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Developmental Final Exam
MBI-Spokane: Dr. Frank Hamilton's Developmental Psychology Final Exam--Spring 2012
110
Psychology
05/19/2012

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Term
What best describes the focus of the study of human development
Definition
Change
Term
Studies on teh "wild boy of Avignon" hoped to investigate and find answers to developmental questions such as:
Definition
Are the Qualities, behaviors, and ideas that define each human acquired, inborn, or both?
Is social contact important to child development?
Can the lack of social contact be overcome?
All of these!
Term
The lifespan has almost doubled during the past century. Social reconstruction has resulted in the increase in length of what developmental stage?
Definition
Adolescence
Term
Elane gains 14 pounds between teh ages of 12 &13. This is an example of:
Definition
quantitative change
Term
Physical development:
Definition
interacts with cognitive, personality, and social development at all ages
Term
According to the text, which of the following is not one of the major divisions of the life-span?
Definition
prenatal
Infancy and toddlerhood
late adulthood
senescense--this one
Term
During which developmental period do most people finish their formal education, become independent and start families and careers
Definition
young adulthood
Term
the concept of individual differences implies that:
Definition
rates of development may vary from the average or typical
Term
Which of the following statements about hereditary and environmental influences on development is true?
Definition
INternal influences are more important
external influences are more imporant
Internal and external influences interact and often cannot be separated.---THIS ONE!
INternal and external influences are independent and can be readily separated.
Term
A child born today in Iraq will have different experiences than children born in the US or Mexico. These experiences will impact the course of development for these children because they develop within a unique
Definition
social and historical context
Term
Socio-economic status is determined by all of the following except
Definition
ethnicity--this one
income
education
occupation
Term
An event that is experienced in a similar way by most people in a group is called a ______influence.
Definition
normative
Term
A good theory suggests_____to be tested by research
Definition
hypothesis
Term
Inborn traits inherited from biological parents are to____; as environmental influences before and after birth are to_____.
Definition
Nature; nurture
Term
That children change the world and the world influences the child's development suggests that development is
Definition
bidirectional
Term
Freud's psychosexual stages, Erikson's psychosocial stages, and Piaget's cognitive stages are considered
Definition
theories
Term
a therapeutic approach is aimed at giving patients insight into their unconscious conflicts is called
Definition
psychoanalysis
Term
The proper order of Freud's psychosexual stages of development is
Definition
oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital
Term
As an adult, Alexandra spends considerable time each day cleaning her apartment, arranging her socks in a drawer until they are just so, and making schedules on a calendar. According to Freud, Alexandra is probably fixated in the
Definition
anal stage
Term
According to Freud, the part of the personality that operates on the "reality principle" (realistically finding ways to obtain gratification) is the
Definition
ego
Term
Julia, a rather demonstrative seven-year old, hits her brother for laughing at her, and feels guilty about it afterward. According to Freud, these feelings reflect the operation of the
Definition
superego
Term
Each of Erikson's stages involved a major developmental issue that is particularly important at that time, which he called a
Definition
crisis
Term
According to Erikson's psychosocial theory, the first stage of development, that occurs during infancy is
Definition
trust vs. mistrust
Term
Behaviorists are most concerned with
Definition
measurable, observable behaviors
Term
one of the earliest and most famous examples of classical conditioning in human development was done by______with Little Albert
Definition
John B. Watson
Term
A zygote is created when a sperm and an egg combine in the fallopian tube to form a single cell. THis process is referred to as
Definition
fertilization
Term
Twins formed by the fertilization of two ova by two sperm are
Definition
fraternal
Term
tasha has just given birth to healthy twins. One of the twins has an x and y chromosome, while the other has 2 x chromosomes. these twins are:
Definition
dizygotic
Term
The human genome project was established to
Definition
map the precise order in which genes are expressed or activated
Term
Within each cell nucleus are these coils of DNA called
Definition
chromosomes
Term
How many pairs of chromosomes does the normal human being have?
Definition
23
Term
When tall homozygous pea plants are crossbred with homozygous short pea plants, the resulting hybrids are tall; but in the next generation, one out of the four plants in short. This experiment demonstrates Mendel's law of
Definition
incomplete dominance
Term
A person's observable characteristics are his or her
Definition
phenotype
Term
Marsha's nickname as a child was "shirley temple" because of her curly hair. Although her hair is curly, she carries a gene for straight hair. Her phenotype is
Definition
curly hair
Term
Thomas suffers from a sex-linked blood-clotting disorder called Hemophilia that is transmitted by a recessive gene. Neither his mother nor his father has ever shown symptoms of this disease. What can we conclude about the genetic makeup of John's parents
Definition
The mother is a carrier for hemophilia, while the father does not have the gene.
