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Cognitive Psychology
Amy Kurivchack
367
Psychology
04/13/2008

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Term
Donders
Definition
Reaction times: the amount of time it takes for a participant to react to a stimulus. Reaction-Time experiment
Term
Helmholtz
Definition
Unconscious inference
Term
Ebbinghaus
Definition
Learning curve, memory, forgetting curve
Term
Wilhelm Wundt
Definition
Father of psychology / interested in consciousness - first laboratory of scientific psychology
Term
Structuralism
Definition
Study the components of consciousness (broken down like chemistry) Sensations (mode, quality, intensity, duration)
Introspection: observations of our own experience
Not easily subjected to controlled experimentation.
Term
John Watson
Definition

Behaviorism: only study observable behavior

Term
Behaviorism
Definition
Psychology should only study observable behavior because introspection isn't verifiable, goal is prediction and control of behavior; objective point of attack; rejects introspection, eliminates consciousness
Term
B.F. Skinner
Definition
Proposed that we repeat things that yield positive results, and avoid things that lead to negative results. Also that language is 100% learned. Operant Conditioning
Term
Chomsky
Definition
Didn't agree with Skinner. Language has innate structures. Disagree with Verbal Behavior
Term
Information-Processing Approach
Definition
Information is transformed through a series of processes - inspired by the computer
Term
Behavioral Research
Definition
Use measurements of behavior to infer mental processes/states
Term
Physiological Research
Definition
Use measurements of physiological activity (brain activity) to infer mental processes/states
Term
Controlled Studies
Definition
Research in which at least one variable is being manipulated (IV and DV)
Term
Correlational Studies
Definition
Using patterns of co-occurence to understand the relationship between events (surveys/ observations)
Term
Descriptive Studies
Definition
Used to describe something, establish norms, exploratory research
Term
Problems in Research
Definition
Not properly controlled, 3rd variable, can't infer causality, can't infer directionality, can't generalize, bias, design flaws
Term
fMRI
Definition
measures blood flow changes while you're doing something, 3-d images of structures, helping for where questions
Term
EEG
Definition
measures electrical current in brain, good for when questions
Term
PET
Definition
radioactive isotope in bloodstream, clear of gradients of activation
Term
Single Cell Recording
Definition
one neuron recording with animals, good for when and where, won't show big picture
Term
TMS
Definition
alters electrical current in brain with big magnets, turn on/off areas, don't know what's going on, ethical issues
Term
Cognition
Definition
The mental processes that are involved in perception, attention, memory, problem solving, reasoning and making decisions
Term
Cognitive Psychology
Definition
the branch of psychology concerned with scientific study of cognition
Term
Mental Chronometry
Definition
Measuring how long a cognitive processes takes
Term
Reaction time
Definition
the interval between presentation of a stimulus and a person's response to the stimulus
Term
Simple reaction-time
Definition
One location for light, participants pushed a button as quickly as possible after the light was illuminated
Term
Choice Reaction-Time
Definition
light could appear on the left or on the right, participant push one button if the light was on the left, other if on the right
Term
Unconscious Inference
Definition
some of our perceptions are the result of unconscious assumptions that we make about the environment
Term
Savings Method
Definition
how many repetitions it took to repeat the lists with no errors
Term
Analytic Introspection
Definition
Training participants described their experiences and thought processes in response to stimuli
Term
Cognitive Revolution
Definition
a shift in psychology from the behaviorist's S-R relationships to an approach which the main thrust was to explain behavior in terms of the mind
Term
Mental rotation
Definition
rotating an image of one of the objects in their mind; rotate the images at a rate of 50 degrees per second
Term
Model
Definition
to understand the big picture
Term
Model of memory
Definition
pictures with information as flowing from one state to the next, with these stages often being represented by boxes
Term
Sensory Memory
Definition
can take in a large amount of info, but most of it fades rapidly, within about half a second; not very processed - is modality specific; can be disrupted. Helpful for processing, holding while processing and filling in blanks. (echoic and iconic)
Term
Short-term memory
Definition
Info can be held for about 30s-1m unless it is rehearsed; space is limited
Term
Long-term memory
Definition
info can be stored for long periods of time; archive of info about past event/knowledge/ works with WM - virtually unlimited capacity
Term
Cognitive science
Definition
Interdisciplinary study of the mind
Term
Mind-Body Problem
Definition
Should we study the brain, mind or both? Monism vs Dualism
Term
Neuron
Definition
cells that are specialized to receive and transmit information in the nervous system
Term
Neuronal Structures
Definition
Dendrites, soma, azon, myelin sheath, synaptic vesicles, neurotransmitters, synapse
Term
Neuronal Function
Definition
Resting change of -70v, becomes depolarized (+) then hyperpolarized from inhibitory signals, finally it is an action potential.
