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Comp 129 - Chapter 1
Summary
9
Computer Science
03/01/2009

Additional Computer Science Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
 
 
 
 
Chapter 1 - Chapter Summary
 
Card# 1
Definition
  • A computer requires both hardware and software to work.
  • The four basic functions of the microcomputer are input, output, processin, and storage of data.
  • Data and instructions are stored in a computer in binary form, which uses only two states for data--on and off, or 1 and 0--which are called bits.
  • The four most popular input/output devices are the printer, monitor, mouse, and keyboard.
Term
 
 
 
 
Chapter 1 - Chapter Summary
 
Card# 2
Definition
  • The most important component inside a computer case is the motherboard, also called the main board or system board. It contains the most important microchip inside the case, the central processing unit (CPU), a microprocessor or processor, as well as access to other circuit boards and peripheral devices. All communications between the CPU and other devices must pass through the motherboaard.
Term
 
 
 
 
Chapter 1 - Chapter Summary
 
Card#3
Definition
  • A ROM BIOS or firmware chip is a hybrid of hardware and software containing programming embedded into the chip.
  • Most microchips are manufactured using CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) technology.
  • Each hardware device needs a method to communicate with the CPU, software to control it, and electricity to power it.
Term
 
 
 
 
Chapter 1 - Chapter Summary
 
Card#4
Definition
  • Devices outsie motherbde the computer case connect to motherboard through ports on the case. Common ports are network,FireWire, sound, serial, parallel,USB, game, keyboard, and mouse ports.
  • A circuit board inserted in an expansion slot on the motherboard can provide an interface between the motherboard and a peripheral device, or can itself be a peripheral. (An example is an internal modem)
Term
 
 
 
 
Chapter 1 - Chapter Summary
 
Card#5
Definition
  • The chipset on a motherboard controls most activites on the motherboard and includes several device controllers, including the USB controller, memory controller, IDE controller, and so forth.
  • Primary storag, called memory or RAM, is temporary storage the CPU uses to hold data and instructions while it is processing both.
  • RAM is stored on single chips, SIMMs, DIMMs, and RIMMs
Term
 
 
 
 
Chapter 1 - Chapter Summary
 
Card#6
Definition
  • Secondary storage is slower than primary storage, but it is permanent storage. Some examples of secondary storage devices are hard drives, CD drives, DVD drives, flash drives, Zip drives, and floppy drives.
  • Most hard drives, CD drives, and DVD drives use an ATA interface standard commonly called EIDE (Enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics) technology, which can acommodate up to four EIDE or IDE devices on one system. Newer hard drives are the serial ATA interface standard.
Term
 
 
 
 
Chapter 1 - Chapter Summary
 
Card#7
Definition
  • The system clock is used to synchronize activity on the motherboard. The clock sends continuous pulses over the bus that different components use to control the pace of activity.
  • A motherboard can have several buses, including the system bus, the PCI express bus, the PCI bus, the AGP bus, and the outdated ISA bus.
  • The frequency of activity on a motheboard is measured in megahertz (MHz), or one million cycles per second. The processor operates at a much higher frequency than other components in the system, and its activity is measured in gigahertz (GHz), or one billion cycles per second.
Term
 
 
 
 
Chapter 1 - Chapter Summary
 
Card#8
Definition
  • The power supply inside the computer case supplies electricity to components both inside and outside the case. Some components external to the case get power from their own electrical cables.
Term
 
 
 
 
Chapter 1 - Chapter Summary
 
Card#9
Definition
  • ROM BIOS on a motherboard holds the basic software needed to start a PC and begin the process of loading an operating system. Most ROM chips are flash ROM, meaning these programs can be updated without echanging the chip.
  • The CMOS setup program is part of ROM BIOS stored on the firmware chip. This program is used to change motherboard settings or congfiguration information. When power to the PC is turned off, a battery on the motherboard supplies power to CMOS RAM that holds these settings.