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Earth Science
Chapter 1
26
Science
10/07/2005

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Term
geology
Definition
the study of earth

physical - materials and processes

historical - origin and development
Term
meteorology
Definition
study of the atmosphere
and the process that produce
weather and climate
Term
astronomy
Definition
study of the universe
Term
hypothesis
Definition
tentative explanation for observations

experiments test
science can only prove things to be false
Term
theory
Definition
well tested and widely accepted view
that best explains certain observable facts
Term
four spheres
that constitute our environment
Definition
hydrosphere
atmosphere
biosphere
geosphere
Term
hydrosphere
Definition
dynamic mass of liquid that is continually on the move, evaporating from the oceans to the atmosphere, precipitating on land, and running back to the ocean again
Term
atmosphere
Definition
gaseous portion of a planet;
the planet's envelope of air
Term
biosphere
Definition
all life on earth;
parts of solid earth, hydrosphere, and atmosphere in which
living organisms can be found
Term
geosphere
Definition
solid earth
largest sphere
Term
the oceans cover __% of earth's SURFACE
Definition
71% of earth's surface
Term
compositional divisions of earth
Definition
crust
mantle
core
Term
what is the difference beween
the asthenosphere
and the lithosphere?
Definition
lithosphere - outermost, cool, hard, rigid

asthenosphere - soft, weak, close to melting
Term
Where are earth's youngest mountains?
Definition
circum-Pacific belt and
Alps/Himalayas
Term
What is the difference between
shields and stable platforms?
Definition
sheild - expansive, flat region of deformed crystalline rock

stable platform - shield covered in thin layer of sedimentary rocks
Term
three major regions of the ocean floor
Definition
CONTINENTAL MARGINS - seafloor adjacent to continents

DEEP-OCEAN BASINS - between continental margin & oceanic ridge system (30%s), and

OCEANIC RIDGES - continuously elevated zone
Term
open & closed system differences
Definition
open system - matter and energy flow in and out (hurricane)

closed system - no matter enters or leaves, self contained (car cooling)
Term
positive & negative feedback differences
Definition
negative - maintain system (sweating)

positive - enhance change (earth absorbing sunlight)
Term
sources of energy for earth system
Definition
sun
earth's interior
Term
scientific method
Definition
researches gather facts through observation and formulate scientific hypotheses and theories
Term
natural law
Definition
statement of observable fact

undera a certain set of conditions a certain phenomena will occur
paper falls if dropped
Term
rock cycle
Definition
process by which one rock changes into another
Term
hydrologic cycle
Definition
unended circulation of earth's water among the hdrosphere, atmosphere, biosphere, and geosphere
Term
reservoirs
Definition
regions that hold material for periods of time
Term
fluxes
Definition
rate of gain/loss of material from a reservoir
Term
oceans contain about __% of the planet's total WATER supply
Definition
97% of total water supply