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Corrections
Final
234
Criminal Justice
12/09/2012

Additional Criminal Justice Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
What is the central purpose of punishment?
Definition
To carry out the criminal sentence
Term
According to the author, correction has a ________ relationship with its environment
Definition
reciprocal (give and take)
Term
every aspect of the corrections field raises questions that concern deeply held values about
Definition
social relations
Term
one out ___ black children have a parent who has been to prison
Definition
6
Term
counting jails and prisons how many citizens are incarcerated?
Definition
2.3 million
Term
Wergild developed as
Definition
a system of compensation
Term
For the purposes of deterrence, which principles did Beccaria believe were most important?
Definition
swiftness and certainty
Term
The Penitentiary Act was based upon four core principles where prisoners were confined in solitary cells and labored silently in common rooms. They include:
Definition
secure and sanitary conditions
Term
As a social institution corrections reflects the vision and concerns of the
Definition
larger community
Term
T or F? The age of reason brought about new ideas based on rationalization, the importance of individuals, and the limitations of government
Definition
Term
the enlightenment proposed this idea for correctional reform
Definition
the invention of the penitentiary where prisoners could be isolated from the temptations of the outside world
Term
ideas of the enlightenment fostered the thinking that crime is caused by
Definition
forces in the environment
Term
T or F? within 40 years of their initiation, penitentaries had become overcrowded, understaffed, and minimally financed.
Definition
true
Term
an institution intended to isolate prisoners from society and each other so that they could reflect on their past misdeeds, repent, and undergo reformation is the
Definition
penitentary
Term
separate confinement was first implemented in the
Definition
Walnut Street Jail
Term
Serious attempts to implement the medical model began in the
Definition
1940s
Term
Eastern State Penitentiary was designed by
Definition
John Haviland
Term
According to Herbert Packer, which is NOT an element of punishment?
Definition
a dominant purpose to prevent further offesnses or to inflict pain on the offender
Term
what is the most VISIBLE penalty imposed by the CJ system?
Definition
imprisonment
Term
depriving an offender of the ability to commit crimes against society, usually by imprisonment is known as
Definition
incapacitation
Term
________ is oriented solely toward the offender and does not imply any consistent relationship between the severity of the punishment and the gravity of the crime
Definition
rehabilitation
Term
legislators concerned with the correctional goal of treatment precribe a(n)
Definition
indeterminate sentecning scheme
Term
Wolff v. McDonnell
Definition
showed that the court was extending the due process rights for prisoners in certain aspects
Term
Since the inception of ___________ it has become more difficult for prisoners to file civil rights law suits
Definition
The Prison litigation reform act
Term
a writ of habeus corpus requests an examination of the legality of
Definition
confinement
Term
the right to be free from cruel and unusual punishment is found in the __ amendment
Definition
eighth
Term
Cooper v. Pate
Definition
allowed inmates to sue state officials for brutality, inadequate medical care and nutrition, theft of personal property, and the denial of basic rights
Term
the Anti-terrorism act imposes a _______ limit to file a federal habeus corpus petition
Definition
one year
Term
for most of the united states history the bill of rights was interpreted as protecting individuals from acts of the ________
Definition
federal government
Term
Boumediene v. Bush
Definition
Detainees at Guantanamo Bay are entitled to file writs of habeus corpus
Term
T or F? the maintenance of stable prison populations has been legally recognized by the supreme court as justifying abridgements of an inmate's constitutional rights
Definition
false
Term
T or F? HIV/AIDS can be transmitted through blood and saliva
Definition
False
Term
T or F? most sexual offenses occur between strangers
Definition
False
Term
____ of those convicted receive a community sentence such as a fine or probation
Definition
2/3rds
Term
in a typical group of thirty or so young adults it is likely that ______ has been locked up
Definition
at least one
Term
Pretrial diversion is preferable because
Definition
many offenders cannot be effectively dealt with by the formal CJ system
Term
a fee system is where
Definition
jail operations are funded by a set amount paid for each prisoner held per day
Term
in the 1800s jails began to change in response to the
Definition
pentitentiary movement
Term
t or f? almost 60 percent of america's jails charge prisoners for at least some of the medical care they recieve
Definition
true
Term
therapeutic justice is a philosophy of reorienting the jail experience from being mostly punitive to being mostly _____
Definition
rehabilitative
Term
T or F? 1 in 7 jails in the U.S. currently operates under a court order, typically related to overcrowding.
