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Crim 101 - Midterm Review
Lecture 1 - 5
111
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02/04/2008

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Cards

Term
What is Criminology?
Definition
A social Science studying crime and related phenomenon, such as law making, criminal behaviour, victimaztion, and punishment
Term
Criminology is influenced by what three "ologies"?
Definition
Sociology, psychology, and biology
Term
Name and Explain the first 5 (of 10) of Felson's Fallacies about Crime
Definition

1. The Dramatic Fallacy: To keep rating's high, media focus's on violent murders, which are actually a small(tiny) portion of actual crime

2.Cops and Courts Fallacy: Media portrays police work at very dangerous and challenging, most officers never shot anything or shot at, increasing police seems to have minor effects, most crimes are not reported, most crimes reported not solved.

3. Not Me Fallacy: Most people think they could or would never commit a crime but many smoke weed, steal, or drunk drive. Marojity of people commit at least some law even though never caught

4. Innocent Youth Fallacy: Society tend to view young people as pure or innocent, teen years are most active years for crime, majority of crime is young offenders, young offenders is usally more dangerous then older

5. Ingenuity Fallacy: We think criminals are smarter then they really are, lightweight high value crimes make crimes more easier to commit beause they take little planning, little skill and barely no time to commit

Term
Name the last 5 (of 10) of Felson's Fallacies about Crime
Definition

6. Organized Crime Fallacy: We tend to see crime as more organized and conspiratorial then it is, most criminals act quickly and avoid contact with co-offenders and dont plan much, dealing with organized crime make law enforcement seem more important and harder than it really is 

7. Juvenile Gang Fallacy:Media portays these gangs  as sinster but in reality they are actually petty and disorganized

8. Welfare State Fallacy:  Wrong to blame crime on poverty or unemployment, government intervention doesn't reduce crime, when economy improves crime goes up

9. Agenda Fallacy:Many blame crime on declining morality, but criminals know whats wrong and right, they just tend to ignore it, especially when no one is watching

10. Whatever you think Fallacy:  what is or not a crime varies from one society to another, hard to say what crime is. Labelling crimes are positive regardless of what some criminologist think.

Term

Name which are true or False

 

1. Police are clever and effective

2. Criminals resemble their victims

3.Elderly more victimizied

4. People who kill at random are pahtological

5.Most crimes are violent

6. Small portion of crimes are violent

7.  Crime rates going down

8. Most crimes are not detected or not reported; most go unsolved

9. Young more likey to go out at night and be victimized

10. Most crimes are common and routine 

11. Crime rates going up

12. Most criminals are dangerous and clever. 

Definition

1. F 

2. T

3. F

4. F

5. F

6. T

7. T

8. T

9. T

10. T

11. F

12.F 

Term
What are three ways to conceptualize crimes?     
Definition

- Crime as a legal construct

- Violation of Social Norms

-Consensus vs Conflict 

Term
What is Actus Reus and Mens Rea
Definition

Actus Reus - the mere physical criminal act

Mens Rea - Criminal Intent or Motivation 

Term
What are the four main components of the Legal Construct Model
Definition

1. Must be intentional, actus reus

2.  Must have a criminal intent , mens rea

3.  No legal defense or justification

4. Must be contrary to provisions of criminal law 

Term
Explain what mala in se and mala prohibita means and how this links in with Normative Violation.  
Definition

Mala in se - Crimes that are perceived historically and cross culturally as wrong

Mala prhobitia - Crimes that wrong because it is prohibitied

 

Norm. Vio: Laws that criminalize acts mos societies and cultures agree are inheritly wrong eg. Murder and incest

 

Term
Explain the Consensus vs Conflict model.
Definition

- Consensus - Society works together and norms are based on shared values, if you do not share these values, then your(criminal) are abnormal

 

Conflict - the laws being formed within society are usually done with the ones with power 

