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Criminal justice research methods
test 1 - chapters 1-4 "the practice of research in criminology and criminal justice"
107
Criminal Justice
02/22/2012

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Term
Concept
Definition
A mental image that summarizes a set of similar observations, feeling, or ideas.
Term
Conceptualization
Definition
The process of what we mean by a term.

Term
Conceptualization (deductive research)
Definition
In deductive research, _____________ helps translate portions of an abstract theory into testable hypostheses involving specific variable.
Term
Conceptualization (Inductive research)
Definition
In inductive research, _____________ is an important part of the process used to make sense of related observation
Term
Operation
Definition
the procedure for actually measuring the concepts we intend to measure, identifying the value of a variable for each case
Term
Operationalization
Definition
the process of specifying the operation that will indicate the value of a variable for each case
Term
Indicator
Definition
the question or other operation used to indicate the value if cases on a variable
Example-
Concept- binge drinking
varible- frequency of heavy episodic drinking
Indicator- "how often within the past 2 weeks did you consume 5 or more drinks containing alcohol in a row
Term
Open-ended questions
Definition
survey questions to which the respondent replies in his or here own words, either by writing or by talking
Term
internal validity (causal)
Definition
type of validity that is achieved when a conclusion that on phenomenon leads to or results in another phenomenon- or doesn't lead to or result in another- is correct
Term
Validity
Definition
accuracy or "correctness"
Term
Systematic social observation (SSO)
Definition
Study of police interaction with the public
Method involved-
riding in police cars
observing police-citizen interaction
recording features of these characteristics on a form

Reformed study- drove sports utility down even street in the sample in chicage while cameras recorded
Term
Unobtrusive Measures
Definition
allows us to collect data about individuals or groups without their direct knowledge or participation.
(examples; physical trace evidence, archives(available data), simple observation, and contrived observation( using hidden recording hardware or manipulation to elicit a response)
Term
Triangulation
Definition
the use of two or more different measures of the same variable, can strengthen measurement considerably
Term
Measurement validity
Definition
the extent to which measures indicate what they are intended to measure
Term
Face Validity
Definition
type of validity to see if it is appropriate "on its face" simply whether it appears to measure what it intends
Term
Construct Validity
Definition
the type of validity that is established by showing that a measure is related to other measures as specified in a theory
Term
 Predictive validity (Criterion)
Definition
the type of validity that is established by comparing the score obtained on the measure being validated to those obtained with a more direct or already validated measure of the same phenomenon 
Term
Overgeneralization
Definition
An error in reasoning, occurs when we conclude that what we have observed or what we know is true for all cases
Example- in all cases that school performance -> delinquency (every kid that does bad in school is going to commit crime)
Term
Selective observation
Definition
choosing to look only at things that are in accordance with our preference or beliefs
(we have a preconceived idea of what is true and only look at our believe evidences that goes off from our idea)
Term
Inaccurate Observation
Definition
when our observations are simply inaccurate (if a woman says she is hungry and we think she said hunted or someone could provide you with incorrect information, intentionally or unintentionally)
Term
Illogical reasoning
Definition
when we prematurely jump to conclusions or argue on the basis of invalid assumptions
examples; -it is possible that delinquency influences school performance just as much or more than school performance influences delinquency. It is also possible that confounding factors cause both
-its not reasonable to propose that depiction of violence in media causes violence if the majority of people that watch such programs do not become violent
Term
Resistance to change
Definition
the reluctance to change our idea in light of new information, this may occur for several reasons
Term
Reasons for being Resistance to change
Definition
Ego-bases commitments- our own needs rather than observable facts
Excessive devotion to tradition- "good enough for my grandparent, good enough for me"
Uncritical agreement with authority- we don't want to comply if someone exercises their authority over us in ways we do not like
Term
Research
Definition
Asking question and getting convincing answers to those questions
Term
Research methods
Definition
-the Steps we follow(both analytical and physical) to ask reasonable questions and get convincing answers
-rely on scientific methods
Term
Florida 10-20-life law
Definition
crime is already going down at the time, so you can say this law is actually working
(10 for possesses of firearm, 20 for discharge, 25 to life for injury or killing, 3 or possesses by felon)
Serve consecutively
Term
Motivations for Criminology and CJ research (3)
Definition
Policy motivation- concerned about policy effectiveness
Academic motivation- why people do things they do
Personal Motivation- passion for dealing with hard social problems
Term
Science
Definition
set of logical, systematic, documented methods for investigating nature and nature process, the knowledge produced by those investigations
Term
Social Science
Definition
use of the scientific method to investigate individual, societies, and social processes, including questions related to criminology and criminal justice; the knowledge produced by these investigations
Term
Social science approach
Definition
relies on logical and systemic methods to answer questions, and it does it in a way that allows others to inspect and evaluate its methods
Term
Purpose of research
Definition
description - measuring counting and categorizing
exploration- developing a sense of understanding
explanatory- developing and testing causal theories about criminal behavior and institutional responses to criminal behavior
Evaluation- estimating the effects of programs, interventions, and treatments on scientifically interesting outcome
Term
Descriptive research (example)
Definition
Question-How prevalent is youth violence
Survey(random sample surveys) asked
how many time were you in a fight and also in the past 12 months how many times did someone threaten or injure you with weapon?