Definition
True
Term
The central purpose of the early jail was
Definition
to make sure those accused of a crime would show up to their trials
Term
common strategies in dealing with offenders with substance dependency problems is
Definition
release to an addiction treatment facility and placement in a methadone maintenance program
Term
______ is a drug that inhibits drinking
Definition
antabuse
Term
________ conditions provide constraints on some probationers to force them to deal with substance abuse problems
Definition
treatment
Term
the performance-based movement calls for a reshaping of the philosophy of probation with a new emphasis on
Definition
public safety
Term
the approved practice for handling revocation of probation proceeds in __ stages
Definition
3
Term
T or F? probation may be revoked if the probationers fails to attend a therapy session
Definition
True
Term
average caseload of probation officers in NYC
Definition
162 per office
Term
t or f? probation officers rely upon their authority because they have little substantive power.
Definition
True
Term
T or F? probation centers are where persistent probation violators reside for short periods of time
Definition
true
Term
who is more likely to end up in prison, the mentally ill or children of people who have been incarcerated?
Definition
children of people who have been incarcerated
Term
movement within the coninuum of sanction is contigent upon
Definition
performance at each level of sentencing accountability
Term
a _______ condition establishes a sum of money that must be paid by the offender either to the victim or to a public fund for victims of crime
Definition
restitution
Term
t or f? community service requries the offender to provide hours of free labor in a public space?
Definition
true
Term
implementing intermediate sanctions has had three consequences. they include wider nets, stronger nets, and
Definition
different nets
Term
more than 2/3rd of people under correctional authority are
Definition
under community supervision
Term
studies of nonprison alternatives find that even the most successful programs enroll (majority or minority) of offenders who would otherwise have been incarcerated
Definition
a minority
Term
studies of community service and restitution programs have generally found them vulnerable to
Definition
the problem of net widening
Term
Oldest prison in the U.S. is
Definition
Trenton State (1798)
Term
all state prisons test new inmates for HIV
Definition
false, only 20 states test all new inmates
Term
longer term inmates are recognized as those who suffer from
Definition
emotional stress
Term
at present the focus of corrections has shifted to
Definition
crime control
Term
the reintegration model is linked to the structures and goals of __________ _________
Definition
community corrections
Term
___________ allows inmates to sue public officials for constitutional violations
Definition
section 1983
Term
the __________ model was dominant in the 1960s and early 70s
Definition
rehabilitation
Term
t or f? the civil rights movement had no effect on prisoners
Definition
false
Term
which state has the lowest levels of known gang affiliation in prison?
Definition
montana
Term
the sharing of myths, slang, customs, rewards, and sanctions of a smaller, isolated, separate group of people. The prison is recognized as a functioning community with its own values, roles, language and customs. this is also known as prison _________
Definition
subculture
Term
the prison term for "newcomer"
Definition
fish
Term
t or f? inmates who are doing time see prison as a long term stay and continue their criminality while incarcerated
Definition
false
Term
the process by which a new inmate absorbs the customs of the prison society and learns to adapt to the environment is known as ____________
Definition
prisonization
Term
inmates who fall victim of sexual violence while incarcerated tend to be
Definition
not affiliated with a gang
Term
t or f? one factor in the prison inmate code is not interfering with other inmates interests
Definition
true
Term
prison based programs designed for women often include:
Definition
food service
Term
Head matron of the women's wing at Sing Sing from 1844-1848. Tried to implement reofrm ideas for female prisoners and was thwarted by male overseers and legislators
Definition
Elizabeth Farnham
Term
Traditionally, women have received _______ treatment from judges
Definition
discriminatory
Term
t or f? women are generally more receptive and responsive to prison based programs than males
Definition
true
Term
in instances when women inmates are sexually abused it is found that their abuser is generally a corrections officer. T or F?
Definition
true
Term
t or f? vaginal examinations are frequently conducted by correctional officers to discover contraband
Definition
true
Term
in 1817 she helped organize the Association for the improvement of Female Prisoners in Newgate. this group made up of wives of quaker businessmen, worked to establish prison discipline, separation of the sexes, classification of criminals, female supervision for women inmates, adequate religious and secular instruction, and the useful employment of prisoners. largely through her efforts, such reforms rapidly moved to other prisons in england and abroad.
