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Cognitive Psychology
study of the mind
123
Psychology
02/15/2010

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Term
Donders
Definition
Reaction time experiment:one of the first experiments in cognitive psychology. He researched mental chronometry (measuring the length of cognitive processes).
Term
ebinghaus
Definition
memory experiments: the forgetting curve and savings method showed that once we learn something it is easier to learn again
Term
structuralism
Definition
perception is made up of many little sensations
Term
analytic introspection
Definition
asking people how they feel and to think about their thoughts
Term
watson
Definition
gave rise to behaviorism, rejected introspection and cognitive processes because they vary so much and cannot be measured. famous for "little albert experiment"
Term
skinner
Definition
operant conditioning, behaviorism, pigeon experiments, described language in children as being only observed and repeated
Term
noam chomsky
Definition
reviewed skinners theories, believed that language is an innate inborn skill
Term
shepard and metzler
Definition
mental rotation: found that it took longer for people to perceive objects as similar or not similar depending on the angle that they differed
Term
modal memory
Definition
input, sensory, short term, repetition, long term
Term
dendrites
Definition
branch from the cell body and receive signals
Term
neurons
Definition
specialized cells to receive and transmit info
Term
axon
Definition
tube filled with fluid that can conduct electrical signals, transmit them from the cell bodies to synapses
Term
sensory receptors
Definition
respond to light energy, mechanical deformation, pressure changes...
Term
transduction
Definition
process that transforms one form of energy into another
Term
action potential
Definition
electrical potential that travels down a neurons axis
Term
propogated
Definition
once action potentials are generated they do not change as they travel down the axon
Term
synapse
Definition
space between end of axon and dendrite of next atom (how neurons communicate)
Term
neurotransmitters
Definition
chemical that is released to transport action potentials to the next neuron
Term
excitatory and inhibitory neurotransmitters
Definition
some cause an increase in neuron firings, some inhibit them
Term
feature detectors
Definition
simple cells, complex cells, and end-stopped cells
Term
simple cells
Definition
respond best to a bar of light oriented in a certain way
Term
complex cells
Definition
respond best to an oriented bar of light that moves (often in a particular direction)
Term
end-stopped cells
Definition
responds best to an oriented bar of light, a particular length, moving in a specific direction
Term
neural circuit
Definition
group of interconnected neurons
Term
convergene
Definition
a number of neurons sending signals to a single neuron
Term
neural processing
Definition
(when a number of neuron signals synapse together to form a neural circuit), it creates neurons that relate to specific stimuli
Term
specificity coding
Definition
neurons that react only tho one stimuli (possible but rare if ever)
Term
distributed coding
Definition
property of the environment are represented by a pattern of firing many neurons, not just one
Term
grandmother cell
Definition
the idea that there could be a neuron that responds to something very specific such as a picture of their grandmother, or a concept such as a grandmother. probs: too many faces and objects in the world to assign, and although there are neurons that respond to specific stimuli (like a face), they respond to multiple (faces)
Term
cerebral cortex
Definition
3 mm thick outer layer of the brain that contains mechanisms responsible for higher mental functioning such as perception, language, thinking, and problem solving
Term
cerebral cortex: temporal lobe
Definition
language, memory, hearing, and perceiving forms
Term
cerebral cortex: occipital lobe
Definition
first place in cerebral cortex where visual info is received
Term
cerebral cortex: parietal lobe
Definition
where signals are recieved from the touch system, and also important for vision and attention
Term
cerebral cortex: frontal lobe
Definition
serves higher functioning such as language, thought memory and motor functioning
Term
subcortical structures
Definition
structures located beneath the cerebral cortex that are important for cognition
Term
subcortical structures: hippocampus
Definition
important for FORMING MEMORIES
Term

subcortical structures:

amygdala

 

Definition

important for emotions and emotional responses

 

Term

subcortical structures:

thalamus

 