Term
Exploration (example)
Definition
Question- how do schools respond to gun violence (Asmussen and Creswell)

They wanted to know what the kids where thinking after a student pulled a gun in the class room to shoot everyone, but the gun jammed.
Term
Explanation (example)
Definition
Question- what factors are related to youth delinquency and violence? Examined the efficacy of the general stain theory in predicting youth violence (it was consistent)

Question- does the death penalty deter murder (who knows it seems like the rates are going down aways)
Term
Evaluation (example)
Definition
Question- did the 1976 handgun banned have an effect.
They focused on gun homicide and suicide rates, (seems like the rates did go down)

Question - do violence prevention programs in school work?
(yes bc it seems like the curriculum lead to a reduction of aggressive behavior and increase in neutral/ prosocial behavior
Term
experimental studies
(Common research methodologies)
Definition
used when the efficacy of a program or policy is being evaluated.
This must have 3 thing
1. two groups (one receiving treatment one not)
2. random assignment for those 2 groups
3. assessment of change in outcome variable after treatment as been received
Term
Quasi-experimental
(Common research methodologies)
Definition
Experiment that lacks on of the 3 things from Experimental study
Term
Survey
(Common research methodologies)
Definition
Measurement that can be done with one or more questions
Can be self-administered or read by an interviewer
Term
Participate Observation
(Common research methodologies)
Definition
Watching people as they go about with their normal activities
Term
Intensive Interviewing
(Common research methodologies)
Definition
used when we seek in-depth information on an individual's feeling, experiences, and perceptions
Term
Secondary Data Analysis
(Common research methodologies)
Definition
Reanalysis other peoples data
Term
Historical event research
(Common research methodologies)
Definition
Analyzing document from the past such as correspondences, newspaper accounts, and trial transcripts.
Term
Content Analysis
(Common research methodologies)
Definition
when researchers study representations of research topics in such media forms as news articles, TV shows, and radio talk shows
Term
Criminal Mapping
(Common research methodologies)
Definition
Examining the relationship between criminal behavior and other social indicators
Term
Triangulation
(Common research methodologies)
Definition
Combining methodologies to answer a research question
Term
Quantitative methods
Definition
methods such as surveys and experiments that record variation in social life in term of categories that varies in amount (normally numbers or attributes) that can be ordered in term of magnitude

Explanation, description, and evaluation
Term
Qualitative methods
Definition
methods such as participant observation, intensive interviewing, and focus groups that are designed to capture social life as participants experience it