Definition
Elizabeth Fry
Term
In 1844 _______ was created with the goal of improving the treatment of female prisoners and separating them from males
Definition
Women's Prison Association
Term
The growth rate in the number of incarcerated women is (less, greater, or the same) as men
Definition
exceeds that of men
Term
a structure established for the purpose of influencing behavior in order to achieve particular ends
Definition
formal organization
Term
_______ are employees who are directly concerned with furthering the institution's goals and are in direct contact with clients
Definition
line personnel
Term
_______ are central to prisoner control because correctional officers cannot have total control over the inmtaes
Definition
negotiations
Term
most inmate rule violations are handled by
Definition
an institutional disciplinary committee
Term
in a highly authoritarian prison, treatment goals are
Definition
less important
Term
the CEO of the institution
Definition
the warden
Term
________ comprise the majority of an institutions employees
Definition
custodial employees
Term
prison disorder (riots, staff murders, escapes, and inmate homicides) are proportionately more rare today than in the 70s and 80s. T or F?
Definition
True
Term
T or F? correctional officers have total power over inmates
Definition
false
Term
of the 5 prison based programs __________ is the most contraversial
Definition
rehabilitation
Term
t or f? the role of programs in prison is static regardless of the prison population and outside influences
Definition
false
Term
court case that established a right to medical treatment while incarcerated
Definition
estelle v. gamble
Term
t or f? inmates who participate in educational programs are least likely to return to prison
Definition
true
Term
educational programs in prisons include federal funding for post-secondary education. t or f?
Definition
false
Term
people's problems decline when they behave more responsibly. this is a core tenet of ________ _________
Definition
reality therapy
Term
t or f? inmates who are on mandatory release status are able to include their good time credit towards their release
Definition
true
Term
_______ release is based on the assumptions of indeterminate sentences and rehabilitative programs
Definition
discretionary
Term
Most parolees return to prison. t or f?
Definition
false
Term
______________ _____ are important when parole boards consider an inmates progress
Definition
self improvement programs
Term
in the ________ model, there is a parole board, an independent decision-making authority, that is organizationally close enough to the department to be sensitive to institutional and correctional needs
Definition
autonomous
Term
states retaining indeterminate sentencing allow discretionary release by the parole board within the boundaries of the sentence and the law. t or f?
Definition
true
Term
after an inmate has served time equal to the total sentence minuse good time, if any, he or she will receive
Definition
mandatory release
Term
inmates who are released from any further correctional supervision and cannot be returned to prison for their current offense have been give ___________ release
Definition
expiration.
Term
in practice, revocations of parole usually result from a single rule violation. t or f?
Definition
false
Term
an emphasis on ________ is what matters most in the philosophy of an agency
Definition
control
Term
parole is often viewed as a
Definition
privilege
Term
residential programs normally house between 10 and __ offenders at a time
Definition
25
Term
nearly 1 quarter of all parolees will fail in the first six months. t or f?
Definition
true
Term
most gangs are
Definition
non-violent
Term
research shows that _______ juveniles are carrying guns than ever before
Definition
fewer
Term
juvenile crime is a(n) _________ phenomenon
Definition
group
Term
_________ juveniles are referred to juvenile court every year
Definition
1.6 million
Term
assumptions about the "normalcy" of delinquency depend on how the misbehavior fits the juvenile's
Definition
age and level of development
Term
in 2008 approximately _____ juveniles were arrested
Definition
2.1 million
Term
t or f? it is constitutional to execture someone who committed their crime before they were 18
Definition
false
Term
states with more generous welfare benefits have higher prison populations. t or f?
Definition
false
Term
for the majority of the 20th century, the numbers of incarcerated prisoners in the U.S.
Definition
held steady
Term
for two decades the crime rate in the U.S. has been
Definition
declining
Term
which president influcenced the concept of the war on drugs
Definition
reagan
Term
80% of california's recommitments stemmed from
Definition
technical violations
Term
states with higher unemployment have higher prison populations. t or f?
Definition
true
Term
given current public attitudes toward crime and punishment, it is likely that incarceration rates will remain high
Definition
true
Term
there seems to be little relationship between the crime rate and the incarceration rate. t or f?
Definition
true
Term
t or f? most americans associate race and crime.
Definition
true
Term
_____ adults have committed a serious offense in their lifetime
Definition
most
Term
when groups are treated differently without regard to their behavior or qualification, _______ occurs
Definition
discrimination
Term
prison surpassed college as a place for young african american men after ____
Definition
1980
Term
T or f? black kids are more likely to be arrested for all crimes than any other race?
