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Disorders & Treatment
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Psychology
12/10/2010

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term

The social-cognitive perspective has emphasized that depression is perpetuated by

A. motivational conflict.

B. self-blaming attributions.

C. egocentrism.

D. conscious role playing.

E. feelings of ambivalence.

Definition
B. self-blaming attributions.
Term

Matt is restless and often jumps out of his seat or interferes with ongoing class activities in response to the sound of outside traffic.  Matt most clearly exhibits symptoms of

A. generalized anxiety disorder.

B. antisocial personality disorder.

C. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.

D. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

E. bipolar disorder.

Definition
C. attention-deficit hyperactivity disorder.
Term

Which of the following treatment approaches has received little or no scientific support?

A. ECT

B. exposure therapies

C. energy therapies

D. aversive conditioining

E. rTMS

Definition
C. energy therapies
Term

Dopamine overactivity appears to be most clearly related to

A. flat affect.

 B. agoraphobia.

C. hallucinations.

D. somatoform disorder.

E. an expressionless face.

Definition
C. hallucinations.
Term

To facilitate diagnostic reliability, the DSM-IV-TR typically bases diagnoses on

A. chemical analyses of blood and urine samples.

B. physiological measures of blood pressure, perspiration, and muscles tension.

C. observable patterns of behavior.

D. brain scans.

E. analysis of genetic predispositions.

Definition
C. observable patterns of behavior.
Term

As a child, Andre dreamed that he was chased and attacked by a ferocious dog.  Many years later, he mistakenly recalled that this had actually happened to him.  Andre's false recollection best illustrates

A. the self-reference effect.

B. mood-congruent memory.

C. source amnesia.

D. implicit memory.

E. proactive interference.

Definition
C. source amnesia.
Term

A sense of being separated from your body and watching yourself with a sense of detachment is a symptom of

A. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

B. dysthymic disorder.

C. generalized anxiety disorder.

D. agoraphobia.

E. dissociation.

Definition
E. dissociation.
Term

The study of the effect of drugs on mind and behavior is called:

A. psychosurgery.

B. psychobiology.

C. ECT.

D. psychopharmacology.

E. psychoanalysis.

Definition
D. psychopharmacology.
Term

The symptoms of _________ are likely to appear at an earlier age than the symptoms of _________.

A. antisocial personality; schizophrenia

B. major depression; bipolar disorder

C. obsessive-compulsive disorder; phobias

D. schizophrenia; obsessive-compulsive disorder

E. major depression; alcohol abuse

Definition
A. antisocial personality; schizophrenia
Term

The tremors of Parkinson's disease result from the death of nerve cells that produce the neurotransmitter

A. serotonin.

B. ACh.

C. GABA.

D. dopamine.

E. acetylcholine.

Definition
D. dopamine.
Term

Which of the following is most likely to contribute to inflated perceptions of the effectiveness of psychotherapy?

A. meta-analysis

B. psychopharmacology

C. free association

D. regression toward the mean

E. the double-blind procedure

Definition
D. regression toward the mean
Term

Unusual ESP subjects who defy chance when first tested nearly always lose thier "psychic powers" when retested.  This decline effect is best explained in terms of

A. rTMS.

B. progression relaxation.

C. regression toward the mean.

D. the placebo effect.

E. ECT

Definition
C. regression toward the mean.
Term

Which of the following is most clearly a key contributor to the formation of the therapeutic alliance?

A. progressive relaxation

B. an eclectic approach

C. patient transference

D. an empathic therapist

E. free association

Definition
D. an empathic therapist
Term

The dramatic increase in reported cases of dissociative identity disorder during the past 40 or so years most strongly suggests that symptoms of this disorder involve

A. low self-esteem

B. illicit drug usage

C. promiscuous sexual behavior

D. internal attribution of blame.

E. role-playing

Definition
E. role-playing
Term

Psychoanalytic techniques are designed primarily to help patients

A. focus on their immeidate conscious feelings.

B. feel more trusting toward others.

C. become aware of their repressed conflicts and impulses.

D. develop greater self-esteem.

E. overcome negative conditioned behaviors.

Definition
C. become aware of their repressed conflicts and impulses.
Term

An eye-tracking device that measures an individual's ability to focus on and follow spots of light has been used for the assessmend ot

A. OCD.

B. PTSD.

C. DID.

D. ADHD.

E. DSM.

Definition
D. ADHD.
Term

People should avoid back-to-back study times for learning Spanish and French vocabulary in order to minimize

