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Criminal Justice
MFT Practice
156
Criminal Justice
01/18/2012

Additional Criminal Justice Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
booking
Definition
Which stage in the criminal justice process involves taking pictures and fingerprints of the suspect?
Term
Who returns an indictment?
Definition
grand jury
Term
Acceptable pleas generally include
Definition
guilty, not guilty, nolo contendere
Term
Which model emphasizes individual rights?
Definition
due process model

Term
Which model emphasizes the efficient arrest and conviction of criminal offenders?
Definition
crime control model
Term
Criminal Justice involves which of the following aspects?
Definition
the criminal law, the law of criminal procedure, the array of procedures and activities having to do with the enforcement of the criminal law
Term
Which of the following terms refer to the necessary level of belief that would allow the police to make an arrest?
Definition
probable cause
Term
Defendants are usually advised of their constitutional rights as enumerated in the famous Supreme Court decision of
Definition
Miranda v. Arizona
Term
Which of the following advocates would support the protection of personal freedoms and civil rights?
Definition
individual-rights advocates

Term
A _______________ sentence is when an offender serves one sentence after another is completed
Definition
consecutive
Term
Which of the following advocates would support the interests of society over individual rights?
Definition
public-order advocates
Term
An offender who has served a specified portion of his or her prison sentence may be freed on
Definition
parole
Term
All of the following rights are stated in the Miranda warnings except
Definition
"You have the right to bail."
Term
Which model of criminal justice assumes that the efforts of the component parts of the system are fragmented, leading to a criminal justice nonsystem?
Definition
conflict model
Term
If a defendant stands mute at her arraignment, what plea will be entered by the judge?
Definition
not guilty
Term
Bail will usually be set at the
Definition
first appearance before the judge
Term
The __________________ Amendment to the U.S. Constitution guarantees every criminal defendant's right to a jury trial.
Definition
sixth
Term
The weapon of choice in most murders is
Definition
a gun
Term
Which offense has the highest clearance rate of any index crime?
Definition
murder
Term
Victims may not report crimes for various reasons, including
Definition
embarrassment about the crime itself
a fear of reprisal
the belief that the police can't do anything
Term
The unlawful taking or attempted taking of property that is in the immediate possession of another, by force or the threat of force, is known as
Definition
robbery
Term
Which of the following agencies is responsible for compiling the NCVS?
Definition
Bureau of Justice Statistics
Term
The ________________ is based upon victim self-reports rather than on police reports.
Definition
National Crime Victimization Survey
Term
Which of the following is a problem with the NCVS?
Definition
false reports, respondents who suffer from faculty memories, innacurate reports
Term
The burning or attempted burning of property with or without intent to defraud is termed
Definition
arson
Term
Most aggravated assaults were committed with
Definition
blunt objects
Term
The National Crime Victimization Survey does not include information about which crime?
Definition
murder
Term
Uniform Crime Reports are based on
Definition
reports to the police by victims of the crime
Term
All of the following crimes are UCR Part I offenses except
Definition
fraud
Term
If a male assaults a female, steals her car, and, when abandoning the car, runs off with her purse, which crime would be included in UCR statistics?
Definition
the assault
Term
The Uniform Crime Reports were originated by United States Congressional authorization to the attorney general in
Definition
1930
Term
William Sheldon believed predominately _____________ individuals were most prone to aggression, violence, and delinquency.
Definition
mesomorphic
Term
Which of the following is a fundamental assumption of psychological theories?
Definition
Crimes result from inappropriately conditioned behavior, or from abnormal, dysfunctional, or inappropriate mental processes within the personality, Personality is the major motivational element within individuals, The individual is the primary unit of analysis
Term
Walter Reckless's containment theory describes two types of containment that are known as
Definition
inner and outer
Term
Sykes and Matza's neutralization techniques include
Definition
denial of the victim
denial of the injury
denial of responsibility
Term
Which school explains criminal behavior by looking at physical characteristics and/or genetic makeup?
Definition
Biological School
Term
Atavism is
Definition
a condition characterized by the existence of features thought to be common in earlier stages of human evolution
Term
Which of the following terms refers to normlessness?
Definition
anomie
Term
Which of Sheldon's body types is characterized by thinness, fragility, and delicacy?
Definition
ectomorphs
Term
Which of the following theories proposes that when an individual's bond to society weakens, then the likelihood of crime increases?
Definition
social control
Term
According to ______________, criminal behavior is learned.
Definition
Sutherland
Term
Which of the following type of law is based on the assumption that acts injure not just individuals, but society as a whole?
