Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Dysarthria Types
Dysarthrias, related A&P, characteristics
29
Other
04/29/2008

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Cards

Term
Flaccid Dysarthria - anatomy & physiology
Definition
  • Lower motor neuron

  • Single muscles affected as a result of single or multiple cranial nerve damage
Term
Flaccid dysarthria - pathology
Definition
  • reduced muscle tone
  • fasciculations
  • atrophy
  • reduced or absent reflexes
Term
Flaccid Dysarthria - Respiration
Definition
  • short phrases
  • reduced loudness
  • weak pressure consonants
  • speak beyond breath stream
Term
Flaccid Dysarthria - Phonation
Definition
  • Diplophonia
  • Harshness
  • Stridor
  • Reduced loudness
  • Breathiness
  • Monopitch/monoloudness
Term
Flaccid dysarthria - Resonance/Articulation
Definition
  • Hypernasality
  • Nasal emission
  • Imprecise consonants
  • Short phrases
Term
Spastic Dysarthria - anatomy & physiology
Definition
  • Upper motor neurons

  • Affects muscle groups and movement patterns
Term
Spastic dysarthria - pathology
Definition
  • increased muscle tone
  • limited range of motion
  • weakness/paralysis
  • hyperactive reflex
  • pseudobulbar affect
  • slow movements
Term
Spastic dysarthria - speech characteristics
Definition
  • Slow, effortful
  • Monopitch, monoloudness
  • Harsh
  • Reduced stress pattern
  • Mild consonant distortions
  • Slow regular AMRs
Term
Spastic Dysarthria - Respiration
Definition
  • Rapid breathing
  • Difficulty taking deep breath and controlling prolonged exhale
  • Antagonist diaphragm motion
Term
Spastic dysarthria - phonation
Definition
  • Harsh, low pitch
  • Strain, strangled
  • Terminal grunt
  • Pitch breaks
  • Short phrases
  • Breathy
Term
Spastic dysarthria - resonance/articulation
Definition
  • Imprecise consonants
  • Distorted vowels
  • Slow rate
  • Hypernasality
Term
Ataxic - anatomy & physiology
Definition
  • Cerebellar control circuit

  • Affects force, range, speech, timing, direction of movement.
  • Intergration of muscles within group and tone.
Term
Ataxic - pathology
Definition
  • Reduced muscle tone
  • Inaccurate, slow movement
  • Irregular AMRs
  • Reflexes preserved
Term
Ataxic - speech characteristics
Definition
  • Slow, drawling, slurred
  • Labored, forced, irregular
  • Excess/equal stress, staccato
Term
Ataxic - Respiration
Definition
  • Irregular pattern of respiration
  • Excess loudness variation
  • Exaggerated movement of respiration
Term
Ataxic - phonation
Definition
  • Pitch breaks
  • Low or increased pitch
  • Strain, strangled, tremor
  • Excess loudness variation
Term
Ataxic - resonance/articulation
Definition
  • Imprecise consonants
  • Distorted vowels
  • Irregular articulation breakdowns
  • Phoneme prolongations
Term
Hypokinetic - anatomy & physiology
Definition
  • Extrapyramidal, basal ganglia

  • Affects posture, tone & associated movements for locomotion.
  • Reduced automaticity of skilled voluntary movements.
  • Reduced control of complex movements
Term
Hypokinetic - pathology
Definition
  • Parkinsons Disease
  • Progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP)

  • Resting tremor, akinesia, regidity, reduced postural reflexes
Term
Hypokinetic - speech characteristics
Definition
  • Rapid AMRs
  • Short rushes of speech
  • Reduced loudness, mobility
  • Monopitch, monoloudness
  • Possible palilalia
Term
Hypokinetic - respiration
Definition
  • Irregular breath cycles vegetative & speech breathing
  • Shallow breathing
  • Inflexibility in breathing pattern
Term
Hypokinetic - phonation
Definition
  • Loudness decay
  • Reduced pitch range
  • Breathiness, glottal fry
  • Diplophonia
  • De-voice portion of syllable nucleus
Term
Hypokinetic - resonance/articulation
Definition
  • Reduced ROM, force, intelligibility
  • Increase speaking rate
  • Short, rapid runs of speech
Term
Hyperkinetic - anatomy & physiology
Definition
  • Extrapyramidal/basal ganglia

  • Affects regulation of postural tone
  • Reduced automaticity of skilled voluntary movements
  • Reduced control of complex movements
Term
Hyperkinetic - pathology
Definition
  • Excess movement, especially random, involuntary
  • Choreiform - quick
  • Dystonic - slow
Term
Hyperkinetic - speech characteristics
Definition
  • Variable rate
  • Irregular articulation & imprecision
  • Inappropriate silences, prolong intervals, phonemes
  • Variable stress
Term
Hyperkinetic - respiration
Definition
  • Forced inspiration, expiration
  • Transient breathiness
  • Excess loudness
Term
Hyperkinetic - phonation
Definition
  • Voice stoppage
  • Strain, strangled
Term
Hyperkinetic - resonance/articulation
Definition
  • Hypernasality
  • Slow, irregular AMRs
  • Irregular breakdowns
  • Distortions