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Corrections final
final
60
Criminal Justice
04/30/2013

Additional Criminal Justice Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Jails are the ____ the criminal justice system?
Definition
Entry point into
Term
The nation has just over ___ jails.
Definition
2800
Term
By far the most successful pretrial release program is:
Definition
Release on recognizance(ROR)
Term
Almost 60 percent of American's jails _____ prisoners for at least some of the medical care they receive.
Definition
Charge
Term
Three quarters of the jails are operated by and elected official known as a ____.
Definition
Sheriff
Term
One in seven jails in the United States currently operates under a court order, typically related to overcrowding.
Definition
True
Term
The most pressing medical problem in jails is the problem AIDS and HIV.
Definition
True
Term
In the 1800's jails began to change in response to:
Definition
The Penitentiary movement.
Term
The Jail rate is highest in the:
Definition
West and south
Term
More than half of all jail occupants are:
Definition
Awaiting trial.
Term
Most jails in the United States hold fewer than 50 people.
Definition
True.
Term
80% of the jails in the United States have a _____ jurisdiction.
Definition
County level
Term
Over half of the occupants in U.S. jails are _____
Definition
Pretrial detainees.
Term
The primary personnel problem facing jail administrators is probably a combination of _____ and poor working conditions.
Definition
Low pay.
Term
Who is less likely to be released on their own recognizance?
Definition
African Americans
Term
Recently, there has been a major emphasis on programs to _____ offenders awaiting trial.
Definition
Release.
Term
The period _____ after arrest and detention is when most inmates commit suicide.
Definition
Immediately
Term
Many jails in the country have no viable rehabilitative programs, and have very few trained personnel to deal with the mental health needs of most offenders
Definition
True
Term
Many, if not most, defendants are:
Definition
White.
Term
At least ______ people are detained in a jail at some time during the year.
Definition
7 to 8 million
Term
Section 1983 allows inmates to sue public officials for constitutional violations
Definition
True.
Term
What case was instrumental in ensuring that women's prisons had programs comparable to that of male prisons?
Definition
Glover v. Johnson
Term
A prison designed and organized to permit inmates and visitors as much freedom as is consistent with the concept of incarceration is a ______ prison.
Definition
Minimum security
Term
When their mothers are in prison, most children are placed in foster care.
Definition
False.
Term
As state's deal with severe budgetary problems the future of private prisons is:
Definition
Uncertain
Term
At present, the focus of corrections has shifted to:
Definition
Crime control
Term
Long term inmates are recognized as those who suffer from:
Definition
Emotional Stress
Term
______ was the first person to advocate for changes in the treatment of sentenced women and children.
Definition
Elizabeth Gurney Fry
Term
Prior to the reform movement in the 1800's, women in Europe and the United States were:
Definition
Housed with men and other prisoners are treated as they were.
Term
Generally, women's prisons lack not only adequate vocational and educational programs but also:
Definition
Nutritional services, recreational services, and medical services.
Term
The 1960's and 70's reflected the dominance of the rehabilitative model toward inmates.
Definition
True.
Term
According to sociologists, the "big house" image of the American prison has:
Definition
Ceased to show a limited understanding of the contemporary prison.
Term
Sarah Doremus and Abby Gibbons formed the Women's Prison Association in New York to improve female living conditions.
Definition
True.
Term
According to the authors, in the correctional system women are known as the:
Definition
Forgotten offenders.
Term
The first independent female-run prison was established in ____
Definition
Indiana.
Term
Inside women's facilities there has been a recent escalation of:
Definition
Sexual misconduct by male officers.
Term
A _____ prison is designed to prevent escapes and violence but in a less rigid atmosphere.
Definition
Medium security.
Term
The American Correctional Association determines all prison classification in the country.
Definition
False.
Term
When women are released to the community, many must deal with which of the following?
Definition
Being poor, regaining custody of the children, Drug addiction.
Term
The first and basic "essentials of due process" are required by juvenile offenders was determined in what landmark case?
Definition
Kent v. US
Term
The first juvenile court was established in:
Definition
Chicago
Term
A child who is not receiving proper care because of an action or inaction of parents is a ______ child.
Definition
Neglected
Term
Most correctional professionals believe juveniles are more susceptible than adults to the influence of treatment programs.
Definition
True
Term
Assumptions about the "normalcy" of delinquency depend on how the misbehavior fits the juvenile's:
Definition
Age
Term
The first decision made in a juvenile court is to:
Definition
File a petition of juvenile jurisdiction.
Term
Research shows that _____ juveniles are carrying guns than before.
Definition
Fewer
Term
This case stated that jury trials are not required for juvenile court hearings:
Definition
McKeiver v. Pennsylvania
Term
conflicts between a child and adult may promote delinquency as the child's way of "getting back" or unintentionally calling attention to the conflict.
Definition
True
Term
A ____ is considered a transfer to adult court.
Definition
Waiver
Term
Aftercare operates in a way similar to:
Definition
Adult parole
Term
This case required a standard of "beyond a doubt" for delinquency matters:
Definition
In Re Winship
Term
During the Refuge Period the first institution where delinquent, abused, and neglected children could learn good work and study habits, live in a disciplined an healthy environment, and develop character was the House of Refuge in:
Definition
New York
Term
A ____ child has no parent or guardian or whose parents are unable to give proper care.
Definition
Dependent
Term
Juvenile crime is an individual Phenomenon.
Definition
False.
Term
Puritans of the Massachusetts Bay Colony believe the child was:
Definition
Evil and in need of discipline.
Term
The _____ Poor Laws established the basic for officials to take charge of vagrant and delinquent children.
Definition
Elizabethan
Term
Age is the best predictor of recidivism.
Definition
True.
Term
Levels of gang activity ____ through the 1990's.
Definition
Declined
Term
The impact of juvenile treatment programs differs from adults programs in that they show a _____ success rate than adults.
Definition
Greater.
Term
The Federal Bureau and Prisons was created within:
Definition
The Department of Justice.