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digestive system
chapter 14
144
Anatomy
09/26/2011

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Term
Digestion
Definition
The process of physically and chemically breaking food particles down is referred to as?
Term
Palate
Definition
The oral cavity is separated from the nasal cavity by the hard and soft what?
Term
Mucosa
Definition
The innermost layer of the alimentary canal is referred to as?
Term
Submucosal, myenteric
Definition
The two instrinsic nerve plexuses serving the alimentary canal are the what?
Term
Fundus
Definition
The upper, expanded part of the stomach lateral to the cardiac region is called the what?
Term
Rugae
Definition
Large wrinkle-like folds in the stomach lining, present when the stomach is empty, that allow for expansion when the stomach is filling are called what?
Term
B12
Definition
Instrinsic factor, produced by cells in the stomach, is necessary for the absoprtion of vitamin ------------- in the small intestine.
Term
Duodenum
Definition
The shortest region of the small intestine.
Term
Villi
Definition
The fingerlike projections of the small intestine that increase the surface area
Term
Liver
Definition
Bile is formed here.
Term
Lacteal
Definition
The rich capillary bed and modified lymphatic capillary found within each villus.
Term
Goblet cells
Definition
Cells abundant within the large intestine that produce largea mounts of lubricating mucus to aid in the passage of feces to the end of the digestive tract.
Term
Mastication
Definition
The process of chewing
Term
20
Definition
Number of baby teeth a child has
Term
The material on the outermost surface of the root that attaches a tooth to the periodontal membrane is called
Definition
Cement
Term
The enzyme produced by the salivary glands used in the breakdown of starches is
Definition
Amylase
Term
Segementation is a type of mechanical digestion that occurs only where?
Definition
Small intestine
Term
When digestion is not occuring in the small intesting, bile is stored where?
Definition
Gallbladder
Term
The process of eliminating indigestible residues from the GI tract is called
Definition
Defecation
Term
Two hormones that promote the release of bile and pancreatic juice into the small intesting are?
Definition
Secretin and cholecystokonin or CCK
Term
The hormone responsible for promoting the release of pepsinogens, mucus, and hydrocholoric acid in the stomach is called
Definition
Gastrin
Term
Two items absorbed through the stomach walls
Definition
Alcohol and aspirin
Term
Hydrochloric acis is necessary in the stomach for the conversion of pepsinogen into it's active protein-digesting form called
Definition
Pepsin
Term
The chemcical responsible for about half of protein digestion and all of fat digestion is;
Definition
Pancreatic juice
Term
When feces are forced into the rectum by mass movements and the wall of the rectum becomes stretched, the ---------- is initiated
Definition
Defecation reflex
Term
The energy value of foods is measured in uints called;
Definition
Kilocalories or kcal
Term
The minor nutrients consist of;
Definition
Vitamins and minerals
Term
A chemical reaction in which substances are broken down into simpler substances is referred to as;
Definition
Catabolism
Term
The major fuel for making ATP in most cells of the body is a type of carbohydrate known as glucose
Definition
Glucose
Term
The specific metabolic pathway of cellular respiration in which virtually all carbon dioxide is made is the;
Definition
Kreb's cycle
Term
Fat oxidation products can acidify the blod, a condition know as;
Definition
Acidosis or ketoacidosis
Term
The polysaccharide, glycogen, is formed from the combination of thousands of glucose molecules during a process called;
Definition
Glycogenesis
Term
The lipoprotein that transports cholesterol and other lipids to body cells is called;
Definition
Low density lipoprotein - LDL
Term
The total amount of kilocalories the body must consume to fuel all ongoing activities, which increases dramatically during physical exertion, is called;
Definition
Total metabolic rate
Term
The reflex that helps babies hold onto a breast or bottle and swallow is;
Definition
Sucking
Term
Which of the following is not associated with the mouth
Definition
Rugae
Term
Which of the following represents the correct order through which food passes in the alimentary cancal;
Definition
Mouth, pharynx, esophogus, stomach, small intestine, large intestine
Term
The structure that forms the anterior roof of the mouth is the;
Definition
Hard palate
Term
The fold of mucous membrane that secures the tongue to the floor of the mouth and limits its posterior movement is called the;
Definition
Lingual frenulum
Term
Which of the following is continuous with the esphogus;
Definition
Laryngopharynx
Term
Which of the following is the moist innermost layer that lines the alimentary canal;
Definition
Mucosa
Term
Which of the following is the moist innermost layer that lines the alimentary canal;
Definition
Mucosa
Term
Which of the following is the moist innermost layer that lines the alimentary canal;
Definition
Mucosa
Term
The submucosal of myenteric nerve plexus that help regulate the mobility and secretory activity of the GI tract organs are both part of the
Definition
Autonomic nervous system
Term
Gastrin is produced in the stomach by
Definition
Enteroendocrine cells
Term
The realease of food from the stomach into the samll intestine is regulated by the;
Definition
Pyloric sphincter
Term
Protein digestion begins in the;
Definition
Stomach
Term
Which of the following modifications increases surface are in the small intestine with fingerlike extensions of the mucosa;
Definition
Villi
Term
The small intestine extends from;
Definition
The pyloric sphincter to the ileocecal valve
Term
What two organs release secretions into the duodenum of the small intestine;
Definition
Liver and pacreas
Term
Enzymes and bile are carried by the pancreatic duct and bile duct into the;
Definition
Duodenum
Term
The primary function of the small intestine is;
Definition
Absoprtion of nutrients
Term
Which of the following is not a modification which is designed to increase surface area for absorption within the small intestine;
Definition
Peyer's patches
Term
Which of the following is not a subdivision of the large intestine;
Definition
Duodenum
Term
The organ responsible for drying out indigestible food residue through water absorption and the elimination of feces is the;
Definition
Large intestine
Term
What is the purpose of mastication;
Definition
To chew, grind and tear food into smaller pieces while in the mouth.