Term
What was it like before Classical School?   (4)
Definition

- presumption of guilt unless proven innocent

- confession through inquisition, usually torture

- death penalty for most crimes

-  the rest , physical torture

Term
Who was Cesare Becarria? And what did he believe in?
Definition

Founder of Criminology

- torture was unfair

- people confess even though not guilty due to pain

- innocent were tortured anyways

 - guility treated same as innocent if able to handle pain

- death penatly inappropriate - people give up right in society but state shouldnt have right to kill them

 

Term
What is Hedonism?
Definition
The principle that the seeking of pleasure and the avoidance of pain are the ultimate aims and motivating forces of human action.
Term

What did Jeremy Bentham believe in?  

 and what did he employ and name the six criteria he used?

 

 

Definition

- People were rational

- hedonistic caluclus on deciding whether a certain action was more likely to result in pleasure than in pain

 

- Intensity, Duration, Certainty/Uncertainty, Closeness/Remoteness,Recundity,Purity 

Term
What is the postiive school?
Definition

- used scientific method to explain criminal behavior

- Notion of determinsin (doctrine that human acts have consequences) then free will

- human behavior was predetermined by their genes 

Term
Who was the founder of Postive school
Definition
Cesare Lombroso
Term
What did Enrico ferri believe in?
Definition

That free will did not exist

- we shold emphasis on determing effects of social, economic, and political factors 

Term
What did Raffaele Garofalo believe in?
Definition

- crimes as being " against the laws of nature"

- natural crimes that violated the sentiments of "probity" and "pity"

- advocate eliminate of crimanals though incapacitation or execution 

Term
What is the criminal event theory?  
Definition

- Crime as social events involving victims, bystanders, witness, police, and particaipants in the criminal justice system

- examines the precursrs, transaction, and aftermaths of criminal events

- examines the setting the crimal event has taken place as well 

Term
Criminal event theory says the crimes should be viewed as "_____ _____".  Fill in the blank and explain why.
Definition

- Social events

- Social because it invovles people interacting with each other eg. offenders, victims, bystanders, witnesses, crimal justic personnel

- Event because they have an beggining and an end 

Term
Who is the typical offender?
Definition

Young males 

- aged 15 -24

- lower socioeconomic status

- unemployed/temporarily unemployed 

Term
Name two ways criminals deny responisbitly.
Definition

Excuses - Offernder agrees the act was wrong, but say that he/she didn't do it

Justicication - Offernder accepts responsibility but claims act was justified 

Term
Criminals do not feel guilt. T or F
Definition

False. Guilt is aka techniques of neturaliaztion

- they find it necessary to jusitfy their behavior 

Term
Victims and offenders resembe each other. True or False
Definition
True
Term
Sometimes vitcims are not aware that they are victims. T or F
Definition

true

 - sometimes think they lost it

- might not define it as especailly if friend/family did it 

Term
Bystaners prevent crimes. True or false
Definition

False. They can prevent crime

- by presence

- crimines dont like witnesses

- breaking up fight, call police

 

They can facilatate crime as well

- encouraging

- particiapting 

Term
What is proactive and reactive policing?
Definition

p : actually looking for crimes

R: only respond to calls 

Term
Less likely to report less erious crimes, or crimes where perpeatrater is known to them. True or False
Definition
True. If perpatrator is starnger then usually they report
Term
What is the dark figure of recording?
Definition

- process of assessment, classifictin, and recording of police report

- there decision influenced by vareity of factors: relationship between offender and victim, policngy style of individual officer, prefrence of victim, etc 

Term
What was the Kansas city experiemtn?
Definition

Tested proactive, reactive and control responses

-  no diff in crime rates

- no diff in arrest rates

- no diff. in citzien awareness of police 

Term
What is Wilson and Kellings Broken Windows Theory ?
Definition
That social disorder leads to more serious crimes if not attended to
             - If there are broken windows and noone is really doing anything about it, you might start breaking windows as well
Term

Crimes are evenly distrubted between time and space.

