Shared Flashcard Set

Details

CSCI 169
Review for Final
240
Computer Science
12/12/2007

Additional Computer Science Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
_________ can serve as sending and receiving devices in a communications system.
Definition
-Mainframe computers and servers
-Desktop computers and notebook computers
-Tablet PCs and PDAs
Term
Two examples of ______ are cable television lines and telephone lines.
Definition
Communications channels
Term
A type of communications device that connects a communications channel to a sending or receiving device is a _____.
Definition
Modem
Term
______ is a conversation that takes place over the Internet using a telephone connected to a desktop computer, mobile computer, or mobile device.
Definition
Internet telephony
Term
________ Is a real-time Internet communications service that allows wireless mobile devices to exchange messages with one or more mobile devices or online users.
Definition
Wireless instant messaging
Term
Most hot spots span from _______ feet.
Definition
100 - 300
Term
A GPS receiver is a handheld, mountable, or embedded device that contains _______.
Definition
- Radio receiver
- Antenna
- Processor
Term
_______ Allows users to share documents with others in real time.
Definition
An online meeting
Term
Groupware is a component of a broad concept called _____, which includes network hardware and software that enables group members to communicate, manage projects, schedule meetings, and make group decisions.
Definition
work group computing
Term
A voice mailbox is a(n) _____ in a voice mail system.
Definition
Storage location on a hard disk
Term
Businesses are the primary users of ______ because this technology provides a means for departments to communicate with each other, suppliers, vendors, and with clients.
Definition
Web services
Term
Most businesses use a standard, such as a ______, that defines how data transmits across telephone lines or other means.
Definition
EDI (electronic data interchange)
Term
A _______ is a legal agreement that permits users to install software on multiple computers, usually at a volume discount.
Definition
Site license
Term
A ______ is a network that connects computers and devices in a limited geographical area, such as a home, school computer lab, or office building.
Definition
Local Area Network (LAN)
Term
Each computer or device on a local area network, called a _____, often shares resources such as printers, large hard disks, and programs.
Definition
A node
Term
A _______ is a high-speed network that connects networks in an area such as a city or town and handles the bulk of communications activity across that region.
Definition
Metropolitan Area Network (MAN)
Term
[image] As showen, a(n) _____ is a network that covers a large geographic area, such as a city, country, or the world, using a communications channel that combines many types of media.
Definition

Wide Area Network

(WAN) 

Term
The design of computers, devices, and media in a network, sometimes called the ______, is categorized as either client/server or peer-to-peer.
Definition
Network Architecture
Term

A file server is a dedicated server that ____.

Definition
Stores and manages files
Term
A print server is a dedicated server that _____. 
Definition
Manages printers and print jobs.
Term
A database server is a dedicated server that ____.
Definition
Stores and provides access to a database
Term
A network server is a dedicated server that ____.
Definition
Manages network traffic (activity).
Term
the risk to a bus network is that _____.
Definition
The bus itself might become inoperable.
Term
[image] A network like the one shown can span a _____ distance than a bus network but is more _____.
Definition
Larger distance, but it is more difficult.
Term
[image] A ___ network is a network topology in which a cable forms a closed loop, with all computers and devices arranged along it.
Definition
Ring network
Term
[image] On a ____, such as that illustrated, all of the comuters and devices (nodes) on the network connect to a central device.
Definition
Star Network
Term
[image] On a network like this one, the central device that provides a common connection point for nodes on the network is called the _____.
Definition
Hub
Term
[image] On a network such as this one, if one node fails ____.
Definition
Only that node is affected.
Term
Today, ____ is the most popular LAN technology becasue it is relatively inexpensive and easy to install and maintain.
Definition
An Ethernet
Term
____ has been adopted as a network standard for Internet communications.
Definition
TCP/IP
Term
When a scomputer sends data over the intenet, the data is divided into small pieces, or ____.
Definition
Packets
Term
The technique of breaking a message into individual packets, sending the packets along the best route avalible, and then reassembling the data is called ___.
Definition
Packet Switching
Term
One popular use of the _____ network standard is in hot spots that offer mobile users the ability to connect to the Internet with their wireless computers and devices.
Definition
Wi-Fi
Term
Communications software consists of programs that _____.
Definition

- Help users establish a connection to another computer or network.

