Shared Flashcard Set

Details

Consumer Behavior Midterm 2
Spring 2010
135
Marketing
03/22/2010

Additional Marketing Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Information Processing
Definition

a series of activites by which stimuli are perceived, transformed into information, and stored

 

exposure-->attention--> interpretation--> memory--> purchase & consumption decisions

Term
Perception
Definition

4 major stages of the information processing model

 

1) exposure

2) attention

3) interpretation

 

Term
Perceptual Defenses
Definition
individuals are not passive recipients of marketing messages
Term
Exposure
Definition
occurs when a stimulus is placed within a person's relevant environment and comes within range of their sensory receptor nerves; the opportunity to pay attention to available info but in no way guarantees it
Term
Zipping
Definition
occurs when one fast-forwards through a commercial on a prerecorded program
Term
Zapping
Definition
involves switching channels when a commercial appears
Term
Muting
Definition
turning the sound off during commercial breaks
Term
Ad Avoidance
Definition
zipping, zapping, and muting are simply mechanical ways for consumers to selectively avoid exposure to advertising messages
Term
Product Placement
Definition
provides exposure that consumers don't try to avoid, it shows how and when to use the product, and it enhances the product's image; the goal is realism and subtle, unobtrusive exposure to the brand
Term
Infomercials
Definition
program-length television commercials with a toll-free number and/or web address through which to order or request additional information
Term
Permission-Based Marketing
Definition
the voluntary and self-elected nature of such online offerings, where consumers "opt in" to receive e-mail based promotions; enhancing mobile marketing on cell phones
Term
Attention
Definition
occurs when the stimulus activates one or more sensory receptor nerves, and the resulting sensations go to the brain for processing; determined by 3 factors: stimulus, individual, and the situation
Term
In-anttentional Blindness
Definition
mental focus result in people not perceiving things that they would otherwise observe; ex: passing the lunchbox
Term
Stimulus Factors
Definition
physical characteristics of the stimulus itself; size, intensity, attractive visuals, color and movement, position, isolation, format, contrast and expectations, interestingness, information quantity
Term
Adaptation Level Theory
Definition
suggests that if a stimulus doesn't change, over time we adapt or habituate to it and begin to notice it less
Term
Information Overload
Definition
occurs when consumers are confronted with so much information that they cannot or will not attend to all of it; the result can be suboptimal decisions
Term
Individual Factors
Definition
characteristics that distinguish one individual from another; motivation, ability
Term
Smart Banners
Definition
banner ads that are activated based on terms used in search engines; behavioral targeting strategies
Term
Brand Familiarity
Definition
an ability factor related to attention; those with high ___ may require less attention to the brand's ads because of their high existing knowledge
Term
Situational Factors
Definition

stimuli in the environment other than the focal stimulus and temporary characteristcs of the individual that are induced by the environment, such as time pressures or a crowded store

 

clutter and program involvement

Term
Hemispheric Lateralization
Definition

a term applied to activities that take place on each side of the brain

 

left side= rational thought

right side= images & impressions

Term
Subliminal Stimulus
Definition
a message presented so fast or so softly or so masked by other messages that one is not aware of seeing or hearing it
Term
Interpretation
Definition

the assignment of meaning to sensations; related to how we comprehend and make sense of incoming information based on characteristics of the stimulus, individual, or situation

 

expectations can bias perceptions

Term
Perceptual Relativity
Definition
generally a relative process rather than absolute; often difficult for people to make interpretations in the absence of some reference point
Term
Quality Signals
Definition

price-perceived qulaity, ad intensity, warranties, country of origin, brand name; lack expertise