 T or F? 

Definition

- False 

Winter Season when crimes rates are lower, time of the day B/E are higher

Term
Do crackdowns actually work?
Definition

Very little

- benifits are short lived

- crime rates go down in crack down area, but crime rates unchanged for the city (suggest crime displacement)
 

Term
Crime rates are higher in urban areas compared to rural areas. T or F?
Definition

T

- Lower in 'better off' urban areas with stable population 

Term
Give the breakdown of where most of the victimization takes place.
Definition

50 % your house or someone elses

25% commerical settings (shopping mall)

25% public place (park, streets) 

Term
People commit crimes just where they work.  T or F
Definition

F

-  People usually commit crimes close to places central in their lives (eg. places of work, their schools, orthere homes)

- seen paths are more travelled, more likey to commit crimes on these paths

Term
Absnece from a social domain (home or work) can increase the likelihood of a crime (aka absense of a capable gurdian). True or False
Definition
- True
Term
What are the precursors, Transactions, and Aftermath?
Definition

P: Situational factors that bring people together in time and space

T: The interactions between the individuals that have led to the outcome of a crime being commited (offernders, victims, witnesses, bystanders, etc)

A: Events that occur after the commited crime, (CJS actions, harm to victim, punishment to offender) 

Term
What is the formula for Criminal Event?
Definition

    - C = f ( LMO) B


    - C = Criminal Event
    - L = a law (or conduct norm)
    - M = a moticated offender
    - O - an oppurtunity
    - B - enviromental backcloth (eg. TIme space)
    - F = Function

Term
What is the formula for Opportunity Factor?
Definition

    - O = f (VPTS)


    - O = oppurunity
    - V - a victim or target
    - P - a place
    - T - a time
    - S - spefic sitatuion

Term
Name five ways how you can research criminal events.
Definition

- Direct observation in the natural settings

- Experimental observation

- police reports

-victimization surveys

- self report surveys 

Term
Offical crime rates usually based on the General Social Survey(GSS). True or False
Definition

- False

- usually based on the Uniform Crime Report (UCR)

- but criminologist also look at the GSS 

Term
Why is direct observation not the most efficient manner to research crime?
Definition

- criminal events occur with relative infrequency

- criminals spend a lot of their time doing non - criminal stuff 

- ciminals want to be secret, they go out of their way to avoid observation

 

Term
Definition
Term
What are some dillemas with directly observing crimes?  
Definition

- if researches succeed in observing, should they record or call cops?

- researches might be the victims

- what if offender see them observing their criminal behavior? 

Term
Name two things wrong with experimenting on humans.
Definition

- Informed consent - if you tell the subjects what you're going to do, they may refuse, or alter their behavior

- if you encourage subjects to break the law, you may be breaking the law yourself 

Term
What is the Milgram Experiment?
Definition

- if test subject got answer wrong, electricity to him

- many teachers who had to give him electricty kept giving it to him even if it might death in the name of science 

Term
Name two problems with the UCR.
Definition

Many  incidents of crime go undectected/unreported and dont make it to the UCR

 - Some incidents that are reported may not show up in the UCR because police conclude they are unfounded (not based on facts) 

Term
The professionalism and degree of organization of particular  police department may be a factor of problems with the UCR
Definition

- True

- the dark figure of recording 

Term
Name three other complicating factors of problems with UCR
Definition

1. Crime Funnel

2. Central city phenomenon

3. Canada's policy on collection of race crime information 

Term
What is the crime funnel?
Definition

 - decreasing number of reported crimes make their way down through the criminal justice system

 

- most crimes, few people get arrested

- arrested barely goes to court, etc

Term
What is the central city phenomenon?
Definition

Crime rates in reported city centres may not accurately reflect the number of crimiinals who live there

- people travel from else to come to city centres in search of excitemnet, entertainment, or crimes 

Term
Canada has collected statistics on relationship between race and crime and this information comes from courts and police. T or F
Definition

F

- Canada does not collect statistics on the relationship (if any) between race and crime.
- To the extent that we have reliable information, it is usually collected by correctional institutions, rather than by the police or the courts.