Exploration is most common motive
but is also used in descriptive and evaluation purpose
Term
Criminal research questions
Definition
question that some aspect of crime or criminal that you seek to answer through collection and analysis of firsthand, verifiable empirical data
Term
criminal research question come from
Definition
theory
prior research
policy debates
agenda needs
pragmatic consideration
Term
3 steps for a criminal research question
Definition
1. identifying criminological research question
2. refining - (narrowing questions down)
3. Evaluating (to see if it has all the following)
feasibility (time frame and resources)
social importance
Scientific relevance
Term
Pate and Hamiltion's Metro-Dade spouse assault experiment
Definition
Based off of Sherman and Berk's Minneapolis study
Question- to test the deterrent effect of arrest in domestic violence cases with a focus on informal social control
Research Design- formal and informal deterrence, were clearly defended and then measured with straightforward indicators, arrest or no-arrest for formal deterrence and marital status and employment state for informal deterrence
Research Finding and Conclusion- Informal social control are important- arrest had deterrent effect on suspects who were employed but not those who were unemployed, however marital status had no effect
Term
Integrated literature review
Definition
goal is to integrate your results of your separated article review and develop an overall assessment of prior research
3 goals
1. summarize prior research
2. critique prior research
3. present pertinent conclusion
Term
Theory
Definition
A logical interrelated set of proposition about empirical reality
Term
Theoretical constructs
Definition
describes what is important to look at to understand explain, predict, and "do something about" crime
Term
Examples of theories
Deterrence theory
Social theories
labeling theory
Definition
-humans marginally rational to cost and benefits of their actions
-suggest the areas on which we should focus and the proposition that we should consider for a test
- distinguishes between
primary deviance- act of individual that lead to public sanctions
Secondary Deviance- deviance that occurs in response to public sanctions
Term
Social research strategies
Definition
deductive reasoning and inductive reasoning
Cannot fairly test unless we use deductive reasoning so we know what we are looking for and have something to prove wrong.
Term
Deductive Reasoning
Definition
research that begins with a theory implying that certain data should be found
moves from a general idea (theory) to specific reality (data)
Term
Inductive reasoning
Definition
Moves from specific to general
Says that certain data will lead us to a general idea or theory
Term
Research circle
Definition
Process of conducting research, moving from
theory to data to theory to data or
Data to theory to data to theory
Term
Hypothesis
Definition
tentative statement about empirical reality, involving a relationship between two or more variables
Example; the higher the level of residential mobility in a community the higher is the crime rate
Term
Variable
Definition
a characteristic or property that can vary(take one different values or attributes)
Term
Constant
Definition
a characteristic or property that does not vary but takes on only one value
Term
Independent Variable
Definition
a variable that is hypothesized to cause, lead to, variation in another variable
Example; residential mobility (residents moving in and out of the community)
Term
Dependent Variable
Definition
A variable that is hypothesized to vary spending on or under the influences of another variable
Example; the rate of crime in a community per 100 residents
Term
Direction of association
Definition
when researcher hypothesize
-one variable increases as other variable increases (positive)
-one variable decreases as other variable decreases (positive)
Term
Positive relationship vs. negative relationship
Definition
When the independent and dependant variable move in the same direction vs. she they move in opposite direction
Term
Inductive research
Definition
research that starts at the bottom of the research circle and works up from specific date to a theory
Term
Empirical Generalization
Definition
In inductive research, when patterns of data are summarized into ____________________ they can be compared to the hypothesis
Term
Sherman and Berk (domestic violence)
Phase 1 (deductive research)
Definition
hypothesis- that the arrest for spouses abuse would reduce the risk of repeat offenders
Independent variable- arrest
dependent variable - variation in the risk of repeat offense

Police could handle cases in 3 different ways in their random order
-an arrest
-order that offender leaves for 8hrs
-verbal advice
Term
Sherman and berk (domestic violence)
Phase 2 (deductive research)
Definition
replication (repetitions)
They had doubts so they repeated the study 6 more times
Problem- 3 cities were finding long-term increases in DV
charlotte, nebraska, and wisconsin
but other two the predicted deterrent effects seemed to be occurring
colorado and florida
Term
Sherman and berk (domestic violence)
Phase 3 (inductive research)
Definition
inductive research came into effect because their were unexpected patterns in the data that were collected this is called (serendipitous finding and anomalous findings)

this added social standing to the research
-employment status
-marital status
Term
Sherman and berk (domestic violence)
Phase 4 (deductive research)
Definition
Paternoster Et. Al.
Procedural justice theory- people will comply with the law out of a sense of duty and obligation if they are treated fairly by legal authorities

Conclusion- ones who where treated unfair, were more likely to reoffend
Term
Exploratory research
Definition
Interviewing victims and inductive research
-looking for explanation, because they don't know the answer

Example- Bennett, Goodman, and Dutton
Term
Bennett, Goodman, and Dutton
Definition
why the victims often decide not to press charges
4 reason came up
-confused by court procedures
-frustrated by delay
-fear of retribution
- didn't want to see their batterer go to jail
Term
Measurement Validity
Definition
Exist when a measure measures what we think it measures
Term
Generalizability
Definition
Exist when conclusion holds true for a population, group, setting, or event that we day it does, given the condition that we specify

Term
Sample generalizability
Definition
exist when a conclusion bases on a sample or subset go larger population holds true for that population
Term
Cross-population Generalization
Definition
(external Validity)
Exist when finding out one group, population, or setting holds true for other groups, populations, or settings
Term
Causal Validity (internal)
Definition
exist when a conclusion that X leads or results in Y is true
independent variable- X
Dependent variable - Y
If X is cause in Y then the following must be true
- changes in X must proceed changes in Y
- Changes in X must be correlated with changes in Y
- there is no confounder variable (z) that fully explains the relationship between X and Y
Term
Potential ethics problems
Definition
-disregard for the impact of research on human subject
-Failure to obtain consent for participation in research
-failure to disclose research protocols for review
-failure to disclose and correct protocol violations
-fraud (frabricating data or research procedures)
-material nonreporting
-plagiarism
Term
Philip Zimbardo's Stanford prison experiment
Definition
Unethical experiment, that had a profound influence on what ethical issue arise in social scientist

Experiment was a jail simulation, where 5 young men quit because they where so stressed out.
Term
Stanely milgram's experiment
Definition
experiment was to see how far human would go in hurting other people before stopping when being commanded to enough though the shocks were fake