Term
Neurogenesis
Definition
In adults, new neurons can be made in the hippocampus for memory
Term
Feature detectors
Definition
neurons that respond to specific features of a stimulus (breaks down stimuli and helps understand novel objects)
Term
Cell body
Definition
contains mechanisms to keep the cell alive
Term
Dendrites
Definition
Branch out from the cell body receive signals from other neurons
Term
Axon (nerve fiber)
Definition
transmitting structure of the neuron
Term
Sensory receptors
Definition
replace the cell body and dendrites at the receiving end; specialized structures that respond to light energy, mechanical deformation, pressure changes in the ar, molecules in the air, and molecules in liquid
Term
transduction
Definition
the transformation of one form of energy into another form of energy
Term
Retina
Definition
A network of neurons that line the back of the eye
Term
Optic nerve
Definition
1 million axons
Term
Action potentials
Definition
signals from other neurons
Term
Microelectrodes
Definition
tiny wires placed in or near an axon which pick up the electrical signals that travel down the axon
Term
Propagated
Definition
Once a signal is generated at one end of the axon it travels to the other end without decreasing in size
Term
Synapse
Definition
a space between the end of the axon and the next neuron
Term
Neurotransmitters
Definition
chemicals that can affect the electrical signal of the neuron that receives the neurotransmitter
Term
excitatory neurotransmitters
Definition
increases the changes that the next neuron will fire
Term
inhibitory neurotransmitters
Definition
decreases the changes that a neuron will fire
Term
Neural processing
Definition
a nbumber of neurons synapse together to form a neural circuit
Term
Neural circuit
Definition
A group of interconnected neurons, jointly activated
Term
Convergence
Definition
a number of neurons sending signals to a single neuron
Term
Simple cells
Definition
neurons tha trespond best to a bar of light with a particular orientation
Term
Complex cells
Definition
Neurons that respond best to bars of light of a particular orientation that were moving across the retina in a specific direction
Term
End-stopped cells
Definition
Neurons that respond best to an oriented bar of light with a specific length, or shaped like a corner
Term
Neural code
Definition
The info contained in the neural firing to that face (or to any other object or experience)
Term
Specificity coding
Definition
the representation of a specific stimulus by the firing of a very specifically tune neurons that are specialized to respond just to a specific face
Term
Grandmother Cell
Definition
neuron that responds only to a specific stimulus
Term
Distributed coding
Definition
the code that indicates a specific face is distributed across a number of neurons
Term
cerebral cortex
Definition
outer covering, 3 mm thick, contains mechanisms for most of our higher mental functions
Term
temporal lobe
Definition
language, memory, hearing and perceiving forms
Term
occipital lobe
Definition
visual information is received
Term
parietal lobe
Definition
signals from touch system and vision and attention
Term
Mirror neurons
Definition
motor neurons fire when watching someone else grasping something
Term
Frontal lobe
Definition
language, thought, memory and motor functioning
Term
Subcortical structures
Definition
process information for memories and the creation of emotions
Term
Hippocampus
Definition
forms memories
Term
Amygdala
Definition
emotions and emotional memories
Term
Thalamus
Definition
Process information from the senses of vision, hearing and touch
Term
Localization of function
Definition
Idea that different brain areas serve different functions
Term
Fusiform Face Area
Definition
rich in neurons that respond best to faces
Term
Neuropsychology
Definition
study of the behavior of humans with brain damage
Term
Dissociations
Definition
situations in which one function is absetnt while another is present
Term
Single disassociation
Definition
can be studied in a single person
Term
Double dissocations
Definition
Requires two or more people; the existence of opposite problems in two different groups of people
Term
Brain imaging
Definition
creates images that show which areas of the brain are activated as awake humans carry out various cognitive tasks
Term
Subtraction technique
Definition
measured in a "control state", measured while the stimulus is presented; the activity due to manipulation is determined by subtracting the control activity from the stimulation activity
Term
Experience-Dependent Plasticity
Definition
causes neurons to develop so they respond best to the types of stimulations to which a person or animal has been exposed
Term
Perception
Definition
Conscious experience that results from stimulation of the senses
Term
Bottom-up processing
Definition
processing that begins with stimulation of the receptors
Term
Top-down processing
Definition
processing that involves a person's knowledge
Term
Template Matching
Definition
compare the pattern to a model or template of the letter that is stored in the system; but we would need infinite templates, doesn't explain alteration degradation or orientation - storage and retrieval problems
Term
Interactive Activation Model
Definition
model of word recognition that proposes that word recognition is based on activation, sent through three levels - top down and bottom up
Term
Feature level
Definition
contains feature units; receive inputs from stimuli in the environent and respond to specific features such as straight lines, curved lines, or lines with a specific orientation
Term
Letter level
Definition
contains letter units, which respond to specific letters
Term
Word level
Definition
contains word units, which are all of the words that a person knows
Term
Word Superiority Effect
Definition
letters are easier to recognize when they are contained in a word, compared to when they appear alone or are contained in a nonword
Term
Feedback activation
Definition
sent form word units backs to each of the letter units for that word; does not occur when a letter is presented alone
Term
Feature Integration Theory
Definition
object perception occurs in a sequence of stages in which features are first analyzed and then combined to result in perception of an object; we identify objects by first breaking
them apart into individual “free floating” features in the preattentive stage, and
then re-integrate the features in the focused attention stage, at which point we
perceive the object.