- Manage the transmission of data, instructions, and information.

- Provide an interface for users to communicate with one another. 

Term
Although ___ are not a type of standard telephone line, they are very popular ways for the home user to connect to the internet.
Definition
Cable Telecision (CATV) lines
Term
With ISDN, the same telephone line that could carry only one computer signal now can carry three or more signals at once through the same line, using a technique called ____.
Definition
Multiplexing
Term

___ requires a special network card and a  __  modem.

Definition
DSL
Term
The most popular T-carrier line is the ____.
Definition
T1 line
Term
A T3 line is ____.
Definition
equal in speed to 28 T1 lines but quite expensive.
Term
For data transmission to occur, ____ of a standard telephone line must have a dial-up modem.
Definition
Both the sending and receiving ends
Term
A ____ is a device that provides a central point for cables in a network.
Definition
Hub
Term
Each networked computer in a house can _____.
Definition

- Share a single high-speed Internet connection

- Access files and programs on other computers in the house

- Share peripherals such as a printer, scanner, external hard disk, or DVD drive 

Term
A(n) ____ extends the basic home network to include features such as lighting comtrol, themostat adjustment, and a security system.
Definition
Intellient home network
Term
Types of wired home networks include all of the following ___, _____, ____.
Definition

-Ethernet

-Powerline Cable

-Phoneline 

Term
For best performance of a communications channel, _____.
Definition
bandwidth should be high and latency low
Term
Physical transmission media used in communication include all of the following ___, ____, ___.
Definition

- twisted pair cable

- Coaxil cable

- Fiber-optic cable 

Term
____ is an electrical disturbance that can degrade communications.
Definition
Noise
Term
Fiber-optic cables have all of the following advantages over cables that use wire ___, ___, ___.
Definition

- faster data transmission and smaller size

- less suscptivle to noise from other devices

- better security for signals during transmission 

Term
Broadcast radio is ____ susceptible to noise than physical transmission media but it provides flexibility and portability.
Definition
Slower and more
Term
____ is a category of cellular transmission that transmitted analog data.
Definition
1G (first generation)
Term
Microwave transmission, sometimes called ____, involves sending signals from one microwave station to another.
Definition
fixed wireless
Term
A(n) ___ device is a device that initiates an instuction to transmit data, instructions, or information.
Definition
Sending device
Term
A(n) ____ device is a device that accepts the transmission of data, instructions, or infromation.
Definition
Recieving device
Term
With ___, users type and send short test messages on a smart phone or PDA.
Definition
SMS
Term
____ allows users to send graphics, pictures, video clips, and sound files, as well as short text messages to other smart phones, PDAs, or computers.
Definition
MMS
Term
A(n)  _____ network uses cellular radio technology to provide users with highspeed internet connections, as long as they are in the networks range.
Definition
3G
Term
A(n) ______ is a navigation system that consists of one or more earth-based receivers that accept and analyze signals sent by satellites in order to determine the reciever's geographic location.
Definition
GPS
Term
Many software products provide a means to _____, or work online, with other users connected to a server.
Definition
Collaborate
Term
_____ Allows users connected to a network to transfer money from one bank account to another via transmission media.
Definition
EFT
Term
A(n) _____ is a third-party business that provides networking services such as scure data and information transfe, storage, e-mail, and management reports.
Definition
VAN
Term
A(n) ____ is a LAN that uses no physical wires.
Definition
WLAN
Term
[image] On a network such as this, a(n) _____ computer controls access to the hardwware, software, and other resources on the network and provides a centralized storage area for programs, data, and information.
Definition
Host
Term
A _____ network is a network topology that consits of a single central cable, to which all computers and other devices connect.
Definition
A bus
Term
The _____ standard specifies that computers and devices on the network share or pass a special signal, called a token, in a unidirectional manner and in a present order.
Definition
token ring
Term
____ is a network technology that defines how messages are routed from one end of a network to the other, ensuring the data arrives correctly by dividing it into packets.
Definition
TCP/IP
Term
____ technology uses short-range radio waves to transmit data between two devices.
Definition
Bluetooth
Term
_____ is a newer network standard developed by IEEE that specifies how wireless devices communicate over the air in a wide area.
Definition
WiMAX
Term
The ______ specifies how some wireless mobile devices such as smart phones and PDAs can display the content of the Internet services such as the Web, e-mail, chat rooms, and newsgroups.
Definition
WAP
Term
The _____ is the worldwide telephone system that handles voice-oriented telephone calls.
Definition
PSTN
Term
_____ is a set of standards for digital transmission of data over standard copper telehone lines.
Definition
ISDN
Term
____ transmits at fast speeds on ezisting standard copper telephone wiring, but requires that the user's location and the telephone company's modem be located within a certain distance of each other.
Definition
DSL
Term
_____ is a type of DSL that supports faster transmission rates when receiving data (the downstream rate) than when sending data (then upstream rate).
Definition
ADSL
Term
______ uses fiver-optic cable to provide extremely high-speed Internt access to home users.
Definition
FTTH
Term
_____ is a service that carries voice, data, video, and mltimedia at extremely high speeds.
Definition
ATM
Term
A DSL _____ sends digial data and information from a computer to a DSL line and reveives digital data and information from a DSL line.
Definition
Modem
Term
  A(n) ____ is an adapter card, PC Card, or flash card that enables a computer or devies to access a network.
Definition
NIC
Term
A ____ network is a home network that uses radio waves, instead of cables, to transmit data.
Definition
Home RF
Term
The amount of data, instructions, and information that can travel over a communications channel sometimes is called the ____.
Definition
Bandwidth
Term
_____ is the time it takes a signal to travel from one location to another on a network.
Definition
Latency
Term