Term
Give three pros and cons if we should keep statistic racial records.
Definition

Cons

- difficult to class people

- police officers no training in race determination

-  result in racial discrimination

 

Pros

- Public has right to know

- free society, censorship unacceptable

- if ethnic minorites involved in crime, we should know 

Term
What is the dark figure of crime?
Definition
describes the amount of unreported or undiscovered crime, which calls into question the reliability of official crime statistics.
Term
Give five reasons why a crime might not be unreported?
Definition
- didn’t think it was important enough
- dealt with it in another manner
- didn’t think the police could do anything about it
- felt that it was a personal matter
- didn’t want the police involved
Term
Name five problems with the GSS.
Definition

-  interview only people with telephones

- people without the phone usually might be the ones most included in crime/victimization 

- misses business

- doesn't sample kids under 15

- respondents might report events 12 months previous 

 

Term
Definition
Term
What are self report surveys?
Definition

- over telephone

- ask public whether ever commited crime

- confirms large amount of unreported/undetected crime 

Term
Name three problems with Self report Survey.
Definition

- offenders who are the most fucked up, least likey to participate

- uncovers petty crime people only engage once in a while

 - sometimes respondents confess to every crime in the book 

Term
Between UCR, GSS and self report surveys, rank which ones are most reliable. and why?
Definition

1) UCr -(judged by police to be serious)

2) GSS - accepted at face value (no evidence)

3) self report survey - accepted at face value (no evidence)

Term
Victimization surveys (e.g., the GSS) provide information for criminal event theory, routine activities theory, lifestyle exposure theory, etc.
. True or false
Definition
T
Term
UCR provides insight into why people don’t report crime to the police, and what their general attitudes towards the criminal justice system are. T or F
Definition

False

- its the GSS 

Term
What are criminolgical theories?
Definition
Generalized explanations of why, how and with what consequences crimes occur
Term
What are positivism theories and what does "determinism" have to do with it?
Definition

- use of scientific methods to study and explain human/criminal behavior

 

- These theories  a degree of determinism (ei. the way people is due to circumstances beyond their control)

Term
Name four criminolgical theories.
Definition

- general pedigree study

- twin study

- adoption study

- karyotype study 

Term
Explain the General Pedigree theory.
Definition

- looks at people related to each other

- parents who are criminals might pass criminal gene to children

- eg. If brother a criminal, then other brother should have a high chance of commiting crime 

Term
Name two problems with the General Pedigree.
Definition

- Difficult to say whether criminal behaviour is inherited (rather then social enviroment)

- it could be argued that parents taught children that criminal behavior was acceptable , or by watching parents  (eg. Osbournes)

Term
Definition
Term
What are the twin studies? and what is concordance?
Definition

Researchers study diff. between dizygotic (DZ) and monozygotix (MZ) twins. DZ (look diff, born same time) only inherit 50% of their parents gene; MZ inherit 100%

- degree to which behaviour of the twins is similar

- If one mz twin is a criminal, the other twin is more likely to be one

- dz less likely 

Term
Name two problems with Twin study.
Definition

- fail to remember that mz twins rasied in simalar enviroment (same social experinces)

- becaue mz look same, they might get same response from people (more then DZ) 

Term
What are adoption studies?
Definition
- study identical mz twins by diff. set of parents, diff enviromnts (diff. friends, diff. parents, diff food)
Term
What is a Karyotype Study.
Definition
- Examines number, shape, size of chromosomes
Term
Name Sheldons three Somtotypes
Definition

- Extreme Endomorph - round, jovale body type, good nature, fun loving, likes eating

- Extreme Mesomorph - Big, strong, musculer, punch your lights out, scared of him