 

ex: wine

Term
Cognitive Interpretation
Definition
a process whereby timuli are placed into existing categories of meaning
Term
Affective Interpretation
Definition
the emotional or feeling response triggered by a stimulus such as an ad; can range from positive, neutral, to negative
Term
Contextual Cues
Definition
present in the situation play a role in comsumer interpretation independent of the actual stimulus; exs: color, nature of the programming surrounding a brand's advertisements
Term
Stimulus Organization
Definition
the physical arrangement of the stimulus objects; afftects consumer interpretation and categorization; ex: a sentence is perceived of words, not letters, bc the letters are separated by spaces
Term
Proximity
Definition
refers to the fact that stimuli positioned close together are perceived as belonging to the same category; ex:"Have a safe winter. Drive Bridgestone Tires"
Term
Ambush Marketing
Definition
involves any communication or activity that implies, or from which one could reasonably infer, that an organization is associated with an event, when in fact it is not
Term
Closure
Definition
involves presenting an incomplete stimulus with the goal of getting consumers to complete it and thus become more engaged and involved
Term
Figure-Ground
Definition
involves presenting the stimulus in such a way that it is perceived as the focal object to be attended to and all other stimuli are perceived as the background; ex: orange peels form the bottle of Absolut Mandarin
Term
Sensory Discrimination
Definition
the physiological ability of an individual to distinguish between similar stimuli; involves such variables as the sound of stereo systems, the taste of food, or the clarity of display screens
Term
Just Noticeable Difference (J.N.D.)
Definition
the minimum amount that one brand can differ from another (or from its previous version) with the difference still being noticed; ex: a small addition of salt to a pretzel would not be noticed unless the pretzel contained only a small amt of salt to begin with
Term
Consumer Inference
Definition
goes beyond what is directly stated or presented; consumers use available data and their own ideas to draw conclusions about information that is not provided
Term
Cross-Promotions
Definition
whereby signage in one area of the store promotes completmentary products in another; ex: milk signage in the cookie aisle
Term
Brand Extension
Definition
branding strategy; where an existing brand extends to a new category with the same name; ex:Levi Strauss putting its Levi name on a line of upscale men's suits
Term
Co-Branding
Definition
branding strategy; an alliance in which 2 brands are put together on a single product
Term
Learning
Definition
any change in the content or organization of long-term memory or behavior and is the result of information processing
Term
Short-Term Memory (STM)
Definition
working memory; the portion of total memorty that is currently activated or in use
Term
Long-Term Memory (LTM)
Definition
portion of total memory devoted to permanent information storage
Term
Maintenance Rehearsal
Definition
the short-lived nature of STM means that consumers must constantly refresh information through this or it will be lost; the continual repetition of a piece of information in order to hold it in current memory for use in problem solving or transferal to long-term memory
Term
Elaborative Activities
Definition
the use of previously stored experiences, values, attitudes, beliefs, and feelings to interpret and evaluate information in working memory as well as to add relevant previously stored information; serve to redefine or add new elements to memory
Term
Concepts
Definition
abstractions of reality that capture the meaning of an item in terms of other concepts; similar to a dictionary definition of a word
Term
Imagery
Definition
involves concrete sensory representations of ideas, feelings, and objects; permits a direct recovery of aspects of past experiences
Term
Semantic Memory
Definition
type of long-term memory; the basic knowledge and feelings an individual has about a concept; ex: Acura is a luxury car
Term
Episodic Memory
Definition
type of long-term memory; the memory of a sequence of events in which a person participated; elicit imagery and feelings
Term
Schemas/Schemantic memory
Definition
knowledgable structure; a complex web of associations
Term
Script
Definition
memory of how an action sequence should occur; special type of schema; necessary for consumers to shop effectively
Term
Accessibility
Definition
the liklihood and ease with which information can be recalled from LTM; can be enhanced by rehearsal, repetition, and elaboration
Term
Explicit Memory
Definition
the conscious recollection of an exposure event
Term
Implicit Memory
Definition
the nonconscious retrieval of previously encountered stimuli
Term
High-Involvement Learning
Definition
the consumer is motivated to process or learn the material; ex: reading a PC Magazine before buying a computer
Term
Low-Involvement Learning
Definition
the consumer has little or no motivation to process or learn the material
Term
Conditioning
Definition
a set of procedures that marketers can use to increase the chances that an association between two stimuli is formed or learned; classical and operant
Term
Classical Conditioning
Definition
the process of using an established relationship between one stimulus (music) and response (pleasant feelings) to bring about the learning of the same response (pleasant feelings) to a different stimulus (the brand)
Term
Operant Conditioning
Definition
instrumental learning; involves rewarding desirable behaviors such as brand purchases with a positive outcome that serves to reinforce the behavior
Term
Shaping
Definition
the process of encouraging partial responses leading to the final desired response; ex: try a free sample, buy at a discount, buy at full price
Term
Cognitive Learning
Definition
encompasses all the mental activities of humans as they work to solve problems or cope with situations; learning things that contribute to our ability to reason, solve problems, and learn relationships without direct experience or reinforcement
Term
Iconic Rote Learning
Definition
type of cognitive learning; learning a concept or the association between two or more concepts in the absense of conditioning; ex: Ketoprofin is a headache remedy, Ketoprofin = headache remedy
Term
Vicarious Learning or Modeling
Definition
type of cognitive learning; can observe the outcomes of others' behaviors and adjust their own accordingly; in low and high involvement situations
Term
Analytical Reasoning
Definition
most complex of the cognitive learning types; individuals engage in creative thinking to restructure and recombine existing information as well as new information to form new associations and concepts
Term
Analogical Reasoning
Definition
form of analytical reasoning; an inference process that allows consumers to use an existing knowledge base to understand a new situation or object
Term
Stimulus Discrimination
Definition
differentiation; the process of learning to respond differently to similar but distinct stimuli; possessing unique and important features compared with other brands; helps prevent spillovers
Term
Stimulus Generalization
Definition
the rub-off effect; occurs when a response to one stimulus is elicited by a similar but distinct stimulus
Term
Extinction
Definition
forgetting in conditional learning since the desired response decays or dies out if learning is not repeated and reinforced
Term
Retrieval Failure
Definition
forgetting in cognitive learning since information that is available in LTM cannot be accessed, or retrieved, from LTM to STM
Term
Strength of Learning
Definition