Definition
important for processing info from the senses of vision, hearing, and touch
Term
localization of function
Definition
specific areas of the brain control specific functions
Term
neuropsychology
Definition
the study of behavior of humans with brain damage
Term
dissociation
Definition
when one function is present when another is not
Term
single dissociation
Definition
studied in a single person
Term
double dissociation
Definition
2 or more people needed to study
Term
brain imaging
Definition
brain activity is measured in response to specific tasks. PET and FMRI
Term
FMRI
Definition
functional magnetic resonance imaging: measures bloodflow without using tracers
Term
PET
Definition

positron emission tomography:

injection of a radioactive tracer to measure increased bloodflow

Term
subtractive technique (with brain imaging)
Definition
when all baseline activities are ignored and all that is measured is the activity caused by the task being evaluated
Term
Dissociation of Pathways for Object & Spatial Vision: a PET study on Humans
Definition

-to study which brain regions are linked to object identification and localization

-matched both locations and identified objects

-right-side parietal stimulated more during the spatial than the identification

-pattern of lateralization may vary in the ventral pathway depending on what type of spatial processing is required

Term
Visual Representation of Object Location: Insight from Localization Impairments
Definition

-when visual areas of the brain are damaged, the most seemingly trivial aspects of visual perception can be drastically impaired.

-A.H. could not localize objects but could identify them

-This issue was developmental, not due to damage

Term
The Man Who Mistook his Wife for a Hat
Definition
Dr. P could not see faces and could see details but could not put things together (sees a nose and an eye but does not recognize it as one face.) Amazingly, he could watch cartoons and drawings just fine!
Term
Template matching
Definition
a model of object recognition proposes that recognition happens when a stimulus matches a template(BUT that would require far too many templates)
Term
Interactive Activation Model
Definition
proposes that action is sent through 3 models: feature leverl, letter level, and word levels
Term
interactive activation model: feature-level
Definition
contains feature units, responds to specific features such as a straight or a curved line
Term

interactive activation model:

letter-level

Definition
contains letter-units, which respond to specific letters
Term

interactive activation model:

word-levels

Definition
contain word units and recognize and responds to different words
Term
recognition by components theory
Definition

proposes that perception is based on a dimensional features called geons, where if enough of the geons are visible then we can know the object

 

Term
RBC theory: view invariance
Definition
the idea that one can view geons from many angles
Term
RBC theory:discriminability
Definition
each geon can be distinguished at nearly all views
Term
RBC theory: resistance to visual noise
Definition
we can still perceive geons even in noisy conditions like fog
Term
gestalt psychologists vs structuralism
Definition
overall pattern vs compilation of sensations
Term
gestalt: Law of Pragnanz
Definition

central law of gestalt

law of simplicity

law of good figure

every stimulus is seen in the simplest way possible

Term
gestalt: Law of similarity
Definition
similar things grouped together
Term
gestalt:Law of common fate
Definition
things going in the same direction grouped together
Term
gestalt: Law of continuity
Definition
points form one connected, smooth path
Term
gestalt: Law of proximity of nearness
Definition
things near each other grouped together
Term
gestalt: Law of familiarity
Definition
things that are meaningful are grouped together
Term
heuristic
Definition
rule of thumb
Term
algorithm
Definition
procedure guaranteed to work
Term
speech segmentation
Definition
organization of speech into words
Term
occlusion heuristic
Definition
when a large object is partially covered by a small object, we see the larger one as being continuous behind the smaller one
Term
light from above heuristic
Definition
assumption that light comes from above
Term
transitional probabilities
Definition
the likely hood that one sound will follow another (helps us to make words from speech)
Term
statistical learning
Definition
the process of learning about transitional probabilities and about characteristics of learning
Term
word-superiority effect
Definition
letters are easier to recognize when contained in a word rather than appearing alone (shows that we do not process letter by letter but that each letter is affected by its surrounding)
Term
feedback activation
Definition
interactive activation model of word recognition where activation is sent from word units back to each of the letter units for that word (FORK---->F). Feedback activation demonstrates top-down processing
Term
Treisman's feature integration theory
Definition
proposes that object perception occurs in a sequence of stages which are first analyzed and then combined to result in perception
Term

treismans feature integration theory:

preattentive stage

Definition
an object is analyzed by its features
Term
Broadbent's filter model of attention
Definition

proposes selective attention is acheived by filtering out unattended messages

messages>sensory memory>filter>detector>memory

Term

Broadbent's Filter Model of Attention:

sensory memory

Definition
holds info for fraction of a second before transferring it to the filter
Term