Term
Amylase is an enzyme that is only able to digest;
Definition
Starch
Term
The number of permanent teeth within a full set of adult teeth is;
Definition
32
Term
The anterior chisel-shaped teeth that are adapted for cutting are called;
Definition
Incisors
Term
Which accessory digestive organ is situated retroperitoneal;
Definition
Pancreas
Term
Bile is produced by the ------------- but stored in the;
Definition
Liver, gallbladder
Term
Which tube brings bile directly back into the gallbladder for storage when there is no digestion ocurring in the duodenum;
Definition
Cystic duct
Term
The sequence of steps by which large food molecules are broken down into their respective building blocks by catalytic enzymes whithin hydrolysis reactionsi called;
Definition
Chemical digestion
Term
The propulsive process that moves food from one organ to the next is called;
Definition
Peristalsis
Term
The process by which food within the small intestine is mixed with digestive juices by backward and forward movement across the internal wall of the organ is called;
Definition
Segmentation
Term
Which one of the following is not one of the carbohydrates that the human digestive system is able to break down to simple sugars;
Definition
Cellulose
Term
Proteins are digested to their building blocks which are called;
Definition
Amino acids
Term
Transport of digested end products from the lumen of the GI tract into the bloodstream or lymphatic fluid is called;
Definition
Absorption
Term
Digestion is primarily controlled by the;
Definition
Parasympathetic division of the autonomic nervous system
Term
Which of these events describes a chemical breakdown of food;
Definition
Enzyme action of maltase acting on starch to break it down into maltose
Term
The first nutrient to be chemically digested is;
Definition
Starch
Term
The process of swallowing is also known as;
Definition
Mastication
Term
Which of the following alimentary segments has no digestive function;
Definition
Esophagus
Term
Which digestive system organ is the target of gastrin;
Definition
Stomach
Term
Pepsin is necessary for the stomach to break down;
Definition
Proteins
Term
What does the enterogastric reflex accomplish;
Definition
Slows the emptying of the stomach contents
Term
The enzyme responsible for converting milk protein in the stomach to a substance that looks like sour milk in infants is;
Definition
Rennin
Term
The journey of chyme through the small intestine takes;
Definition
3-6 hours
Term
Enzyme-rich pancreatic juice contains all the following except;
Definition
Pancreatase
Term
Enzyme-rich pancreatic juice contains all the following except;
Definition
Pancreatase
Term
Enzyme-rich pancreatic juice contains all the following except;
Definition
Pancreatase
Term
Which of the following influence the release of pancreatic juice and bile;
Definition
Cholecystokonin and secretin
Term
Which of the following is not absorbed by the human large intestine;
Definition
Protein
Term
The energy value of foods commonly counted by dieters is measured in units called;
Definition
Kilocalories
Term
Which of the following foods would be most mineral-rich
Definition
Milk
Term
The process by which larger molecules or structures are built up from smaller ones is called;
Definition
Anabolism
Term
Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) is produced in greatest quantity during;
Definition
The electron transport chain
Term
Which of the following chemical reactions performed by the liver creates sugars from non-carbohydrate sources as fats and proteins;
Definition
Gluconeogenisis
Term
Ketoacidosis results from the incomplete breakdown of;
Definition
Fats
Term
Which one of the following is not a main role of the liver;
Definition
To add ammonia to the blood
Term
Nutrients detour through the liver via the;
Definition
Hepatic portal circulation
Term
Which of the following is not true of cholesterol;
Definition
It provides energy fuel for muscle contraction
Term
The hereditary inability of tissue cells to metabolize the amino acid phenylalanine, which can result in brain damage and retardation unless a special diet low in phenylalanine is followed, is;


Definition
Phenylketonuria
Term
The functions of the alimentary canal include ingestion, digestion, absorption, and defacation.