With _____ service, an optical terminal at your house receives the signals and transfers them to a router connected to your computer.

Definition
FTTH
Term
____ is a computer phrase that points out the accuracy of a computer's output depends on the accuracy of its input.
Definition
Garbage in, garbage out
Term
Accurate information ______.
Definition
is error free
Term
Verifiable information _____.
Definition
can be proven as correct or incorrect.
Term
Timely information _______.
Definition
has an age suited to its use
Term
Organized information _______.
Definition
Is arranged to suit the needs and requirements f a decision maker.
Term
Accessible information _______.
Definition
is available when a decision maker needs it.
Term
Useful information _____.
Definition
has meaning to the person who reeives it.
Term
Cost-effective information ________.
Definition
gives more value than it costs to produce.
Term
A database contaions files, a file contains ______.
Definition
records, a record contains fields, and a field is made up of characters.
Term
A _____ is the smallest unit of data a computer can process.
Definition
bit
Term
_______ is a common data type that consists of dollar and cent amounts or numbers containing decimal values.
Definition
Currancy
Term
_____ is a common data type that consists of lengthy text entries.
Definition
Object
Term
_____ is a common data type that consists of Web addresses that link you to a document or Web page.
Definition
Hyperlink
Term
Users add new records to a file ______.
Definition
When they obtain new data
Term
Generally, users change records in a file ___.
Definition
to correct inaccurate data and to update old data with new data.
Term
_____, a user deletes it from a file.
Definition
When a record is no longer needed.
Term
When a program flages a deleted record, the record _____ process it.
Definition
Remains physically on the disk but is delted logicall because the program will not
Term
Deleting un-needed files ____ storage space.
Definition
Reduces the size of files and frees up
Term

If the lowest annual fee at a dicount warehouse is $20.25 and the highest is $55.50, a(n) ____ on the Annual Fee field ensures it is a value between $20.25 and $55.50

Definition
range check
Term
A(n) ___ tests the data in two or more associated fields to ensure that the relationship is logical.
Definition
Consistancy check
Term
A(n) ____ verifies that a required field contains data.
Definition
Completeness check
Term
A program determines the ___ by applying a formula to the numbers in the primary key value.
Definition
check digit
Term
A major weakness of a lot of file processing systems is that _____.
Definition
They have redundant data and they isolate data.
Term
A(n) _____ program interacts with a DBMS, which in turn interacts with the database.
Definition
front-end
Term
When compared with a file processing system, a database offers all of the following _____.
Definition

