Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Developmental Psychology
Chapter 2
35
Psychology
09/13/2005

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Epigenesis
Definition
The idea that there is an emergence of new structures and functions rather than there simply being growth of smaller structures into larger ones.
Term
Embryology
Definition
The study of prenatal development.
Term
Gametes (germ cells)
Definition
Reproductive cells that contain only half the genetic material of all other normal cells in the body.
Term
Meiosis
Definition
Specialized cell division necessary for reproduction that produces cells (gametes) that have only one half of the normal complement of chromosomes.
Term
Conception
Definition
The union of an egg and sperm.
Term
Zygote
Definition
The fertilized egg formed from the union of an egg cell and a sperm cell.
Term
Phylogenetic continuity
Definition
The idea that because of our common evolutionary history, humans share some characteristics and developmental processes with other animals, especially mammals.
Term
apoptosis
Definition
Programmed cell death.
Term
blastocyst
Definition
the hollow sphere of cells into which the zygote arranges itself at around the 4th day of development.
Term
Inner cell mass
Definition
The bulge of cells on the inside of the blastocyst that eventually forms into the embryo
Term
Identical twins
Definition
Twins that result from the splitting in half of the inner cell mass at the zygote stage, which gives each zygote exactly the same genetic makeup.
Term
Fraternal twins
Definition
Twins that result when two eggs happen to be released into the fallopian tube at the same time and are fertilized by two different sperm. Fraternal twins share only half their genetic makeup.
Term
Gastrulation
Definition
The process by which cells start to differentiate after the zygote implants into the uterine lining; the inner cell mass becomes the embryo, and the rest of the cells become its support system.
Term
Embryo
Definition
The name given to the developing organism from the 3rd to 8th week of prenatal development.
Term
Neural tube
Definition
A U-shaped groove formed from the top layer of differentiated cells in the embryo that eventually becomes the brain and spinal cord.
Term
Placenta
Definition
An organ with an extraordinarily rich network of blood vessels that permits the exchange of materials between the bloodstreams of the fetus and its mother while keeping the two circulatory systems separate.
Term
Umbilical cord
Definition
A tube that contains the blood vessels that travel from the placenta to the developing organism and back again.
Term
Amniotic sac
Definition
A membrane that is filled with a clear, watery fluid in which the fetus floats and that acts as a protective buffer for the fetus in several ways.
Term
Cephalocaudal development
Definition
The pattern of growth in which areas near the head develop earlier than areas farther away from the head.
Term
Habituation
Definition
A simple form of learning that is shown by a decrease in response to repeated or continued stimulation.
Term
teratogens
Definition
environmental agents that have the potential to cause harm during prenatal development. The harm can range from easily correctible problems to death.
Term
Sensitive period
Definition
The period of time during which a developing organism is most vulnerable to damage by outside agents.
Term
dose-response relation
Definition
the fact that the greater the exposure to a potential teratogen the fetus receives, the more likely it is that a defect will occur and the more severe the defect is likely to be.
Term
Fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS)
Definition
The effects of maternal alcoholism on a fetus, including facial deformity, varying degrees of mental retardation, attention problems, hyperactivity, and organ defects.
Term
SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
Definition
The unexpected death of an infant less than one year of age that has no identifiable cause.
Term
State
Definition
Refers to an infant's level of arousal and engagement in the environment, ranging from deep sleep to intense activity. State is an important mediator of young infants' experience of the world.
Term
REM (rapid eye movement)
Definition
An active sleep state that is associated with dreaming in adults and is characterized by quick, jerky eye movements under closed lids.
Term
non-REM sleep
Definition
A quiet or deep sleep state characterized by the absence of motor activity or eye movements and regular, slow brain waves, breathing, and heart rate.
Term
autostimulation theory
Definition
The idea that brain activity during REM sleep in the fetus and newborn makes up for natural deprivation of external stimuli and facilitates the early development of the visual system.
Term
Swaddling
Definition
A soothing technique, used in many cultures, which involves wrapping a baby tightly in clothes or a blanket, thereby restricting limb movement.
Term
Colic
Definition
Excessive crying for no apparent reason.
Term
Low birth weight (LBW)
Definition
A birth weight of less than 5.5 lbs (2,000 grams)
Term
Premature
Definition
Any child born at 35 weeks after conception or earlier, as opposed to the normal term of 38 weeks.
Term
Small for gestational age (SGA)
Definition
Babies that weigh substantially less than is normal for whatever their gestational age.
Term
Developmental resilience
Definition
Successful developmental in the face of multiple and seemingly overwhelming developmental hazards.