enhanced by 6 factors

 

1)Importance

2) Message Involvement

3) Mood

4) Reinforcement

5) Repetition

6) Dual Coding

Term
Self-Referencing
Definition
indicates that consumers are relating brand information to themselves
Term
Reinforcement
Definition
anything that increases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future; has impact on the speed at which learning occurs and the duration of its effect
Term
Punishment
Definition
the opposite of reinforcement; any consequence that decreases the likelihood that a given response will be repeated in the future
Term
Memory Interference
Definition
comsumers have difficulty retrieving a specific piece of information because other related information in memory gets in the way
Term
Brand Image
Definition
the schematic memory of a brand; the target market's interpretation of the product's attributes, benefits, usage situations, users, and manufacturer/marketer characteristics
Term
Product Positioning
Definition
a decision by a marketer to try to achieve a defined brand image relative to competition within a market segment; major impact of the long-term success of the brand; often interchangeable with "brand image"
Term
Perceptual Mapping
Definition
useful technique for measuring and developing a product's position; takes consumers' perceptions of how similar various brands or products are to each other and relates these perceptions to product attributes
Term
Product Repositioning
Definition
a deliberate decision to significantly alter the way the market views a product; can involve level of performance, feelings it evokes, the situations in which it should be used, or even who uses it
Term
Brand Equity
Definition
the value consumers assign to a brand above and beyond the functional characteristics of the product; reputation of the brand by economic value
Term
Brand Leverage
Definition
family branding, brand extensions, or umbrella branding; marketers capitalizing on brand equity by using an existing brand name for new products
Term
Motivation
Definition
reason for behavior; interchangeable with "needs"
Term
Motive
Definition
a construct representing an unobservable inner force that stimulates and compels a behavioral response and provides specific direction to that response; why an individual does something
Term
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
Definition

4 premises:

1) all humans acquire a similar set of motives through genetic endowment and social interaction

2) some motives are more basic or critical than others

3) the more basic motives must be satisfied to a minimum level before other motives are activated

4) as the basic motives become satisfied, more advanced motives come into play

 

physiological--> safety--> belongingness--> esteem--> self-actualization

Term
McGuire's Psychological Motives
Definition

system to help marketers isolate motives likely to be involved in various consumption situations

