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"Criminalistics" Ch. 1- Introduction
Review Questions from Saferstein's Forensic Science Textbook "Criminalistics"
30
Science
07/22/2009

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Term
The application of science to law describes ______.
Definition
forensic science
Term
The fictional exploits of ______ excited the imagination of an emerging generation of forensic scientists and criminal investigators.
Definition
Sherlock Holmes
Term
A system of personal identification using a series of body measurements was first devised by ______.
Definition
Alphonse Bertillon
Term
______ is responsible for developing the first statistical study proving the uniqueness of fingerprints.
Definition
Francis Galton
Term
The Italian scientist ______ devised the first workable procedure for typing dried bloodstains.
Definition
Leone Lattes
Term
The comparison microscope became an indispensable tool of firearm examination through the efforts of ______.
Definition
Calvin Goddard
Term
Early efforts at applying scientific principles to document examination are associated with ______.
Definition
Albert S. Osborn
Term
The application of science to criminal investigation was advocated by the Austrian magistrate ______.
Definition
Hans Gross
Term
One of the first functional crime laboratories to be formed existed in Lyons, France, under the direction of ______.
Definition
Edmond Locard
Term
The first forensic laboratory in the United States was created in 1923 by the ______ Police Department.
Definition
Los Angeles
Term
The state of ______ is an excellent example of a geographical area in the United States that has created a system of integrated regional and satellite laboratories.
Definition
California
Term
In contrast to the United States, Britain's crime laboratory system is characterized by a national system of ______ laboratories.
Definition
regional
Term
The increasing demand for ______ analyses has been the single most important factor in the recent expansion of crime laboratory services in the United States.
Definition
drug
Term
Four important agencies offering forensic service at the federal level are ______, ______, ______, and ______.
Definition
FBI, DEA, ATFE, USPS.
Term
A decentralized system of crime laboratories currently exists in the United States under the auspices of various governmental agencies at the ______, ______, ______, and ______ levels of government.
Definition
federal, state, county, and municipal
Term
The application of chemistry, physics, and geology to the identification and comparison of crime-scene evidence is the function of the ______ unit of a crime laboratory.
Definition
physical science
Term
The examination of blood, hairs, fibers, and vegetative materials is conducted in the ______ unit of a crime laboratory.
Definition
biology
Term
The examination of bullets, cartridge cases, shotgun shells, and ammunition of all types is the responsibility of the ______ unit.
Definition
firearms
Term
The examination of body fluids and organs for drugs and poisons is a function belonging to the ______ unit.
Definition
toxicology
Term
The ______ unit dispatches trained personnel to the scene of a crime to retrieve evidence for laboratory examination.
Definition
evidence collection
Term
The "general acceptance" principle, which serves as a criterion for the judicial admissibility of scientific evidence, was set forth in the case of ______.
Definition
Frye v. United States
Term
In the case of ______, the Supreme Court ruled that in assessing the admissibility of new and unique scientific tests the trial judge did not have to rely solely on the concept of "general acceptance."
Definition
Daubert v. Merrell Dow Pharmaceutical, Inc.
Term
The U.S. Supreme Court decision in Kumho Tire Co., Ltd. v. Carmichael restricted the "gatekeeping" role of a trial judge only to scientific testimony. (True/False)
Definition
False- The ruling expanded the gatekeeper rule to all expert witnesses.
Term
A Florida case that exemplifies the flexibility and wide discretion that the trial judge has in matters of scientific inquiry is ______.
Definition
Coppolino v. State
Term
An ______ is one who can demonstrate a particular skill or has knowledge in a trade or profession that will assist the court in determining the truth of the matter at issue.
Definition
expert
Term
The expert witness's courtroom demeanor may play an important role in deciding what weight the court will assign to his or her testimony. (True/False)
Definition
True
Term
The testimony of an expert witness incorporates his or her personal opinion relating to a matter he or she has either studied or examined. (True/False)
Definition
True
Term
The ability of an investigator to recognize and collect crime scene evidence properly is dependent on the amount of ______ received from the crime laboratory.
Definition
training
Term
When ______ sets in after death, the skin will appear as a dark blue or purple color in those areas closest to the ground.
Definition
livor mortis
Term
One method for approximating the time of death is to determine body temperature. (True/False)
Definition
True