Definition
criminal law
Term
Which of the following refers to a traditional body of early-unwritten legal precedents created from everyday English social customs, rules, and practices?
Definition
common law
Term
Mala prohibita offenses include
Definition
gambling
prostitution
illicit drug use
Term
The functions of law include
Definition
maintaining order in society
regulating human interaction
identifying evildoers
Term
Which type of law involves a body of rules which regulates the processing of an offender by the criminal justice system?
Definition
procedural law
Term
Murder, motor vehicle theft, and robbery all fall under what branch of modern law?
Definition
criminal
Term
Which of the following is a procedural defense?
Definition
double jeopardy
selective prosecution
prosecutorial misconduct
Term
In the multiple-murder trial of Colin Ferguson, who was charged with killing six passengers and wounding 19 others, which defense was used?
Definition
black rage
Term
Which of the following is a justification defense?
Definition
self defense
Term
An alibi defense can be supported by
Definition
hotel receipts
eyewitness identification
participation in social events
Term
Which of the following elements of crime means guilty mind
Definition
mens rea
Term
The Metropolitan Police of London
Definition
was formed in 1829
was formed by Sir Robert Peel
adopted a military administrative state
Term
The Bow Street Runners
Definition
were the most disciplined enforcement agents in London
were created by Henry Fielding
Term
Attempts to police the early western frontier were known as
Definition
lynch law
Term
Which commission, started in 1931, recognized prohibition as unenforceable as well as a catalyst to police corruption?
Definition
Wickersham
Term
The Kansas City Preventive Patrol Experiment established that
Definition
preventive patrol doesn't affect citizen fear of crime
Term
The FBI provides services to countless state and local policing agencies through
Definition
the National Crime Information Center
the Idenification Division
the FBI laboratories
Term
Whose name is most closely associated with the FBI?
Definition
J. Edgar Hoover
Term
What federal law enforcement agency is responsible for maintaining the Uniform Crime Reporting Program?
Definition
FBI
Term
One of the primary responsibilities of the U.S. Marshals is
Definition
to provide security in federal courts
Term
What city's police department numbers almost 30,000 sworn officers?
Definition
New York
Term
What strategy is designed to increase the productivity of patrol officers through the application of scientific analysis and evaluation of patrol techniques?
Definition
directed patrol
Term
Which private police agency had the motto We Never Sleep?
Definition
Pinkerton National Detective Agency
Term
What state had the first modern state police agency?
Definition
Pennsylvania
Term
Which of the following U.S. Supreme Court cases specified the conditions under which deadly force could be used to apprehend a suspected felon?
Definition
Tennessee v. Garner
Term
The political era of American policing was characterized by
Definition
police serving the interests of politicians
Term
What division within a police department is responsible for investigating charges of wrongdoing made against officers?
Definition
internal affairs
Term
Which of the following is cited in the text as the most effective way to combat corruption in police work?
Definition
high moral standards
Term
Which of the following is a major strategy used to combat police corruption?
Definition
increased ethics training of both new and experienced officers
Term
Historically, officers were allowed to use deadly force to prevent the escape of a suspected felon. This was known as
Definition
Fleeing Felon Rule
Term
Community policing is best characterized by which of the following?
Definition
providing service to citizens
Term
Which of following factors influences a police officer's use of discretion?
Definition
pressure from victims
departmental policy
background of the officer
Term
Who coined the phrase working personality of police officers?
Definition
Jerome Skolnick
Term
How is the police subculture best described?
Definition
The set of values, beliefs, and forms of behavior which characterize American police
Term
Officers who have adopted the working personality are often
Definition
cynical
authoritarian
prejudiced
Term
What is the meaning of the term Grass-Eaters as a form of police corruption?
Definition
Officers who accept small bribes and minor services offered by citizens

Term
What name is most closely associated with the Watchman style of policing?
Definition
James Q. Wilson
Term
The legalistic style of policing
Definition
enforces the letter of the law
Term
A police officer can be sued for
Definition
false arrest
failure to prevent a foreseeable crime
negligence in the care of persons in police custody
Term
Police professionalism is characterized by
Definition
specialized knowledge
extensive education
internal standards and ethical guidelines
Term
The Peace Officer Standards and Training program requires officers to complete a course in all of the following except
Definition
psychology
Term
Which of the following is a type of police corruption that involves the active seeking of illicit money-making opportunities by officers?
Definition
meat eating
Term
The major areas of police activity infused with due process requirements are
Definition
search and seizure
arrest
nterrogation
Term
Unreasonable searches and seizures are prohibited by the
Definition
Fourth Amendment