 

cognitive preservation motives: need for consistency, attribution, categorize, objectification

cognitive growth motives: need for autonomy, stimulation, teleological need, utilitarian

affective preservation motives: need for tension reduction, expressions, ego defense, reinforcement

affective growth motives: need for assertion, affiliation, identification, modeling

Term
Demand
Definition
the willingness to buy a particular product or service; caused by a need or motive, but is not a motive
Term
Manifest Motive
Definition
motives that are known and freely admitted
Term
Latent Motives
Definition
motives that are unknown to the consumer or were such that they were reluctant to admit them
Term
Projective Techniques
Definition
motivation research; designed to provide information on latent motives; ex: word associations, sentence completion, tell a story
Term
Laddering/Means-End/Benefit Chain
Definition
a popular tool for identifying motives beyond projective techniques; identifying benefits of benefits until no addtional ones are able to be identified
Term
Involvement
Definition
motivational state caused by consumer perceptions that a product, brand, or advertisement is relevant or interesting; it affects numerous consumer behaviors and marketing strategies
Term
Approach-Approach Motivational Conflict
Definition
a consumer who must choose between two attractive alternatives
Term
Approach-Avoidance Motivational Conflict
Definition
a consumer facing a purchase choice with both positive and negative confronts
Term
Avoidance-Avoidance Motivational Conflict
Definition
a choice involving only undesirable outcomes
Term
Promotion-Focused Motives
Definition
revolve around a desire for growth and development and are related to consumers' hopes and aspirations; positive outcomes
Term
Prevention-Focused Motives
Definition
revolve around a desire for safety and security and are related to consumers' sense of duties and obligations; negative outcomes
Term
Regulatory Focus Theory
Definition
suggests that consumers will react differently depending on which broad set of motives is most salient
Term
Personality
Definition
helps guide and further direct the behaviors chosen to accomplish goals in different situations; an individual's characteristic response tendencies across similar situations
Term
Five-Factor Model
Definition

personality multitrait approach; identifies basic traits formed by genetics and early learning

 

1) Extroversion

2) Instability

3) Agreeableness

4) Openness to Experience

5) Conscientiousness

Term
Personality Single-Train Approaches/Theories
Definition

emphaize one personality trait as being particularly relevant to understanding a particular set of behaviors

 

1) consumer ethnocentrism

2) need for cognition: reflects an individual difference in consumers' propensity to engage in and enjoy thinking

3) consumers' need for uniqueness: reflects an individual diff in consumers' propensity to pursue differentness relative to others through the acquisition, utilization, & disposition of consumer goods

Term
Consumer Ethnocentrism
Definition
reflects an individual difference in consumers' propensity to be biased against the purchase of foreign products
Term
Brand Personality
Definition

a set of human characteristics that become associated with a brand; 5 basic dimensions

1) sincerity

2) excitement

3) competence

4) sophistication

5) ruggedness

Term
Emotional Elements
Definition
environmental events, physiological changes, cognitive thought, behaviors, subjective feelings
Term
Emotion
Definition

identifiable, specific feeling, and affect to refer to the liking-disliking aspect of the specific feeling; 3 basic dimensions

 