Term
The most frequently stated cause for Down syndrome is
Definition
an accident in the chromosome distribution
Term
While some simple physical characteristics like eye color are clearly inherited, more complex traits like intelligence seem to be due
Definition
to an interaction between nature and nurture
Term
For a chiefly hereditary trait
Definition
identical twins would show more concordance than fraternal twins
Term
the first stage of childbirth
Definition
consists of dilation or widening of the cervix
Term
The placenta is expelled from the mother's body during the _______stage of childbirth
Definition
third
Term
While fewer cesarean births are often encouraged, for women who have previously had a cesarean birth the risk of future vaginal births would include all of the following except
Definition
uterine rupture
Increased risk of death to the infant during delivery
fewer foceps and suction deliveries----THIS ONE
unsuccessful labor which will later on will still undergo c-births
Term
Natural childbirth or prepared childbirth can maximize the need for
Definition
pain killing drugs
Term
The oily covering on the skin of a newborn is
Definition
vernix caseosa
Term
when micah first sees his newborn daughter, he is surprised to find her body covered with dark hair. This fuzzy coat is called
Definition
lanugo
Term
based on research cited in the text, a criticism of medicated births is that
Definition
babies' motor responsiveness and development way be slowed
Term
in 1914 a british physician Dr. Grantby Dick-Read, suggested that pain in childbirth was caused mostly by______. To eliminate this, he advocated natural childbirth
Definition
fear
Term
Prepared childbirth teaches breathing and muscle responses in order to
Definition
minimize fear and pain
Term
places in teh neonate's skull where teh bones are not completely fused are called the
Definition
fontanels
Term
which of the following statements about newborns is correct
Definition
newborns normally do not begin to breath until 2-3 minutes after birth.
newborns are covered with a protective film called meconium
newborns possess a strong sucking reflex--THIS ONE
newborns have a slow regular heart beat
Term
Since the infant's lungs have only one-tenth as many air sacs as adult's do, they are susceptible to______problems
Definition
respiratory
Term
Nonorganic failure to thrive is the result of
Definition
the emotional neglect of a newborn
Term
Which of the following emotions is not yet present in the 8-month old infant
Definition
shame
Term
two week-old jamie is lying quietly. Suddenly she utters a loud, piercing cry and holds her breath. She is probably
Definition
in pain
Term
According to research cited in your text, what is the best way to respond to an infant's crying?
Definition
Respond regularly with tender, soothing care.
Term
Self-awareness usually emerges by about what age?
Definition
18 months
Term
Irritability, irregular rhythms, and intense reactions are characteristic of which kind of temperament?
Definition
difficult
Term
Chao-Yi is suspicious of strangers, has frequent tantrums, has an irrecular pattern of waking and sleeping, and laughs and cries loudly. Which kind of temperament does she have?
Definition
difficult
Term
Both willy and bernice have spent their lives being short tempered and spend a great deal of time together apologizing for their thoughtlessness. WHich of the following statements about temperament might be alarming to these new parents?
Definition
temperament appears to be largely determined by genetics
Term
maria's temperament may create disadvantages for her as she grows up. In western countries, shy inhibited children like Maria are seen as having all but which characteristic?
Definition
incompetence
immaturity
unlikely to achieve much
retardation----THIS ONE
Term
Harlow and Harlow's work with infant monkeys showed that the infants were most interested in _____from surrogate mothers.
Definition
bodily contact
Term
similar to phenomenon called imprinting in ducks, the process in humans is called
Definition
attachment....ask michael
Term
According to Erikson, a child who develops a predominance of basic trust will have the virtue of
Definition
hope
Term
Which of hte following factors is not mentioned in teh textbook as being related to the incidence of obesity in early childhood
Definition
heredity
food intake
exercise
body type---THIS ONE
Term
Gross motor coordination allows a child to
Definition
jump and hop
Term
according to the text, children are ususally not physically ready to participate in organized sports until they are
Definition
about 6 years old
Term
which of the following does not involve fine motor skill?