Term
Which 1960s U.S. Supreme Court dramatically changed by the day-to-day practice of American policing?
Definition
Warren Court
Term
This rule requires that incriminating evidence must be seized by police according to the Constitutional specifications of due process or it will not be allowed as evidence in court
Definition
exclusionary rule
Term
Which U.S. Supreme Court case was responsible for the creation of the exclusionary rule?
Definition
Weeks v. U.S
Term
Which legal principle excludes any evidence resulting from an originally illegal search or seizure from introduction at trial?
Definition
fruit-of-the-poisoned-tree doctrine

Term
This Supreme Court case has become the basis for stop and frisk.
Definition
Terry v. Ohio
Term
The 1984 U.S. Supreme Court case U.S. v. Leon established the
Definition
good faith exception
Term
Chimel v. California established
Definition
that officers can only search the person arrested and the area under that person's "immediate control."
Term
In order for the plain view doctrine to apply,
Definition
officers must have legal right to be in the viewing areas.
officers must have cause to believe that the evidence is somehow associated with criminal activity
Term
Which of the following is not a justification for emergency warrantless searches?
Definition
danger to property
Term
Which Supreme Court ruling applied the principles developed in Weeks v. U.S. to trials in state courts?
Definition
Mapp v. Ohio
Term
In which of the following situation(s) might an officer be able to conduct a warrantless search?
Definition
vehicle search
search incident to a lawful arrest
emergency searches
Term
What famous 1965 U.S. Supreme Court case provided the advisement of rights to criminal suspects prior to police questioning?
Definition
Miranda v. Arizona
Term
Which 1936 Supreme Court case prohibited corporal punishment as a means of obtaining a confession?
Definition
Brown v. Mississippi
Term
Which Amendment guarantees against self-incrimination and excludes any form of coercion during interrogation?
Definition
Fifth
Term
In ______________, the U.S. Supreme Court stated that considerations of public safety can be overriding and negate the need for rights advisement prior to limited questioning
Definition
New York v. Quarles
Term
In order for a waiver of rights to be legal,
Definition
the waiver must be voluntary.
the waiver must be knowing.
the waiver must be intelligent
Term
Which of the following is an exception to the exclusionary rule?
Definition
plain view doctrine
stop and frisk authority
emergency questioning
Term
Courts which have the authority to review decision made by a lower court are said to have
Definition
appellate jurisdiction
Term
All of the following are true statements about the U.S. Supreme Court except
Definition
once confirmed, a justice serves an eight-year term
Term
bail decision is made at what stage of the court process?
Definition
first appearance
Term
There are ____________district courts in the federal court system.
Definition
94
Term
In which court would a felony trial be held in the federal court system?
Definition
District Court
Term
Bail serves two purposes: One is to help ensure the reappearance of the accused at trial.The other is
Definition
to prevent unconvicted persons from suffering imprisonment unnecessarily.
Term
When Jill Cessia appeared at her first appearance, Judge Smith set bail at $10,000. She was released when she paid $1,500 to a bail bondsman. This is an example of
Definition
privately secured bail.
Term
All of the following are true about grand juries except
Definition
defendants appear before the grand jury and have the absolute right to cross-examine witnesses.
Term
All of the following are considered professionals in the courtroom work group except the
Definition
victim
Term
Which statement is false regarding the role of the judge in the courtroom work group
Definition
The judge is responsible for presenting the state's case against the defendant.
Term
Which work group member has the responsibility of demonstrating to a jury that a defendant is guilty beyond a reasonable doubt?
Definition
the prosecutor
Term
The role of a defense attorney includes representing the accused, and
Definition
appealing a conviction.
testing the strength of the prosecution's case
participating in plea negotiations.
Term
Which U.S. Supreme Court case established the right to counsel for indigent defendants in state felony court proceedings?
Definition
Gideon v. Wainwright
Term
Who keeps order in the courtroom and announces the judge's entry into the courtroom?
Definition
the bailiff
Term
Which U.S. Supreme Court case established the right to counsel for juvenile defendants?
Definition
In Re Gault
Term
The most widely used system of indigent defense is
Definition
court-appointed defense attorneys.
Term
Public defenders are
Definition
full-time salaried staff.
overworked because of huge caseloads
Term
Who is responsible for summoning members of the public for jury duty and subpoenaing witnesses for the prosecution and the defense?
Definition
the clerk of the court
Term
Which of the following represents the order of the steps in a criminal trial?
Definition
trial initiation, jury selection, opening statements, presentation of evidence, closing arguments, the judge's charge to the jury, jury deliberations, the verdict
Term
The federal Speedy Trial Act allows for the dismissal of charges when the prosecution does not seek indictment within ______ days of arrest, or where a trial does not begin within ______ days after indictment.
Definition
35; 70
Term
Which of the following is not a type of juror challenge?
Definition
challenges for knowledge
Term
A motion for ___________ asks the court to move the trial to some other area where prejudice against a defendant is less likely to exist.
Definition
change of venue
Term
A motion for _______________ asks the court to allow the defendant's lawyer to view the evidence which the prosecution intends to present at trial.
Definition
Discovery
Term
Which of the following is not one of the goals of contemporary sentencing?
Definition
counseling
Term
Which sentencing goal stresses vengeance?
Definition
retribution
Term
Separating offenders from the community furthers which sentencing goal?
Definition
incapacitation
Term
Which sentencing goal is closely associated with the phrase, an eye for an eye?
Definition
retribution
Term
______________ deterrence seeks to reduce the likelihood of recidivism.
Definition
Specific
Term
Which sentencing goal attempts to make the victim whole again
Definition
restoration
Term
A sentence of 8 to 25 years with the possibility of parole is an example of a (n)
Definition
indeterminate sentence.
Term
Proportionality seeks to ____________.
Definition
balance the severity of sanctions and the seriousness of the crime
Term
Cooperating with the authorities, good character, and no prior record are examples of _______ factors.
Definition
mitigating