Definition
true
Term
truth-in-sentencing
Definition
offenders must serve 85% percent of their sentence before being parolled
1) provides public with more accurate information about actual length of sentences
2) reduces crime by keeping offedners in prison
3) achieving a rational allocation of prison space by prioritzing the incarceration of particular class of criminals such as violent offenders
Term
truth-in-sentencing
Definition
offenders must serve 85% percent of their sentence before being parolled
1) provides public with more accurate information about actual length of sentences
2) reduces crime by keeping offedners in prison
3) achieving a rational allocation of prison space by prioritzing the incarceration of particular class of criminals such as violent offenders
Term
courtyard style
Definition
an architectural design by which the functional units of a prison are housed in serparate buildings constructed on 4 sides of an open square
Term
most women's and juvenile facilities use the _______ design
Definition
campus
Term
campus design
Definition
the functional units of a prison are individually housed in a complex of buildings surrounded by a fence
Term
radial design
Definition
(eastern state penitentiary and others in early 19th century) prison is contructed in the form of a wheel with spikes radiating from a central core
Term
telephone pole design
Definition
long central corridor crossed at regular intervals by structures containing the prison's functional areas.
Term
most common design for maximum security prisons
Definition
telephone pole
Term
Furman v. Georgia(1972)
Definition
the S.C. rules that the death penalty as administered constituted cruel and unusal punishment
Term
congregate system
Definition
a penitentiary system developed in auburn, NY in which inmates were held in isolation at night but worked with other prisoners during the day under a rule of silence
Term
absconder
Definition
a person who fails to appear for court date
Term
administrative control theory
Definition
prison disorder results from unstable, divided, weak management
Term
aftercare
Definition
juvenile justice equivalent of parole
Term
john augustus
Definition
boston bootmaker. first probation officer
Term
Sanford Bates
Definition
the first director of Federal bureau of prisons. advocated reform in 1920s
Term
Cesare Beccaria
Definition
itialian scholar who applied the rationalist philosophy of the enlightenment to CJ
Term
Jeremey bentham
Definition
English advocate of utilitarianism in prison management and discipline. Argued for the treatment and reform of prisoners
Term
Zebulon Brockway
Definition
reformer, experiemented with making prisons more rehabilitative.
Term
collective efficacy
Definition
mutual trust among neighbors, combined with the willingness to intervene on behalf of the common good especially to supervise children and maintain public order
Term
community justice
Definition
emphasizes reparation to the victim and community, a problem solving perspective for approaching crime, and citizen involvement in crime prevention
Term
confrontation therapy
Definition
a treatment technique usually done in a group that vividly brings the offender face to face with crime's consequences for the victim and society
Term
sir walter crofton
Definition
director of the irish convict prisons in 1854. he eveloped a system for offenders to work toward rehab and early release by moving through three stages of increasing levels of vocational training and privileges. Influenced parole in the U.S.
Term
custodial model
Definition
emphasizes security, discipline, and order
Term
day fine
Definition
criminal penalty based on the amount of income an offender earns in a day's work
Term
delinquent
Definition
child who has committed an act that if committed by an adult would be criminal
Term
direct supervision
Definition
staff members remain with inmates throughout the day
Term
discretionary release
Definition
release to conditional supervision at the discretion of the parole board within the boundaries set by law
Term
enlightenment/ age of reason
Definition
1700s, england, france. stressed
liberalism, rationality, equality, individualism,
Term
expiration release
Definition
realease without any further correctional supervision
Term
howard gill
Definition
prison reformer in progressive tradition design massachusetts norfolk prison colony to be a model prison community. Norfolk provided individual treatment programs and included inmates on an advisory council to deal with community governance.