- reduced data redundancy

- easier access and shared data

- reduced development time 

Term
A DBMS uses the _____ to perform validation checks.
Definition
Data dictionary
Term
Commonly used methods to retrieve and maintain data include all of the following.
Definition

- report generators and forms

- query languages

- query by example 

Term
Although a query language can be used for other purposes, most users only ____ data with a query language.
Definition
retrieve
Term
A checkout clerk with ____ privileges to the e-mail addresses in a discount warehouse database could view the addresses but not change them.
Definition
read-only
Term
A manager would have ___ pribeleges to member data in a discoundt warehouse database.
Definition
full-update
Term
Occasionally, a database can be damaged or destroyed because of ________.
Definition

- hardware or software failure

- human error

- a catastrophe, such as a fire or flood 

Term
In a log, a DBMS places _______.
Definition

- a copy of a record prior to a change

- the actual change to a record

- a copy of a record after a change 

Term
Popular data models in use today include all of the following:
Definition

- relational

-object-oriented

-multidimensional 

Term
In a relational database, each row ____.
Definition
has a primary key and each column has a unique name
Term
[image] A user of a relational database, such as this one, refers to a file as a ______.
Definition
Table
Term
[image]A user of a relational database, such as this one, refers to a record as a ____.
Definition
Row
Term
 A user of a relational database, such as this one, refers to a feild as _____.[image]
Definition
Column
Term
[image] In a relational database, such as this one, a _____ is a connection within the data.
Definition
Relationship
Term
[image] In a relational database, such as this one, users can set up a relationship between tables at any time, but the tables must have a common ______.
Definition
Column
Term
Most _____ database products for servers and mainframes include SQL, an example of which is shown.[image]
Definition
Relational
Term
_____, as shown, is a query language that allows users to manage, update, and retrieve data.[image]
Definition
SQL
Term
Compared with relational databases, object-oriented dadtabases ______.
Definition

- Can store more types of data

- Access data faster

- Allow programmers to reuse objects 

Term
A ____ stores images, audio clips, and/or video clips.
Definition
multimedia database
Term
A _____ stores documents such as schedules, calendars, manuals, memos, and reports.
Definition
Groupware database
Term
A ____ stores data about engineering, architectural, and scientific designs.
Definition
Computer-aided design (CAD) database
Term
The advantage of multidimensional database is that ____.
Definition
It can consolidate data much faster than a relational database
Term
Many e-commerce sites use ____ to determine customer preferences.
Definition
Data mining
Term
A Web database usually resides on a(n) _____.
Definition
Database server
Term
To access data in a ____, users fill in a form on a Web page.
Definition
Web database
Term
The DA does all of the following:
Definition

- Decide on the proper placement of fields

- Define the relationships among data

- Identify users' access privileges 

Term
The DBA does all of the following:
Definition

- Manage security of the database

- Monitor the performance of the database

- Check backup and recovery procedures 

Term
With a(n) ____, users create a computerized database; add change and delete data in the database; sort and retrieve data from the database; and create forms and reports from the data in the database.
Definition
DBMS
Term
In the ASCII and EBCDIC coding schemes, each byte represents a single ____, which can be a number, letter, punctuation mark, or other symbol.
Definition
character
Term
Definition
Term
____ is a common data type that includes letters, numvers, or special characters.
Definition
Text.
Term

Yes/No (also called ____) is a common data type that includes only the values Yes or No (or True or False).