Pleasure

Arousal

Dominance

Term
Coping
Definition
involves consumer thoughts and behaviors in reaction to a stress-inducing situation designed to reduce stress and achieve more desired positive emotions; avoidance is a common mechanism
Term
Attitude
Definition
an enduring organization of motivational, emotional, perceptual, and cognitive process with respect to some aspect of our environment
Term
Cognitive Component
Definition
a consumer's beliefs about an object; most attitude objects have several beliefs
Term
Affective Component
Definition
feelings or emotional reactions to an object; emotional evaluation
Term
Aesthetic Appeal
Definition
tap consumers' affective reactions by going beyond the cognitive associations of functionality
Term
Behavioral Component
Definition
one's tendency to respond in a certain manner toward an object or activity; ex: a series of decisions to purchase or not purchase Diet Coke
Term
Mere Exposure
Definition
controversial, but there is evidence that affect or brand preference may be increased by this; simply presenting a brand to an individual on a large number of occasions might make the individual's attitude toward the brand more positive; ex: you would like someone you see in your class more than a random person on the street
Term
Elaboration Likelihood Model
Definition
a theory about how attitudes are formed and changed under varying conditions of involvement; integrates select individual, situational, and marketing factors to understand attitudes
Term
Source Credibility
Definition
trustworthiness and expertise
Term
Testimonial Ad
Definition
a person, generally a typical member of the target market, recounts his or her successful use of the product, service, or idea
Term
Sponsorship
Definition
a company providing financial support for an event
Term
Fear Appeals
Definition
use the threat of negative (unpleasant) consequences if attitudes or behaviors are not altered; physical and social aspects
Term
Humorous Appeals
Definition
used to increase attention to and liking of the ad, particularly for those individuals high in need for humor
Term
Comparative Ads
Definition
directly compare the features or benefits of two or more brands
Term
Value-Expressive Appeals
Definition
attempt to build a personality for the product or create an image of the product user; most effective for products designed to enhance self-image or provide other intangible benefits (lawn fertilizers)
Term
Utilitarian Appeals
Definition
involve informing the consumer of one or more functional benefits that are important to the target market; most effective for functional products (perfumes)
Term
One-Sided Messages
Definition
generally presenting only the benefits of their product without mentioning any negative characteristics it might possess; one point of view is expressed
Term
Two-Sided Message
Definition
presenting both good and bad points, is counterintuitive, and most marketers are reluctant to try this appeal; more effective in changing a strongly held attitude
Term
Message Framing
Definition
presenting one of two equivalent value outcomes either in positive or gain terms (positive framing) or in negative loss terms (negative framing)
Term
Attribute Framing
Definition
where only a single attribute is the focus of the frame; positive framing yields the most positive evaluations because it emphasizes the desirable aspects of the specific attribute
Term
Goal Framing
Definition
where the message stresses either the positive consequences of performing an act or the negative consequences of not performing the act
Term
Benefit Segmentation
Definition
segmenting consumers on the basis of their most important attribute or attributes; a marketers needs to know the importance that consumers attached to various product or service features
Term
Self-Concept
Definition
the totality of the individual's thoughts and feelings having reference to himself or herself as an object; attitudes towards oneself
Term
Independent Self-Concept
Definition
emphasizes personal goals, characteristics, achievements, and desires; define themselves by what they have done, what they have, and their personal characteristics
Term
Interdependent Self-Concept
Definition
emphasizes family, cultural, professional, and social relationships; define themselves in terms of social roles, family relationships, and commonalities with other members of their groups
Term
Extended Self
Definition
the self plus possessions; people tend to define themselves in part by their possessions
Term
Peak Experience
Definition
an experience that surpasses the usual level of intensity, meaningfulness, and richness and produces feellings of joy and self-fulfillment
Term
Mere Ownership Effect
Definition
the endowment effect, is the tendency of an owner to evaluate an object more favorably than a nonowner
Term
Lifestyle
Definition
how a person enacts to her or his self-concept, and is determined by past experiences, innate characteristics, and current situation
Term
Psychographics
Definition
attempts to develop quantitative measures of lifestyle; interchangeable with "lifestyle"; attitudes, values, activities & interests, demographics, media patterns, usage rates
Term
VALS System
Definition

a systematic classification of American adults into 8 distinct consumer segments

1) Innovators

2) Thinkers (ideals motivated)

3) Believers (ideals motivated)

4) Achievers (achievement motivated)

5) Strivers (achievement motivated)

6) Experiencers (self-expression motivated)

7) Makers (self-expression motivated)

8) Survivors

Term
Geo-Demographic Analysis
Definition
based on the premise that lifestyle, and thus consumption, is largely driven by demographic factors; people with similar backgrounds naturally gravitate to each other and adopt one another's values, etc
Term
PRIZM
Definition
Census data that is a set of 66 lifestyle segments