Need a long debriefing
Term
Nazi research
Definition
infected people with diseases in order to investigate drug effectiveness
- effects of poison
-effects of temperature extremes and altitude
Term
Nuremberg Trials
Definition
after WWII nazi were brought here before various tribunals to answer for war crimes and crimes against humanity

International military tribunal (focused on charges for 22)
Term
Doctors Trials
Definition
1st of the subsequent Nuremberg trials

1st systematic effort to articulate minimum standards for ethical research on persons
Term
Nuremberg Code
Definition
1. established the requirement that humans subject must consent to their involvement in research
2. experiment should yield good results for society

Other various codes to protect human subjects
Term
Tuskegee Syphills study
Definition
Study of the treatment- but over the years of the treatment penicillin was adopted as the standard effective drug and they still withheld it from persons in the study

study wouldn't disclose information to the press- led to its termination
Term
Belmont report
Definition
established 3 basic ethical principles for protection of human rights.
1. respect for persons
2. beneficence- minimizing harms and maximizing benefits
3. justice- distributing benefits and risks of research fairly

Changed into the (national research act of 1974)
Term
Federal Funding agencies for CJ research
Definition
National institutes of health (NIH)
National insitiutes on drug abuse (NIDA)
National institutes on mental health (NIMH)
Center for disease control (CDC)
National Science Foundation (NSF)
U.S. department of justice, office of justice programs (OJP)
office of juvenile justice and delinquency prev (OJJDP)
National insitute of Justice (NIJ)
Bureau of justice statistics (BJS)
Bureau of Justice assistance (BJA)
Term
All types of research regulations
Definition
US Federal regulations requirements
Research compliance at individual research institutions
data sharing agreements and memoranda of understanding
professional association code of ethics
state local law
peer review
Term
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Definition
Review research proposals by applying ethical standards that are set by federal regulation (comprised of researchers and community reps with special expertise)

Over sight provide by Institution and federal Officer or human research protection (OHRP) and individual funding agencies

Follows the (ACJS or ASC) Code of ethics
1.aviod harm
2.obtain information consent
3. Avoid deception expect in limited circumstances
4. maintain privacy and confidentially
Term
Need for IRB approval when....
Definition
when a investigator is conducting research to obtain Data through intervention or interaction or when identifiable private information is being obtained
Term
Categories of IRB
Definition
Exempt research- minimal risk
administrative staff and one IRB member
Expedited research- minimal risk but data collection (needle stick) 2-3 IRB members and administrative staff
Term
Data Sharing
Definition
most are will but there are a few problem
1. privacy concerns
2. breach of promise concerns
3. propriety interest

People who fund research want the data, so it can be looked at

Journals and publishers want you to put your data in a archive for everyone
Term
Informed Consent
Definition
includes; purpose, procedures, risk, benefits, compensations, confidentiality,right to quit, consent to be interviewed, and content to be further contacted

Problems;
sometimes researches need deceive in order to carry our research
sometime it is not practical to do the research if informed consent is required

Wavior of informed consent can be approved
timely debriefing
Term
Debriefing
Definition
a researcher informing a subject after the experiment about the experiment's purpose and methods and evaluation subjects personal reactions to the experiment
Term
Anonymous
Definition
all Data is de-identified to the researcher
Term
Confidentiality
Definition
all data is identifiable to the researcher but the researcher promises not to reveal information to any third party
Term
standard of confidentiality
Definition
does not apply when;
---law allows researchers records to be subpoenaed and may require reporting child abuse
---also researcher may feel compelled to release information if health to life is in danger
--- if observation is done in public place or information is public knowledge

Exceptions-
"Privacy Certificate" by national institutes of justice
"Certificate of Confidentiality" by national institute of health
Term
3 most common definitions of recidivism
Definition
Rearrest
Reconviction
Return to prison
Term
reliability
Definition
a measure is reliable when it yields consistent scores or observations of given phenomenon on different occasions

(must have reliability to have measurement validity)
Term
Test-retest reliability
Definition
when you measure a phenomenon between two points separated by an internal of time, the degree to which the two measured yield comparable, if not identical
Term
Interobserver reliability
Definition
When rating by an observer rather than by the subject themselves, are being assessed ay two or more points in time
Term
Interitem Reliability
Definition
when researchers use multiple items to measure a single concept
Term
Alternate-forms reliability
Definition
When researchers compare subject answers to slightly different version of survey questions (order of the question could be reversed or a minor word change)

Split-halves reliability
survey divided into to by flipping a coin or doing something random so their are two halves that should have to same result
Term
Psychometrics
Definition
process of evaluating the reliability and validity of measures about individual
Term
Ecometrics
Definition
processof evaluating the reliability and validity of measures about organizations, neighborhoods, or other collective groups