Definition
Boolean
Term
Object (also called ____) is a common data type that includes photograph, audio, video, or a document created in other applications.
Definition
BLOB
Term
In a database, a(n) ______ is a group of related fields.
Definition
record
Term
In a database, a(n) ____ field is a field that uniquely identifies each record in a file.
Definition
Key
Term
[image] A(n) ____ check is a calidity check performen on data, like the one shown, which ensures users enter only alphabetic data into a field.
Definition
Alphabetic
Term
[image] A(n) ___ check is a validity check performed on data like that shown, which ensures users enter only numeric data into a field.
Definition
Numeric
Term
A(n) ____ check is a validity check that determines whether a number is within a specified group of numbers
Definition
Range
Term
A(n) ____ is a program with which users interact that generally has a more user-friendly interface the DBMS.
Definition
front end
Term
An application that supports a front-end program sometimes is called the _____.  
Definition
back end
Term
A(n) ____ contains dadta about each file in a database and each field in those files.
Definition
repository
Term
[image]                                                                                     Most DBMSs include a(n) _____ feature, like the one shown, which has a grahical user interface to assist users with retriecing data.
Definition
QBE
Term
More complex DBMSs maintain a(n) _____, which is a listing of activities that change the contents of a database.
Definition
log
Term
A DBMS that creates a log usualy provides a(n) ____ utility that uses the logs and/or backups to restore a database when it becomes damaged or destroyed.
Definition
Recovery
Term
____ backup is a backup plan in which all data is backed up whenever a change is made.
Definition
Continuous
Term
The developer of a relational database refers to a file as a(n) ____.
Definition
Relation
Term
The developer of a relational database refers to a record as a(n) _____.
Definition
tuple
Term
The developer of a relational database refers to a field as a(n) ____.
Definition
Attribute
Term
_____ is a process designed to ensure the data within the relations (tables) contains the least amount of duplication.
Definition
Normalization
Term
Object-oriented and object-relational databases often use a query language called ____ to manipulate and retrieve data.
Definition
OQL
Term
A data ____ is a huge database that stores and manages the data required to analyze historical and current transactions.
Definition
Warehouse
Term
The data in a(n) ____ database exists in many separate locations throughout a network or the Internet.
Definition
Distributed
Term
Data warehouses often use a process called data ____ to find patterns and relationships among data.
Definition
Mining
Term
A data ____ contains a database that helps a specific group or department make decisions.
Definition
Mart
Term
A database ___ is a computer that stores and provides access to a database.
Definition
Server
Term
One type of program that manages the sending and receiving of data between the front end and a database server is a(n) ____ script, which runs automatically as soon as users click a button to send or receive information.
Definition
CGI
Term
the term ___ refers to online or Internet-based illegal acts.
Definition
Cybercrime
Term
A ____ is a program that copies itself repeatedly in memory or on a network, using up resources and possible shutting down the computer or the network all together.
Definition
Worm
Term
A ____ is a malicious-logic program that hides within or looks like a legitimate program and usually is triggered by a certain condition or action.
Definition
Trojan Horse
Term
The ____ is the destructive even or prank a malicious-logic program is intended to deliver.
Definition
Payload
Term
Computer viruses, worms, and Trojan horses deliver their payload on a computer when a user ____.
Definition

- Opens an infected file

- Runs and infected program

-  Boots the computer with an infected disk in a disk drive

Term
Some viruses are hidden in ____, which are instructions saved in an application such as a word processing or spreadsheet program.
Definition
macros
Term
[image] To ____ a program file, a program like the one shown records information such as the file size and the file creation date in a separate file.
Definition
inoculate
Term
A ____ separate area of a hard disk that hold an infected file until the infection can be removed.
Definition
quarantine
Term
The computer that a hacker uses to execute a DoS or a DDoS attack, known as a ____, is completely unaware that it is being used to attack other systems.
Definition
Zombie
Term
A honeypot is a program designed to ____.
Definition
entice an intruder to hack into a computer
Term
To prevet unauthorized access and use, at a minimum a company should have a written ____ that outlines the computer activities for which a computer or network may and may not be used.
Definition
Acceptable use policy (AUP)
Term
Each character added to a password significantly ____ it might take for someone or for a hacker's computer to guess the password.
Definition
increases the number of combinations and the lenth of time
Term
Examples of biometric devices and systems include all of the following:
Definition

- Fingerprint scanners and hand geometry ststems

- Face recognition systems and voice recognition systems.

- Signature verification sytems and iris recognition systems. 

Term
To help reduce the chance of ____, physical controls such as locked doors and cables usually are adequate to protect equiptment.
Definition
hardware theft
Term
Some notebook computers use _____ as methods of security.
Definition

- Passwords

- Biometrics

- Possessed objects 

Term

[image]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

When users purchase software, a single-user license agreement like the one shown, permits users to do any of the following.
Definition

- Install the software on only one computer

- Make on copy of the software as backup

- Give or sell the software to another individual if the software is removed from the user's computer. 