Term
john howard
Definition
english prison reformer whose book, "the state of the prison in england and wales" contributed greatly to the passage of the Penitentiary act of 1779 by the house of commons
Term
hulks
Definition
abandoned ships the english converted to hold convicts during a period of prison crowding between 1776 nd 1790
Term
indeterminate sentence
Definition
period of incarceration with minimum and maximum terms so that parole eligibility depnds on the time necessary for treatment; closely associated with rehabilitation
Term
inmate balance theory
Definition
a governance theory that posits that for a prison system to operate effectively, officials must tolerate minor infractions, relax security measures, and allow inmate leaders to keep order
Term
judicial reprieve
Definition
english common law practice that a judge could suspend a the imposition or execution of a sentence on condition of good behavior
Term
justice reinvestment
Definition
redirect funds currently spent on prisons to community projects that improve public safety
Term
lease system
Definition
inmates were leased to contractors who provided them with food and clothing in exchange for labor. in southern states the prisoners were used as field laborers
Term
lex talionis
Definition
law of retaliation; the principle that punishment should correspond to the offense
Term
lockup
Definition
facility that holds people before court appearances for up to 48 hours (drunk tanks)
Term
elam lynds
Definition
a former army officer, appointed to auburn prison in NY. he developed the congregate system
Term
Julian w. mack
Definition
innovator in juvenile justice, believed that the proper work of the court depnded on the judge, supported by probation officers, caseworkers, and psychologists. he sought as much as possible to avoid using reformatories and tried to bring the expertise of social service professionals to the courts
Term
Captain Alexander Maconochie
Definition
born in scotland, naval officer, heographer, and penal reformer. in 1836 he was appointed to a position in the administration of van diemen's land *now tasmania) later he was made superintendent of norfolk island penal colony in the south pacific. under his direction marks of commenation were given to prisoners who performed their taks well and they were released when they demonstrated willingness to accept society's rules
Term
mandatory release
Definition
the require release of an inmate from incarceration to community supervision on the expiration of a certain period as stipulated by a determinate sentencing law or parole guidelines
Term
mark system
Definition
offenders are assessed a certain number of points based on the severity of their crime at the time of sentencing. prisoners could reduce their term by earning marks through labor, good behavior and educational achievement.
Term
medical model
Definition
assumes that criminal behabior is caused by social, psychological or biological deficiencies that require treatment
Term
new generation jail
Definition
a facility with a podular architectrual design and management policies that emphasiszes interaction of inmates and staff and provision of services
Term
normative power
Definition
ability to obtain compliance by manipulating symbolic rewards
Term
null strategy
Definition
doing nothing to relieve crowding in prisons under the assumption that the problem is temporary and will disappear in time
Term
other conditional release
Definition
probationary sentence used in some states to get around the rigidity of mandatory release by placing convicts in various community settings under supervision
Term
parens patriae
Definition
the parent of the country; the role of the state as guardian and protector of all people who are unable to protect themselves
Term
william penn
Definition
english quaker who arrived in philly, adopted the great law emphasizing hard labor in a house of correction as punishment for most crimes
Term
performance-based supervision
Definition
probation approach that sets goals for supervision and evaluates the effectiveness of meeting those goals
Term
piece price system
Definition
a labor system under which a contractor provided raw materials and agreed to purchase at a set price the goods made by prison inmates
Term
podular unit
Definition
self-contained living areas for 12-25 inmates composed of individual cells for privacy and open areas for social interaction. new generation jails comprise two or more pods
Term
PSI Presentence investigation
Definition
summary report of a convicted offender's background which helps the judge decide on an appropriate sentence.
Term
presumptive sentence
Definition
sentence for which the legislature of a commission sets a minimum and maximum range of months or years. judges are to fix the length of the sentence within that range, allowing for special circumstances.
Term
priciniple of interchangeability
Definition
different forms of intermediate sanctions can be calibrated to make them equivalent as punishments despite their differences in approach
Term
principle of least eligibility
Definition
the doctrine that prisoners ought to receive no goods or services in excess of those available to people who have lived within the law
Term
public account system
Definition
a labor system under qhich a prison bough machinery and raw materials with which inmates manufactured a salable product
Term
punitive conditions
Definition
contraints imposed on some probationers to increase the restrictiveness or painfulness of probation including fines community services and restitution
Term
rational basis test
Definition
requires that a regulation provide a reasonable, rational method of advancing a legitmiate institutional goal
Term
reality therapy
Definition
treatment that emphasizes personal responsibility for actions and their consequences
Term
recognizance
Definition
