied by China since 1950, but claimed by India as part of Kashmir
Term
Chengdu
Definition
the capital of Sichuan province in western central China; pop. 2,780,000
Term
Loess Plateau
Definition
plateaus formed by the very fine silt or dust that is laid down after being windborne for a considerable distance; notable for fertility under irrigation and ability to stand in deep fertile walls
Term
Shandong Peninsula
Definition
separates southern Bo Hai from the Yellow Sea
Term
Hominids
Definition
a primate of a family (Hominidae) that includes humans and their fossil ancestors
Term
Yellow River
Definition
the second largest river in China. It rises in the mountains of western central China and flows for more than 3,000 miles (4,830 km) in a huge semicircle before it enters Bo Hai, an inlet of the Yellow Sea
Term
China Proper
Definition
Inner China; mostly Han Chinese
Term
Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution
Definition
a political upheaval in China 1966–68 intended to bring about a return to revolutionary Maoist beliefs. Largely carried forward by the Red Guard, it resulted in attacks on intellectuals, a large-scale purge in party posts, and the appearance of a personality cult around Mao Zedong. It led to considerable economic dislocation and was gradually brought to a halt by premier Zhou Enlai
Term
Middle Kingdom
Definition
historical China or its eighteen inner provinces.
Term
Great Leap Forward
Definition
an unsuccessful attempt made under Mao Zedong in China 1958–60 to hasten the process of industrialization and improve agricultural production by reorganizing the population into large rural collectives and adopting labor-intensive industrial methods
Term
Extraterritoriality
Definition
foreigners exempt from the laws of China (do whatever they want); insult to China; one of the reasons for the revolution in 1911
Term
First Opium War
Definition
war involving Britain and China regarding the question of trading rights; followed China's attempt to prohibit the illegal importation of opium from British India into China
Term
Sinicization
Definition
turning non-Chinese into people with Chinese culture; with Confucianism (Kongfuzi) – Confucius - philosopher (551 BC – 479 BC); people chosen based on personal merit (not on money or family), and Confucian Classics (series of books) - Chinese based education on
Term
Confucius
Definition
Chinese philosopher; his ideas about the importance of practical moral values, collected by his disciples in the Analects, formed the basis of the philosophy known as Confucianism
Term
Silk Route
Definition
an ancient caravan route that linked Xian in central China with the eastern Mediterranean. It was established during the period of Roman rule in Europe and took its name from the silk that was brought to the west from China
Term
People of Han
Definition
92% of mainland China
Term
Han Dynasty
Definition
Golden Age; 206 BC – 220 AD; Silk Route – Rome
Term
Yuan (Mongol) Dynasty
Definition
1264-1368
Term
Qing (Manchu) Dynasty
Definition
1644-1911
Term
Nikkei
Definition
parents Japanese, but born outside of Japan; cannot become Japanese citizens
Term
Karafuto
Definition
Japanese administration over Sakhalin
Term
Ryukyu Islands (Okinawa)
Definition
a chain of islands in the western Pacific Ocean, stretching about 600 miles (960 km) from the southern tip of the island of Kyushu in Japan to Taiwan; the largest island is Okinawa
Term
Yalu River
Definition
a river in eastern Asia (China/North Korea border) that rises in the mountains of Jilin province in northeastern China and flows southwest for about 500 miles (800 km) to the Yellow Sea
Term
Uyghur
Definition
a member of a people of northwestern China, particularly the Xinjiang region, and adjoining areas who speak Turkic language
Term
Red Guards
Definition
any of various radical or socialist groups, in particular a militant youth movement in China (1966–76) that carried out attacks on intellectuals and other disfavored groups as part of Mao Zedong's Cultural Revolution
Term
State Capitalism
Definition
government controlled corporations competing under free-market conditions, usually in a tightly regimented society; ex South Korea
Term
Regional Complimentary
Definition
exists when two regions, through exchange of raw materials or finished products, can specifically satisfy each other’s demands; North and South Korea compliment one another (rice in north and agriculture in south
Term
Yongbyon
Definition
county in North Korea; strategic position with beautiful scenery
Term
puppet state
Definition
government controlled by government of another country
Term
Jade Gate
Definition
in Gansu province; where sil road passed; connected Central Asia and China
Term
Nanjing
Definition
a city in eastern China, on the Yangtze River, capital of Jiangsu province; pop. 3,682,000
Term
Kowloon Peninsula
Definition
a densely populated peninsula on the southeastern coast of China that forms part of Hong Kong; separated from Hong Kong Island by Hong Kong Harbor
Term
Dzungarian Gate
Definition
main pass through western ranges to Kazakhstan
Term
Kazakhstan
Definition
a republic in central Asia, south of Russia, that extends east from the Caspian Sea to the Altai Mountains and China; population 15,143,000; The Turkic tribes of Kazakhstan were overrun by the Mongols in the 13th century, and the region was eventually absorbed into the Russian empire; formed a constituent republic of the Soviet Union and became an independent republic within the Commonwealth of Independent States in 1991
Term
Spratly Islands
Definition
a group of small islands and coral reefs in the South China Sea, between Vietnam and Borneo. Dispersed over a distance of about 600 miles (965 km), the islands are variously claimed by China, Taiwan, Vietnam, the Philippines, and Malaysia
Term
Yunnan Plateau
Definition
a province in southwestern China, on the border with Vietnam, Laos, and Myanmar (Burma); capital, Kunming