A. the self-reference effect.

 B. long-term potentiation.

C. mood-congruent memory.

D. interference.

E. echoic memory.

Definition
D. interference.
Term

According to the psychoanalytic perspective, depression results from

A. the internalization of anger.

B. learned helplessness.

C. self-defeating attributions.

D. anxiety disorders.

E. personality disorders.

Definition
A. the internalization of anger.
Term

After Charles Darwin began suffering from panic disorder, he lived in relative seclusion and traveled only in his wife's company.  His panic disorder was apparently accompanied by

A. catatonia

B. agoraphobia

C. delusions

D. mania

E. hallucinations

Definition
B. agoraphobia
Term

A psychological disorder in which the symptoms take a bodily form without apparent physical caue is a

A. personality disorder.

B. somatoform disorder.

C. mood disorder.

D. dissociative disorder.

E. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

Definition
B. somatoform disorder.
Term

The greatest sortcoming associated with explanations of psychological disorders in terms of demon possession is that these explanations

A. they were relevant only to severe disorders such as schizophrenia.

B. encouraged many to believe there was no such thing as insanity.

C. led to some harsh and ineffective remidial treatments.

D. absolved people of personal responsibility for their own behavior.

E. were applied only to mood disorders, not delusional disorders.

Definition
C. led to some harsh and ineffective remidial treatments.
Term

The belief that no person is an island is the fundamental assumption of

A. psychoanalysis.

B. family therapy.

C. client-centered therapy.

D. cognitive therapy.

E. systematic desensitization.

Definition
B. family therapy.
Term

Research on the causes of schizophrenia strongly suggests that

A. there is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.

B. almost anybody will develop schizophrenia if exposed to extensive environmental stress.

C. schizophrenia patients suffer from a deficiency of the neurotransmitter serotonin.

D. if adopted children's adoptive parents have schizophrenia, they will too.

E. a detached or permissive parenting style may increase chances of schizophrenia in children.

Definition
A. there is a genetic predisposition to schizophrenia.
Term

An accelerated heartbeat is to a slowed heartbeat as the _________ nervous system is to the _________ nervous system.

A. somatic; autonomic

B. autonomic; somatic

C. central; peripheral

D. sympathetic; parasympathetic

E. parasympathetic; sympathetic

Definition
D. sympathetic; parasympathetic
Term

The depolarization of anueral membrane can create a(n)

A. action potential.

B. myelin sheath.

C. lesion.

D. neural network.

E. interneuron.

Definition
A. action potential.
Term

Psychologists are LEAST likely to suggest that ___________ contribute(s) to the development of schizophrenia.

A. neglectful child-rearing practices

B. prenatal viral infections

C. dopamine overactivity

D. shrinkage of cerebral tissue

E. genetic predispositions

Definition
A. neglectful child-rearing practices
Term

In which disorder do peole alternate between states of lethargic hopelessness and wild overexcitement?

A. conversion disorder

B. bipolar disorder

C. obsessive-compulsive disorder

D. schizophrenia

E. dissociative identity disorder

Definition
B. bipolar disorder
Term

The reduced self-control of murderers is most closely related to reduce brain activity in their ________ lobes.

A. frontal

B. temporal

C. occipital

D. parietal

E. sensorimotor

Definition
A. frontal
Term

The speed at which a neural impulse travels is increased when the axon is encased by a(n)

A. sympathetic nerve.

B. myelin sheath.

C. endocrine gland.

D. pituitary gland.

E. synaptic vesicle.

Definition
B. myelin sheath.
Term

The expression toward a therapist of feelings linked with earlier relationships is known as

A. transference.

B. resistance.

C. meta-analysis.

D. the therapeutic alliance.

E. fixation.

Definition
A. transference.
Term

Which of the following disorders was more common in Freud's day than it is today?

A. depression

B. anorexia nervosa

C. conversion disorder

D. dissociative identity disorder

E. anxiety disorder

Definition
C. conversion disorder
Term

After a car swerves in front of you on the highway, you notice that your heart is still racing, even though you know you are no longer in danger.  Why do the physical symptoms of fear linger even after we cognitively relize the danger has passed?

A. Dopamine controls fear, and this chemical takes a certain amount of time to break down in your system.

B. Endocrine messages tend to outlast the effects of neural messages.

C. Excitatory neurotransmitters travel faster than inhibitory neurotransmitters.

D. The parasympathetic nervous system is less effective than the sympathetic nervous system.

E. The adrenal glands tend to act more quickly than the rest of the endocrine system.

Definition
B. Endocrine messages tend to outlast the effects of neural messages.
Term

Electroconvulsive therapy has proven to be effective in the treatment of

A. phobias.

B. dissociative disorders.

C. schizophrenia.

D. depression.

E. mania.

Definition
D. depression.
Term

The often unconscious activation of particular associations in memory is called

A. chunking.

B. automatic processing.

C. repression.

D. priming.

E. state-dependent memory.

 

