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Developmental Psychology
developmental psychology
30
Political Studies
02/22/2011

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Term
Discontinuity Model
Definition
(Main proponent Jean Piaget) – qualitative changes, in stages; fairly stable within a stage, then rather dramatic shift in abilities
Term
Cross-Sectional Studies
Definition
Involve study of different age groups of people at the same time
Term
Cohort Effects
Definition
function of being born at a particular time in history, among members of a particular generation
Term
Stages of Pregnancy:
Definition
a. Germinal/Zygote –
i. approximately two weeks after conception
ii. Spans from moment of fertilization to complete implantation within the uterine lining
b. Embryonic stage – Critical to Physical and Mental Development
i. Period from two weeks to eight weeks after conception
ii. Basis of major organ systems develop
iii. Baby is cushioned by amniotic fluid; nutrients, oxygen and wastes are exchanged via placenta
c. Fetal – from ninth week of pregnancy until birth (organism is a fetus)
Term
Teratogen
Definition
any substance that harms or disrupts development in a fetus/embryo
Term
Rubella
Definition
(German measles) – can cause heart disease, deafness, and mental retardation
Term
Smoking
Definition
increases risk for miscarriage, premature birth, low birth weight, infant mortality, SIDS, respiratory problems , hyperactivity
Term
rooting relfex
Definition
Turn head in response to stroke of cheek
Term
moro reflex
Definition
startle reflex) response to being over-stimulated (e.g. loud noise)
Term
Babinski Reflex
Definition
– toes fan out and curl when sole of foot stroked
Term
Maturation
Definition
underlying blueprint directing much of emerging characteristics, patterns of growth
Term
Brain Quadruples in size from infancy to adulthood due to:
Definition
i. Creation of synapses (neural interconnections)
ii. Formation of myelin sheath covering axons (allows for quicker, more efficient neural communication)
Term
Vision
Definition
Least well developed sense
Term
universal stages for walking
Definition
a. Sitting up without support (average is 5 months)
b. Standing Alone (9-14 months)
c. Walking alone (around 12-15 months)
Term
Attachment
Definition
enduring emotional bond, develops over time (Primary Caregivers)
Term
Konrad Lorenz
Definition
studies ducks, geese, and other fowl;
Term
Imprinting
Definition
– following behavior; occurs in response to first moving object seen (shortly after birth)
Term
Harry and Marguerite Harlow
Definition
rhesus monkeys prefer soft, cuddly surrogate “mother,” even when other surrogate has food
Term
John Bowlby
Definition
i. Attachment is biologically based, necessary for survival
ii. Quality of attachment related to sensitivity, degree of care from parent
Term
Mary Ainsworth
Definition
developed methodology to assess attachment (strange situation) and identified basic types
Term
Father's Influence
Definition
a. Involved fathers have children who perform better academically
b. Two-parent (mother, father) families have children with greater academic and social success
Term
Authoritative Parenting:
Definition
, consistent limits; loving; listen; explain
Term
Authoritarian Parenting:
Definition
rigid, demand unquestioning obedience; disregard for child’s feelings or point of view
Term
Permissive Parenting (could also be absence of parents)
Definition
little involvement on part of parent as far as establishing guidelines, rules; little follow through
Term
Erikson’s stages of Psychological Development
Definition
a. Emphasized importance of social relationships (1963)
b. Personalities shaped by psychosocial challenges
Term
Piaget's Stages: Sensorimotor Stage:
Definition
First Stage, grown out of when object permanance develops
Term
Piaget's Stages: Preoperational Stage:
Definition
Second Stage:

a. Symbolic representations (language and make-believe play)
b. Egocentrism (cannot relate to another person’s perspective)
c. Animistic thinking (Put human characteristics onto inanimate objects)
d. Irreversibility and centration; conservation tasks
Term
Piaget's Stages: C. Concrete Operational Stage (seven to eleven years)
Definition
Development of conservation
Term
Formal operational stage
Definition
Abstract thought and hypotheses develop.
Term
Vygotsky’s Sociocultural Theory of Cognitive Development
Definition
-Emphasiozed role of culture in cognitive development
-Zone of proximal development
-Scaffolding – scaling the degree and type of instruction to child’s current level