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Developmental Psychology
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Psychology
06/28/2010

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Term
Developmental Psychology
Definition

Stud of behavior over the life span

from the womb to the tomb

prenatal development to old age

Term
Development
Definition
A change in behavior as a function of time
Term
Adult
Definition

An individual that is economically

and socially independent

Term
Indicators of Development
Definition

Age- Marker & indicator but not cause of development

 

Time- Only true indicator & marker of development

 

Cohort- (Generation)- indicator or reference of development

Term
Growth
Definition
A change in behavior that is physically measurable
Term
Maduration
Definition

A change in behavior as a result of both a

genetic disposition and an environmental cue

that leads to an emergence of a new behavior

 

Term
Direction of Development
Definition

From the simple to the complex

 

(No regression in Developmental Psychology)

Term
4 Major Fields in Psychology
Definition

Experimental- 1880, behavior under controlled conditions

 

Clinical- Early 1900s, Personality behavior

 

Social- 1920s, Interaction between the individual

and the group

 

Developmental- 1930s, Smallest

Term
Behavior
Definition

Ones actions, interactions & reactions

to our environment

Term
Theories
Definition

A theory is a set of assumptions that attempts

to explain a behavioral phenomenon

 

A therory cannot be proven true or false

 

Term
Hypothesis
Definition

A statement or prediction about a behavior

that is derived from a theory that can be 

proven true or false

Term
The True Sciences
Definition

Biology- 1950s, DNA

 

Chemistry- 1700, Periodic chart, Atoms

 

Physics- 1600, Newtonian Laws of Gravity

 

Math- 800bc-400bc, + - x ÷

Term
The Goal of Psychology
Definition

To one day have a set of laws that will explain

all behavior in all individuals

all of the time

 

 

(explain, describe, predict)

Term
Science
Definition
Study of some aspect of nature
Term
Research
Definition
Study of behavior
Term
Research Designs
Definition

The blue prints for how you are going to 

investigate the behavior

 

Research designs enable you to draw certain 

conclusions about the behavior

Term

Developmental Psychology

Research Designs

Definition

Experimental- Concludes cause & effect

 

Cross-Sectional- Concludes group differences on

a group behavior

 

Longitudinal- Concludes Behavioral change

Term
What do World Views do?
Definition
Attempt to explain the nature of man's being
Term
Mechanistic World View
Definition

Man's nature is like that of a machine

Mas is a passive being

Man reacts to his environment

Man inherits nothing

Man's mind at birth is a blank slate

Man knows nothing at birth

Man comes to know from his envrionment

**Man's behavior consists of Stimulus Response Associations (SR)**

Term

Mechanistic World View

Keys

Definition

Sum of the parts equal the whole

 

Stimulus Response Associations

 

 

Term

In the mechanistic World View

Behavior is...

Definition

Additive and Quantitative

(the more you add, the more complex it is)

Term

The Mechanistic World View

definition of Development

Definition

Changes in behavior as a result of

chronological age

Term
The concept of elementarism
Definition

Complex behaviors can be broken down 

to simpler behavior

Term
Running Behavior
Definition
Sitting→ crawling→ standing→ walking
Term

Open Theory

(Mechanistic World View)

Definition
You can add on quantitatively forever
Term
Organismic World View
Definition

Man's nature is like that of a biological organism

Man is born inherently and spontaneously active

Man is born knowing and has a mind at birth

Both heredity and environment are necessary for development

Man ACTS and INTERACTS with his environment

 

Term
Stage
Definition

A set of abilities held in common by all

who are in that stage

Term

In the Organismic World View

Behavior is...

Definition
Behavior is Qualitative and Discontinuous
Term

Organismic World View

Keys

Definition

Stage

 

The whole is greater than the sum of the parts

 

Behavior emerges

Term
Organitsmic Theories
Definition

Kohlberg's Theory of Moral Development of Moral Judgement Behavior

Maslow's Personality Theory of the Hierarchy of Needs

Freud's Personality Theory of Psychosexual Development

Piaget's Theory of Cognitive Development

Erikson's Theory of Social-Emotional Development

(8 Ages of Man)

Term

Closed Ended Theory

(Organismic)

Definition
Nothing additive!
Term
Organismic World View of Development
Definition

A change in behavior a a result of a change

in the underlying structure and organization

of the organism

Term
Running is...
Definition

Greater than sitting, crawling, standing, walking

(Motor-skill development)

Term
Developmental Milestones
Definition
Markers of development throughout the life span
Term

According to Erikson..

(Society)

Definition

Society has an influence on the individual's

cognitive development

 

Society is comprised of parents, siblings and peers

 

Society serves as a basis for the individual's

sexual orientation

Term

According to Erikson...

(Psycho-social crisis)

Definition

The resolution of the psycho-social crisis at stage

one may change at later stages

 

The psycho-social crisis must be resolved at the stage before the individual moves onto the next stage

 

The Individual's resolution of a psycho-social crisis is based on psychological demands that have been met

Term
Neo-Freudian
Definition

Follow Freudian tradition but not original

and adds a twist

Term

Erikson's Principles

 

1

 

Each of us in society are accountable and responsible

to each other's social behavior

 

Definition

We have a big brother role, but need to be 

aware of social interaction with others.

It could have a lasting impact

 

We have to be careful because we don't know

how someone else's day is going 

Term

 

Erikson's Principles

 

2


The Resolution at any one stage may change at a later

time due to experiences

 

Definition
One may have passed stage one and trusting, but if raped in adolescence, one may go back to mistrust 
Term

 

Erikson's Principles

 

3

 

The resolution at a stage may have a greater or lesser

impact or influence on later stages

 

Definition
All kinds of things have an influence 
Term

Erikson's Principles

 

4

 

 

Definition