Term
Which sentencing practice specifies a sentencing range for each criminal offense?
Definition
determinate
Term
Truth in sentencing guarantees that offenders will serve at least ____________ percent of their sentence.
Definition
85

Term
When a judge requests information prior to sentencing on the background of a convicted defendant, it is called a
Definition
presentence investigation
Term
Probation, parole, home confinement, and electronic monitoring are examples of
Definition
community-based corrections
Term
Who is recognized as the world's first probation officer?
Definition
John Augustus
Term
Sheila Macco is sentenced to probation. The conditions of her probation include: maintain employment, possess no firearms, obey all laws, and meet with her probation officer biweekly. These ____________ conditions apply to all probationers in the jurisdiction where she was sentenced.
Definition
general

Term
All of the following are advantages of using probation instead of imprisonment except
Definition
increased employment opportunities.
allows the offender to maintain family ties.
increased opportunities for rehabilitation
Term
Which type of sentence requires that offenders serve weekends in jail and receive probation supervision during the week?
Definition
mixed sentence
Term
Which intermediate sanction resembles a military-style boot camp?
Definition
shock incarceration
Term
_____________ was the first state to have shock incarceration program.
Definition
Georgia
Term
What type of probation includes at least five face-to-face contacts between officer and probationer each week?
Definition
intensive
Term
The use of parole in the United States began with
Definition
the Elmira Reformatory in 1876.
Term
The Pennsylvania style of imprisonment was characterized by
Definition
solitary confinement and individual cells.
Term
Quakers, penance, and the Pennsylvania style of imprisonment are tied to the __________ era
Definition
penitentiary
Term
During the early decades of this century, there was opposition to prison industries primarily because they
Definition
threatened the jobs of workers
Term
Historically, ________________ was the most widely used type of physical punishment
Definition
flogging
Term
Nathaniel Hawthorne's The Scarlet Letter provides an example of what type of punishment?
Definition
branding
Term
The Auburn system of imprisonment became popular during which prison era?
Definition
mass prison
Term
Which prison era characterized security, and was based on the belief that prisoners owed a debt to society?
Definition
punitive
Term
The majority of offenders housed in federal institutions have been convicted of
Definition
drug offenses
Term
Which Supreme Court case held that overcrowding in prisons is not by itself cruel and unusual punishment?
Definition
Rhodes v. Chapman
Term
____________ capacity refers to the inmate population the institution was originally built to handle.
Definition
Design