- Extreme Extomorph - skinny, scared, held back 

Term
Sheldon believes which somatype is more likely to commit crimes?
Definition
- Mesomorph
Term
Welson and Herrnsitn claimed that offenders tend to be shorter and more musclar then people in the general population. T or F
Definition
T
Term
Explain why S & K believe why Mesomorph's are usually criminals.
Definition

- ignores facts that prisnors work out in prision

- stonger guys usually win fights (tend to look like agressors)

- less muscular viewed as vitcims (cause they lose fights) 

Term
A lower IQ leads to a criminal life. T or F
Definition

F

- but a lower iq could have negative effects on school permonace

- lead to dropping out

 - no school, education, less chance of getting work skills

-  turn to crime

Term
Give five hypothesis of the relationship between learning disabilities and juvenile delinquency
Definition

 - School failure hypothesis

- Susceptibily hypothesis

- Differential arrest hypothesis

- Differential adjuctation hypothses

- Differntail dispositon hypothesis 

Term
What is the school failure hypothesis?
Definition

 - learning disabilites may lead to school failure

- he becomes frustrated

- angry, and agressive

- seen as a "troublemaker"

Term
What is the susceptibility Hypothesis?
Definition
 Learining disabilties may result in impulsivenss inability to engage in long term planning     and inability to see the conswequneces of certain actions
    
Term
What is the Differentail Arrest Hypotheses
Definition
- indivuiduals with learingn disabilites more likely to be arrested, because they are less     able to conceal their criminal activities, and less able to interact effectively with the police     (easier to spot and can't talk properly to police)
Term
What is the differntail adjufication hypthosis?
Definition
more likely to be convicted because they can't understand/cope with complicated court     proceedings
Term
What is the differntail disposition hypothesis?
Definition
- the theory that learning disabled delinquents have a higher chance of receving harder sentences than other delinquents
Term

Psychopaths/sociapaths all refer to mental illeness. T or F

 

Definition

F

- moral deficiency instead of mental illness 

Term
Name Mertons five modes of adapation and explain which one Melton felt causes a crime
Definition

- Conformity

- Innovation

- Ritualism

- Retreatism

- Rebellion

 

- Innovation 

Term

What is Albert Cohen Status Deprivation?

 

Definition
 Cohen said delinquency was most prevalent amongst lower class males
Term
What is the middle class measuring rod?
Definition

lower class youth had same aspirations as other youths

- when competting for status in school, they couldnt meet the "middle class measuring rod"

- develop a sense of status frustration 

Term
What was Robert Agnew Strain Theory?
Definition

- Societies all have valued goals for its pursuit of the "American Dream"

- the strain can result from not acheving this goal and people telling you your a failure 

Term
How should you adapt to the General Strain? (2)
Definition

- Admitting that you deserve the poor outcome

- lowering goals/expectations 

Term
What is the Cultural Transimission Theory
Definition

- criminals learn criminal values with interacting with other people

 -learn techniques commiting crime and justifiying criminal behaviour 

Term
What was Edwin Sutherlands Differentail Asociation?
Definition
criminal behaviour learned in the process of interaction with intimate groups
Term
What are the nine tenths or Differential Association?
Definition
    - 1. Criminal Behavior is learned (not inherited)
    - 2. It is learned in a process of interaction with others
    - 3. The principal part of learning occurs within intimate personal groups
    - 4. Learning includes: a) techniques od commiting crimes, and b) motives (fun),     rationlaztion (everyone else does it) , and attitudes
    - 5. Individuals learn definaitions of legal codes as favorable or unfavrable
    - 6. Individual become delinquent through an excess of definitions favorable to criminal
     activies
    - 7 .Differntail associations may diff in intensity, duration and frequenct over time
    - 8.Criminal learning involves the same mechanisms as other types of learning (eg. Trial      and Error)
    9. Needs and values are much the same for delinquents and non delinquents (just like       you and i, they go to movies, like paying video games)
Term
Name Walter Millers Six major focal concerns: concerns around which life in the lower class is organized.
Definition
- -1. Trouble (getting into trouble with the law, staying out of trouble with the law)
    2. Toughness (proving that you are strong/brave)
    3. Smartness (ability to outwit/take advantages of others, and avoid being taken      advantage of yourself)
    4. Excitment (risk taking, thrill sekeing)
    5. Fate (having good luck, blaming failure on bad luck)
    6. Autonomy (resnetment of controls/restrictions) sense of independence, i do what i want