Term
When users purchase software, a single-user license agreement like the one shown does not permit users to do any of the following[image]
Definition

- Install the software on a network

- Give copies to friends

- Export the software 

Term
Software piracy continues for all of the following reasons:
Definition

- In some countries, legal protection for software does not exist

- Software piracy is a simple crime to commit

- Many buyers believe they have the right to copy software they have paid for. 

Term
To promote a better understanding of software piracy problems and, if necessary, to take legal action, a number of majorworldwide software companies formed the _____.
Definition
Business Software Alliance (BSA)
Term
In its simplest form, a(n) ____ is a programmed formula that the recipient of encrypted data uses to decrypt the ciphertext.
Definition
Encryption Key
Term
A ____ is a mathematical formula that generates a code from the contents of an e-mail message.
Definition
Hash
Term
When a mobile user connects to a main offie using a standard Internet connection, a ___ provides the mobile user with a secure connection to the company network server.
Definition
Virtual Private network (VPN)
Term
One of the more common causes of ____ is an electical power variation.
Definition
System Failure
Term
A momentary overvoltage, called a ____, occurs when the increase in power lasts for less than on millisecond (one Thousandth of a second).
Definition
Spike
Term
____, which provides encryption of all data that passes etween a client and a server, requires that both the client and the server have digital certificates
Definition
Secure Sockets layer (SSL)
Term
_____, which allows users to choose an encryption scheme that passes between a client and a server, requires both the client and the server have digial certificantes.
Definition
Secure HTTP (S-HTTP)
Term
A ____ is the unit of energy a surge protection device can absorb before it can be damaged.
Definition
Joule
Term
A UPS connects between a computer and a ____.
Definition
Power source
Term
A(n) ____ copies all of the files in a computer.
Definition
Full backup
Term
With a(n) ____, users choose which folders and files to include in a backup.
Definition
Selective Backup
Term
With a three-generation backup policy, the grandparent is the ______.
Definition
Oldest copy of the file
Term
With a three-gerneration backup policy, the parent is the ____.
Definition
Second oldest copy of the file
Term
With a three generation backup policy, the child is the ____.
Definition
Most recent copy of the file.
Term
Some perpetrators use a technique called ___ in which they attempt to connect to wireless networks via their notebook computers while driving a vehical through areas they suspect have a wireless network.
Definition
war driving
Term
A ___  is a small text file that a Web server stores on a user's comuter.
Definition
cookie
Term
Web sites use a ___ to keep track of items in a user's shopping cart.
Definition
session cookie
Term
Internet advertising firms often use ____ to collect information abou users Web browsing habits.
Definition
Adware
Term
____ is/are not considered spyware because aa user knows it/they exist(s).
Definition
Cookies
Term

[image]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

___, like that shown, is an unsolicited e-mail message or newsgroup posting sent o many recipients or newsgroups at once.

Definition
Spam
Term

[image]

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

To aviod items like this one, users can sign up for ____, which is a service from an Internet service provider that blocks e-mail messages from designated sources. 

Definition
e-mail filtering
Term
____ is a scam in which a perpetrator sends an official looking e-mail that attempts to obtain a user's personal and financial information.
Definition
Phishing
Term
The 1986 ____ provides the same protection that conver mail and telephone communications to electronic communications such as voice mail.
Definition
Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA)
Term
In 1988 ____ regulates the use of government data to determine the eligibility of individuals for federal benefits.
Definition
Computer Matching and Privacy Protection Act
Term
Many businesses use ___ to limit employees' Web access.
Definition
Content filtering
Term
One approach to content filtering is through a rating system of ___, which is similar to those used for movies and vieos.
Definition
ICRA
Term
Computer forensics is used by _____.
Definition

- Military intelligence

- Insurance agencies

- Law enforcement 

Term
To prevent repetitive strain injury, take all of the following precautions.
Definition

- Place a wrist rest between the keyboard and the edge of the desk.

- Place the mouse at least six inches from the edge of the desk.

- Minimize the number of switches between the mouse and the keyboard. 