a formally recorded obligation such as keep the peace, pay a debt, or appear in court, entered by a judge to permit an offender to live in the community often on posting a sum of money as surety which is forgeited by nonperformance
Term
reentry courts
Definition
courts that supervise ex-offender's return to the community and their adjustment to life after incarceration
Term
reformatory
Definition
an institution for young offenders that emphasized training, a mark system of classification, indeterminate sentences, and parole
Term
remunerative power
Definition
the ability to obtain compliance in exchange for material resources
Term
benjamin rush
Definition
physician, singer of the declaration of independce and social reformer. advocated the penitentiary as a replacement for capital and corporal punishment
Term
staff personell
Definition
employees who provide services in support of line personnel - training officer, accountants
Term
state-use system
Definition
labor system under which goods produced by prison industries are purchased by state institutions and agencies exclusively and never enter the free market
Term
status offense
Definition
an act that is considered unacceptable for a child but would not be a crime if committed by an adult
Term
unit management
Definition
tactic for reducing prison violence by dividing facilities into small, self-contained, semiautonomous institutions
Term
wergild
Definition
man money; money paid to relatives of a murdered person or to the victim of a crime to compensate them and to prevent a blood feud
Term
widening the net
Definition
increasing the scope of corrections by applying a diversion program to people charged with offesnses less serious than those of the people the program was originally intended to serve
Term
1 in _ african american males have been to prison
Definition
6
Term
benefit of clergy
Definition
the right to be tried in an ecclesiastical court, where punishments were less severe than those meted out vy civil courts, given the religious focus on penance and salvation
Term
galley slavery
Definition
forcing men to row ships
Term
6 principles of classical criminology
Definition
1. utilitarian concept: greatest goods for greatest amount of people
2. crime is an injury to sciety and the only measure is the extent of injury
3. prevention over punishment
4. no secret accusations,no torture, due process
5. deterrent effect, certain and swift
6. improve prisons, classification
7. punishment least possible
Term
"Great Law" of Pennsylvania
Definition
Based on Quaker principles na demphasized hard labor in a house of corrections as punishment for most crimes. was replaced in 1718 by the Anglican Code
Term
Pennslyvania system
Definition
hard and selective suffering convince them to change
solitary confinement
refect on transgressions
Term
Auburn, NY congregate system
Definition
inmates held in isolation but worked with other prisoners during the day under rule of silence.
& CONTRACT LABOR SYSTEM - inmate labor contracted to private companies
Term
1870 meeting of the National Prison Assoiciation
Definition
reform rewarded by release
fixed sentences
Term
Progressives
Definition
positivist school (bahvior is product of biological economic, psychological and social factors) & scientific method
treatment oriented
influenced PROBATION, INDETERMINATE SENTENCES, and PAROLE
Term
Era of treatment of 1950s
Definition
CA, NJ, NY, rehabilitation DOP became DOC
Term
Herbert Packers 3 elements of punishment
Definition
1. an offense
2. infliction of pain because of committing the offense
3. saw no need to compensate those injured nor to prevent further offenses
Term
retribution
Definition
deserved punishment
offense rather than offender
lost in Age of Reason
new interest in 70s
Term
witherspoon v. illinois
Definition
jurors can not be automatically excluded because they are against the death penalty
Term
Gregg v. Georgia
Definition
must take into account dpecific aggravating and mitigating factors to decide who is sentenced to death
Term
Coker v. Georgia
Definition
death penalty for rape of an adult is unconstitutional
Term
Strickland v. Washington
Definition
Defendants in capital cases have the right to "reasonable" representation
Term
Atkins v. Virginia
Definition
execution of mentally retarded was unconstitutional
Term
Ring v. Arizona
Definition
Juries not judges must decide whether to sentence to death
Term
Roper v. Simmons
Definition
offenders cannot be sentenced to death for cimres they committed before 18
Term
3 justifications for restricting constitutional rights on prisoners
Definition
1. order maintenance
2. security
3. rehabilitation
Term
2 step revocation hearing process
Definition
1. probable cause hearing
2. parolee receives notice of charges and evidence disclosed, may cross-examine personell
Term
jail suicides
Definition
over 1/3rd of all death in jails
most happen within first 6-10 hours
Term
Centralized vs. decentralized
Definition
centralized - larger, can train staff to take a variety of roles
can implement broader programs

Decentralized
city or county, smaller more flexible, better able to respond to community
Term
private PSIs, client-specific planning
Definition
private investigative firm contracts with offenders to do background checks and suggest to judges creative sentencing options instead of incarceration
Term
"goon squads"
Definition
COs beat the shit out of inmates causing trouble
Term
unity of command
Definition
subordinates should only report to one supervisor
Term
block officer
Definition
closest contact with prisoners, enforce rules, carry out orders, move inmates
Term
best predictor of recidivism in juveniles
Definition
age
Term
waiver
Definition
transfer to adult court
Term
racial threat hypothesis
Definition
the belief that white fear of blacks is least when whites are the majority but greatest when the blacks a substantial minority