Definition
True
Term
the rythmic wavelike propelling mechanism of the alimentary canal is called peristalsis.
Definition
True
Term
The process of mastication is simply known as chewing.
Definition
True
Term
The innermost layer of the serosa is called the perital peritoneum.
Definition
False
Term
The lacy apron t=of the peritoneum that covers the abdominal organs is called the lesser omentum.
Definition
False
Term
The stomach has two muscle layers like all other digestive organs, longitudinal and circular, in the muscular externa.
Definition
False
Term
The stomach has two muscle layers like all other digestive organs, longitudinal and circular, in the muscular externa.
Definition
False
Term
The small intestine runs from the pyloric sphincter to the ileoccecal valve.
Definition
True
Term
The villi, microvilli, and circular folds of the large intestine all increase the surface area.
Definition
False
Term
Peyer's patches associates with the small intestine prevent overwhelming amounts of bacteria from entering the blood stream.
Definition
True
Term
The large intestine extends from the pyloric sphincter to the anus.
Definition
False
Term
The ascending colon is found on the left side of the abdominal cavity.
Definition
False
Term
The segment of the colon to which the appendix is attached is the cecum.
Definition
True
Term
The anal canal has a voluntary sphincter formed by smooth muscle only.
Definition
False
Term
Small pocketlike sacs within the large intestine that most often are partially contracted are called haustra.
Definition
True
Term
the enamel found on teeth is heavily mineralized with calcium salts and comprises the hardest substance within the entire body.
Definition
True
Term
Wisdom teeth typically emerge later in life around age 30-40.
Definition
False
Term
Pancreatic enzymes are released into the stomach to break down all categories of digestible foods.
Definition
False
Term
Bile is produced by the liver but stored by the gallbladder.
Definition
True
Term
Digestive activities are mostly controlled by reflexes of the parasympathetic nervous system.
Definition
True
Term
The involuntary phase of swallowing is called the buccal phase.
Definition
False
Term
Diverticulosis occurs when mucosa becomes inflamed and protrude through the wall of the small intestine.
Definition
False
Term
Enzymes of the microvilli are called brush border enzymes.
Definition
True
Term
Absence of either bile or pancreatic juice indicates that no fat digestion or absorption is ocurring. This can lead to blod-clotting problems because the liver needs vitamin K to makee prothrombin.
Definition
True
Term
Secretin and cholecystokonin influence the relase of both pancreatic juice and bile.
Definition
True
Term
Bacteria in the small intestine make some vitamins, such as some B and K.
Definition
False
Term
Mass movements are slow-moving contractile waves that move over large areas of the colon three or four times each day.
Definition
True
Term
Sugars and starches are classified as lipids
Definition
False
Term
Anabolism is the process in which larger colecules are built from smaller ones
Definition
True
Term
Proteins are broken down into building blocks known as amino acids by the digestive system.
Definition
True
Term
Optimal health of tissues is achieved when HDL and LDL are present in equal amounts within the bloodstream.
Definition
False
Term
The body's thermostat, which constantly regulates body temperature, is located within the hypothalamus.
Definition
True
Term
Watery stools that resule when food residue is rushed through the large intestine before sufficient water has been reabsorbed, causing dehydration and electrolyte imbalance is called constipation.
Definition
False
Term
Proteins
Definition
Pepsinogens
Term
Lactose
Definition
Lactase
Term
Starch
Definition
Amylase
Term
Fat
Definition
Lipase
Term
Nucleic acids
Definition
Nuclease
Term
Primary site of water absorption
Definition
Large intestine
Term
Site where starch digestion begins
Definition
Mouth
Term
Tube through which food is propelled but no digestion takes place
Definition
Esophagus
Term
Site where protein digestion begins
Definition
Mouth
Term
Site where protein digestion begins
Definition
Mouth
Term
Site where pancreatic enzymes and bile enter the alimentary canal.
Definition
Duodenum
Term
Site of vitamin K synthesis by bacteria
Definition
Large intestine
Term
Site where defecation reflex is initiated.
Definition
Rectum
Term
Glucose is stored as glycogen in the liver.
Definition
Glycogenesis
Term
Larger molecules are built from smaller ones.
Definition
Anabolism
Term
Fats and proteins are broken down into glucose.
Definition
Gluconeogenesis
Term
Complex substances are broken down into simpler substances.
Definition
Catabolism
Term
Stored glycogen is broken down into glucose.
Definition
Glucogenolysis