Broadbent's Filter Model of Attention:

filter

Definition
identifies the message by its physical properties (pitch of voice, accent, tone...)
Term

Broadbent's Filter Model of Attention:

detector

Definition
processes information to determine meaning. Since the filter is o selective, the detector always processes all info sent to it
Term

treismans feature integration theory:

focused attention

Definition
features are combined to perceive an object
Term

treismans feature integration theory:

_____>______>______>_______

Definition
object>preattentive stage>focused attention stage>perception
Term
illlusory conjunctions
Definition
situation where features from different objects are inappropriately combined
Term
Balints syndrome
Definition
Brain damage causes this condition which makes someone unable to focus attention on individual objects
Term
selective attention
Definition
focus on one thing and ignore all others
Term
dichotic listening
Definition
presentation of two different messages into each ear
Term
shadowing
Definition
repeating a message aloud as soon as it is heard
Term
cocktail party syndrome
Definition
paying attention to one message only
Term

Broadbent's Filter Model of Attention:

short-term memory

Definition
recieves output of detector and holds it for 10-15 s before transferring it
Term
early selection model
Definition
explains selective attention by early filtering out of the unattended message
Term
late selection model
Definition
proposes that selection doesnt occur until messages are processed enough to determine meaning
Term
treismans theory of attention
Definition

selection occurs in 2 stages:

attenuator:analyzes incoming message in terms of physical properties, language, and meaning

THEN analyzed by dictionary unit

(helps to explain how we can pick out familiar words sometimes like our name)

Term

task load

Definition

how much of a persons cognitive resources are being used to accomplish something

high load and low load

Term
Flanker compatilbility task
Definition
responding to the target which is surrounded by distractors (shows that the processing of unattended signals depends on whether or not a person is doing a high or low load task already)
Term
stroop effect
Definition
saying the color of the font versus the color spelled out
Term
divided attention
Definition
focusing on two or more things at once
Term
saccades
Definition
rapid eye movements
Term
eye tracker
Definition
device used to measure movements of the eye
Term
stimulus salience
Definition
bottom up factors that determine attention to elements of space (color, contrast, orientation..)
Term
inattentional blindness
Definition
not noticing something in clear view
Term
precueing
Definition
when we are told where the stimulus will show up next
Term
location based attention
Definition
models of attention propose that attention operates on whatever stimuli are at a particular location
Term
object based attention
Definition
enhancing effects of intention occur when looking at a specific object
Term
mental imagery
Definition
experienceing a sensory impression in the absence of sensory input
Term
visual imagery
Definition
an image is seen in the absence ofa  stimuli
Term
imageless thought debate
Definition
the debate over whether thought is possible wihtout an image
Term
paired associate learning
Definition
people are showed pairs of words and later shown one of the pair and asked to recall the other word
Term
conceptual peg hypothesis
Definition
concrete nouns are better for making us remember (demonstrates how mental imaging may have an effect on memory)
Term
kosslyns mental scanning experinment
Definition
shown a pic, asked to zoom in, then asked to zoom in on a different part
Term
kosslyn
Definition

think mental imagery

spacial representation in which diff parts of image can be described as correspondence in space

Term
epiphenomenon
Definition
accompanies real mechanisms but not part of it
Term
propositional representation
Definition
representations are represented by words
Term
depictive representations
Definition
spatial relationships depicted by pictures
Term
tactic knowledge explanation
Definition
unconcious use of knowledge about the world
Term
mental walk task
Definition
imagining walking toward a mental image
Term
imagery neurons
Definition
respond to both an object and its picture
Term
transcranial magnetic stimulation
Definition
magnetic pulses applied to temporarily disrupt functioninf in parts of brain
Term
unilateral neglect
Definition
patient ignores half their visual field
Term
method of loci
Definition
imagine things spatially to help remember
Term
pegword
Definition

things remembered by words

one-bun two-shoe

Term
experimenter expectancy effect
Definition
the experimenters expectations interfere with answers
Term
Definition