Term
What are Wolfgang and Ferracuti's Subculture of Violence?
Definition

- That certain values and norms are acceptable means of resolving interpersonal conflict

 

eg. tougness is normal behavior

- carrying weapons normal etc 

 

 

Term
What is Sykes and matza Techniques of Neutralization
Definition

that learning to become criminal includes     learning motives and rationaliztions for committing crimes

 

eg. excuses 

Term
Name Skyes and Matza five techniques of Neturalizzaton.
Definition
    - Denial of responsiblity (it wasnt me)
    - Denial of injury (nobody was really hrt)
    - Denial of victim (not really a victim, they deserved it)
    - Condemnation of the condemners (point fingers at politicions and saying they are     breakin law)
    - Appeal to higher loyatlies ( He was a friend, i was protecting his terrotory)
Term
What are social control and rational choice theories?
Definition

- nothing unique about criminal behaivour and that motivation to engage in such behaviour is wide spread

-  

Term
If you want conformity/social control, you need effective socialization. If people do not learn social norms, then social controls will break down. T or F
Definition
T
Term
What is Walter Reckless containment Theory?
Definition

- youth are controlled by outer(family values,effective supervision) and inner(self control, good self image) causes that either prevent or causes nonconformist behavior (crimes)

 

- internal pushes - retlessness,impatience, anger

- external pulls - povery, unemplyoemnt 

Term
Definition
Term
What is travis hirschi's social bond theory and name the four strands?
Definition

If individuals had strong social bonds within society, they would be less likey to engage in crime

- Attachment - degree to which children are senstive to expectations of partenrs or teachers

- Commitment - size of investments and energy one uses to get good grades etc

- Involvment - participation in the world which leaves little time for delinquency

- Belief - degree that one believes conforming is valued/respected 

Term

What is Gottfredsons and Hirshci's general theory of crime?

 And name 6 key features

Definition

- criminal activity appeals to people who are impulsive, short ighted, physical, riskt aking ,, nonverbal, low self control

 

- criminal acts provide immediate gratification

- criminal acts provid easy or simple gratification

- criminal acts are exciting, risky, thrilling

- crimes provide few long term benifits

- crimes requrie little skill /planning

- crimes oftern results in pain for the victim 

Term
Definition
Term
Criminals are usually asocial. T or F?
Definition
F
Term
Name two causes for crime and two cures.
Definition

- low self control

- ineffective child rearing

 

- adequate child rearing

- monitor child, reconze deviant behavir and punish 

Term

What is specific and general deterence?

and Detterence's work. T or F? 

Definition

S: indiviudal caught and pubihsed for crime

G: general public ses someones else being punished

False 

Term
    individuals may be less concerned about being convicted and recevining a harsh sentence(formal) than they are about lsoing family, their job, thei friends, or their reputation(informal)
T or F
Definition
T
Term
What is rational choice theory?
Definition
- criminals are motivated by same things as everyone else. (money,gratification, etc)
Term
What is Sampson and Laub Life Course Perspective?
Definition
adult criiminality strongly influenced by patterns of childhood behavior and changes in ones life affects likeihood of involvment in crime
Term
What are trajectories and transitions?
Definition

trajectories = life patheways that people are traveling on, and the direction in which their lives are going

- transitions = turning points, liek special life events that may change the trjectories eg. marriage, or getting a job,  university