Term
____ is an applied science devoted to incorporating comfort, efficiency, and safety into the design of items in the workplace.
Definition
Ergonomics
Term
Symptoms of a user with computer addiction include all of the following:
Definition

- Craves computer time

- Neglects family and friends

- Unable to stop computer activity 

Term
Personal computers, display devices, and printers should comply with guidelines of the ____ program.
Definition
ENERGY STAR
Term

The term ____, although originally a complimentary word for a computer enthusiast, now has a derogatory meaning and refers to someone who accesses a computer or network illegally.

 

Definition
Hacker
Term
A(n) ____ is someone who accesses a computer or network illegally but has the intent of destroying data, stealing information, or other malicious action.
Definition
Cracker
Term
A computer _____ is a potentially damaging computer program that affects, or infects, a computer negatively by altering the way the computer works without the user's knowledge or permission.
Definition
Virus
Term
A virus ___ is a known specific pattern of virus code.
Definition
Signature
Term
A(n) ____ attack is an assault whose purpose is to disrupt computer access to an Internet sevice such as the Web or e-mail.
Definition
DoS
Term
A(n) _____ is a program or set of instructions in a program that allow users to bypass security controls when accessing a program, computer, or network.
Definition
Backdoor
Term
A(n) ____ server is a server outside a company's network that controls which communications ass into the compnay's network.
Definition
Proxy
Term
____ access is the use of a computer or network without permission.
Definition
Unauthorized
Term
A(n) ____ control is a secuity measure that defines who can access a computer, when they can access it, and what actions they can take while accessing the computer.
Definition
Access
Term
In addition to access controls, a computer should maintain a(n) ____ trial that records both successful and unsuccessful access attempts.
Definition
Audit
Term
[image] A(n) _____ object, an example of which is shown, is any item that must be carried to gain access to a computer or computer facility.
Definition
possessed
Term
A(n) ____ device authenticates a person's identity by translating a personal characteristic into a digital code tat then is compared with a digital code stored in the computer verifying a physical or behavioral characteristic.
Definition
biometric
Term
A(n) ____ aggrement is the right to use software.
Definition
License
Term
The most common type of license included with software purchased by individual users is a(n)____.
Definition
EULA
Term
During product ______, which is conducted either online or by telephone, users provide a software product's 25-Character identification number to receieve an installation identification number unique to the computer on which the software is installed.
Definition
Activation
Term
_____ is the process of converting readable data into unreadable characters to prevent unauthorized access.
Definition
Encryption
Term
One of the more popular e-mail encryption programs is called ____, which is freeware for personal, noncommercial users.
Definition
PGP
Term
A(n) _____ signature is an encryption code that a person, Web site, or company attaches to an electronic message to verify the identity of the message sender.
Definition
Digital
Term
A Web site that uses encryption techniques to secure its data is known as a(n) ____ site.
Definition
secure
Term
A(n) _____ certificate is a notice that guarantees a user or Web site is legitimate.
Definition
Digital
Term
A certificate ____ is an authorized person or company that issues and verifies digital certifiates.
Definition
Authority
Term
A(n) ___ is a device that contains surge protection circuits and one or more batteries that can provide power during a temporary or permanent loss of power.
Definition
UPS
Term
A(n) ____ is a duplicate of a file, program, or disk that can be used if the original is lost, damaged, or destroyed.
Definition
backup
Term
A(n) ___ network, the most recent network standard, conforms to the government security standards and uses more sophisticated encryption techniques than WPA or WEP
Definition
802.11i
Term
_____ refers to unique and original works such as ideas, invention, writings, art, processes, company and product names, and logos.
Definition
IP
Term
A(n) ____ gives authors and artists exclusive rights to duplicate, publish, and sell their materials.
Definition
Copyright
Term
One type of spyware, called a(n) ____, is hidden on Web pages or in e-mail messages in the form graphical images.
Definition
Web Bug
Term
Content ___ is the process of restricting access to certain material on the Web.
Definition
filtering
Term
Computer _____ is the discovery, collection, and analysis of evidence found on computers and networks.
Definition
forensics
Term
A(n) ____ is an injury or disorder of the muscles, nerves, tendons, ligaments, and joints.
Definition
RSI