Definition
doing a somersault
Term
most of the fatal accidents in early childhood that do not involve a motor vehicle occur at
Definition
home
Term
The proportion of children living in poverty in teh US is
Definition
1 in 6
Term
Three-year-old ben is pretending to build a birdhouse with some pieces of wood lying in the yard. Suddenly Ben says, I need a hammer to fix this, even when there is no hammer present. According to Piaget, Ben has entered the
Definition
preoperational stage
Term
the symbolic function allows young children to
Definition
refer to mental representations of objects they have seen before
Term
when children repeat an action that they saw someone else perform at an earlier time, they are demonstrating
Definition
deferred imitation
Term
at about the age of___, children are able to understand the relationship between pictures, maps, and scale models and the objects and spaces they represent
Definition
3
Term
Focusing on only one aspect of a situation and neglecting other is called
Definition
centration
Term
Piaget concluded that young children come to illogical conclusions because they cannot______; think about several aspects of a situation at the same time
Definition
decenter
Term
According to research done on children's understanding of emotions, how do 4-year-olds feel about themselves if they do something that has been forbidden by their parents?
Definition
???????
Term
According to Erikson, which of the following is the central issue of early childhood?
Definition
initiative vs. guilt
Term
four-year-old marcie has decided that she would like to hide her little brother's toys in teh basement. However, she realizes her brother iwll cry, and she wonders if she will feel bad about this. According to Erikson, Marcie is experiencing the conflict of
Definition
initiative vs guilt
Term
according to Erikson, a child who feels comfortable trying new things, without excessive guilt or fear is said to have acquired
Definition
virtue of purpose
Term
When personal self-esteem is__, a child is motivated to achieve
Definition
high
Term
Gender refers to
Definition
what it means to be male or female
Term
Mike is becoming aware that he is a boy and that boys play with trucks and train. He is developing
Definition
gender identity, a gender role, and gender-typing
Term
Gender differences are believed to be influenced by
Definition
hormones, parents, the media
Term
Reserach has linked aggressive behavior in certain animals to prenatal exposure to the hormone
Definition
?????????????
Term
According to Freud, the adoption of the characteristics, values, and behaviors of the parent of the same sex is
Definition
identification
Term
Jessica imitates her mother's gestures, speed, and behaviors. Which of the following terms describes this?
Definition
Identification
Term
Marilyn knows that she is a girl, and by watching what other girls do, she is learning how she is expected to behave. Which tehory would hold that gender-typing is acquired this way?
Definition
cognitive-social
Term
According to teh text, rates of physical growth durign middle childhood are
Definition
extremely variable across different regions
Term
which of the following problems is associated with malnutrition during the early childhood
Definition
poor physical health
slowed intellectual development
emotional impariements
Term
Rought-and-tumble paly peaks in
Definition
middle childhood
Term
what percentage of children under 18 are estimated to be blind or visually impaired?
Definition
13%
Term
The most prevealent illness in childhood is?
Definition
asthma
Term
a 7-year-old is known to carry the HIV virus, but shows no symptoms. According to the text, how should this child be treated in school?
Definition
no differently than others
Term
According to Piaget, children enter which stage about the age of 7?
Definition
concrete operational
Term
Children in concrete operations show increased skill in al but which of hte following areas?
Definition
hypothetical thinking
Term
The ability to arrange objects according to some dimension, such as largest to smallest, is called
Definition
seriation
Term
piaget viewed children's moral development as depending primarily on the emergence of
Definition
cognitive growth
Term
classifying info for memory is called
Definition
encoding
Term
which memory strategy links items together in a story or scene?
Definition
elaboration
Term
in the neo-piagetian scheme of self-concept development, the 3rd stage of develop. begins around 7 or 8 involves the ability to from
Definition
representational systems
Term
Blake knows hat he sometimes loses his temper and gets angry at this friends. What aspect of self-definition is he developing?
Definition
a real self
Term
the self-concept is based on all but which of the following?
Definition
???
Term
A child with high self-esteem would
Definition
risk making people angry if he or she feels strongly about something
Term
a child with low self-esteem would
Definition
worry about doing the right thing
Term
control of negative emotions is a sign of
Definition
emotional growth
Term
Erikson's developmental crisis of middle childhood (fromabout 6-12) is
Definition
industry vs. inferiority
Term
children have typically internalized the emotions of prid and shame by
Definition
7 or 8
Term
which of the following parental statements is most representative of the process of coregulation?
Definition
please get your toys out of the neighbor's yard so that they can see what a big helper you are
Term
Which of the following factors is not mentioned in your text regarding the impact of a mother's work outside the home?
Definition
amoutn of income that is realized from work.
Term
Generalizing from the text, which style of parenting is likely to be exhibited by people living in extreme poverty?
Definition
athoritarian??
Term
Parents who feel that they have a lack of control over their own lives often exhibit certain behaviors with the children. Which of the following does not belong
Definition
they discipline consistently and harshly--THIS ONE
they ignore the child's good behavior
they focus a great deal of attention on teh child's negative behavior
their discipline is inconsisten and misdirected;