Definition
D. priming.
Term

The anterior cingulate cortex, a brain region that monitors our actions, seems especially likely to be hyperactive in those with

A. generalized anxiety disorder.

B. a dissociative disorder.

C. obsessive-compulsive disorder.

D. antisocial personality disorder.

E. a mood disorder.

Definition
C. obsessive-compulsive disorder.
Term

Proactive interference refers to the

A. blocking of painful memories from conscious awareness.

B. incorporation of misleading information into one's memory of an event.

C. disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of previously learned information.

D. disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.

E. integration of current information into implicit memories.

Definition
D. disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information.
Term

To break the vicious cycle of depression, the social-cognitive perspective suggests that people should be encouraged to explain their failures in terms taht are both

A. internal and stable.

B. external and global.

C. internal and global.

D. external and temporary.

E. external and stable.

Definition
D. external and temporary.
Term

The psychologist who questioned whether DID is a genuine disorder is

A. Susan Nolen-Hoeksema.

B. Kenneth Bianchi.

 C. William James.

D. Nicholas Spanos.

E. Martin Seligman.

Definition
D. Nicholas Spanos.
Term

Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety, has trouble sleeping, and has vivid flashbacks of her assault.  Brianna is most clearly showing signs of

A. panic disorder.

B. post-traumatic stress disorder.

C. generalized anxiety disorder.

D. social phobia.

E. bipolar disorder.

Definition
B. post-traumatic stress disorder.
Term

After learning that kicking would move a crib mobile, infants showed that they recalled this learning best if they were tested in the same crib.  This best illustrates the impact of ________ on recall.

A. the serial position effect

B. retrieval cues

C. state-dependent memory

D. the spacing effect

E. parallel processing

Definition
B. retrieval cues
Term

A major depressive disorder is most likely characterized by

A. delusions of persecution.

B. a massive dissociation of self from ordinary consciousness.

C. alternations between extreme hopelessness and unrealistic optimism.

D. a persisten irrational fear of other people.

E. feelings of personal worthlessness.

 

Definition
E. feelings of personal worthlessness.
Term

What do psychologists call personal strenghts that help people cope with stress?

A. resilience

B. transference

C. insight

D. meta-analysis

E. resistance.

Definition
A. resilience
Term

A psychodynamic therapist is most likely to

A. associate patients' undesireable behaviors with unpleasant consequences.

B. help patients identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences.

C. suggest interpretive insights regarding patients' difficulties.

D. recomment the use of antipsychotic drugs during the process of psychotherapy.

E. encourage depressed patients to take more responsibility for their failures.

Definition
C. suggest interpretive insights regarding patients' difficulties.
Term

Ron is a 22-year-old mechanic who suffers from claustrophobia.  The most effective way to reat Ron's problem would involve _________ therapy.

A. cognitive

B. electroconvulsive

C. psychoanalytic

D. client-centered

E. behavior

Definition
E. behavior
Term

Fear-learning experiences can traumatize the brain by creating fear circuits within the

A. amygdala.

B. thalamus.

C. hypothalamus.

D. anterior cingulate cortex.

E. brainstem.

Definition
A. amygdala.
Term

It is most helpful to use __________ for explaining why certain psychological disorders occur only in particular cultures.

A. the psychoanalytic perspective

B. the medical model

C. a biopsychosocial approach

D. DSM-IV-TR

E. linkage analysis

Definition
C. a biopsychosocial approach
Term

Which form of psychotherapy is LEAST likely to occur in therapist-led small groups?

A. client-centered therapy

B. psychoanalysis

C. systematic desensitization

D. cognitive therapy

E. token economy

Definition
B. psychoanalysis
Term

Cognitive therapists are most likely to encourage depressed clients to

A. sense and express their own real moment-to-moment feelings of depression.

B. carefully observe the negative consequences of their depression.

C. take more personal responsibility for their own negative feelings and actions.

D. stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.

E. identify a hierarchy of anxiety-arousing experiences.

Definition
D. stop blaming themselves for negative circumstances beyond their control.
Term

Of all the twins who share identical genes with a schizophrenia victim, about ___________ do not themselves develop schizophrenia.

A. one-fifth

B. one-fourth

C. one-half

D. two-thirds

E. three-quarters

Definition
C. one-half
Term

Natasha claimed that her failure to get A's in all her courses meant she was incompetent.  her therapist calmly challenged this assertion, commenting, "By your strange calculations, well over 90 percent of all students are incompetent!" The therapist's response was most typical of a(n) ___________ therapist.

A. cognitive

B. behavior

C. eclectic

D. client-centered

E. psychoanalytic

Definition
A. cognitive