Term
Preattentive stage
Definition
(FIT) an object is analyzed into its features; happens automatically and doesn't require any effort or attention by the perceiver
Term
Illusory conjunctions
Definition
combinations of features from different stimuli
Term
Focused Attention Stage
Definition
(FIT2) the observer's attention plays an important role in combining the features to create the perception of whole objects
Term
Balint's Syndrome
Definition
inability to focus on attention on individual objects
Term
Recognition-By-Components Theory
Definition
features are not lines, curves or colors; but are 3-D volumes called geons
Term
Geon
Definition
basic feature unit to object perception; 3-d
Term
View invariance
Definition
able to be identified when viewed from different angles
Term
View invarient properties
Definition
properties that remain visible even when the geon is viewed from many different angles
Term
Discriminability
Definition
Can be distinguished from the others from almost all viewpoints
Term
Resistance to visual noise
Definition
still perceive geons under "noisy" conditions
Term
Perceptual organization
Definition
the organization of elements of environment into objects
Term
Gestalt Psychologists
Definition
a group of psychologists who disagreed with the structuralist approach to perception; proposed the laws of perceptual organization and were concerned with how figure is separated from ground; concerned with mechanisms such as fixation that inhibit problem solving
Term
Sensations
Definition
the small elementary units that are added together to create perceptions
Term
Laws of perceptual organization
Definition
series of rules that specify how we perceptually organize parts into wholes
Term
Law of pragnanz (good figure/simplicity)
Definition
every stimulus pattern is seen in such a way that the resulting structure is as simple as possible
Term
Law of Similarity
Definition
Similar things appear to be grouped together
Term
Law of Good continuation
Definition
points that, when connected, result in straight or smoothly curving lines, are seen as belonging together; and the lines tend to be seen as following the smoothest path
Term
Law of Proximity (nearness)
Definition
things that are near to each other appear to be grouped together
Term
Law of common fate
Definition
things that are moving in the same direction appear to be grouped together
Term
Law of familiarity
Definition
things are more likely to form groups if the groups appear familiar or meaningful
Term
Heuristic
Definition
"rule of thumb" that provides a best-guess solution to a problem; fast and correct most of the time
Term
algorithm
Definition
procedure guaranteed to solve a problem
Term
Inverse Projection Problem
Definition
particular image on the retina can be caused by an infinite number of different objects
Term
Speech segmentation
Definition
the organization of speech into individual words
Term
Occlusion heuristic
Definition
when a large object is partially covered by a smaller occluding object, we see the larger one as continuing behind the smaller occluder
Term
Light-from-above heuristic
Definition
the assumption that light is coming from above
Term
Transitional probabilities
Definition
the chances that one sound will follow another sound
Term
statistical learning
Definition
process of learning about transitional probabilities and about other chracteristics of language
Term
Parahippocampal place area
Definition
activated by pictures indicating indoor and outdoor scenes
Term
extrastriate body area
Definition
activated by pictures of bodies and parts of bodies (not faces)
Term
Change blindness
Definition
difficulty in detecting changes in scenes
Term
change blindness blindness
Definition
people are "blind" to the fact that change blindness will occur
Term
Attention
Definition
process of concentrating on specific features of the environment or on certain thoughts or activities
Term
Selective Attention
Definition
the ability to focus on one message and ignore all others
Term
DIchotic listening
Definition
people are asked to pay attention to one or two simultaneously presented messages
Term
cocktail party phenomenon
Definition
ability to pay attention to one message and ignore all others
Term
Early-Selection model
Definition

filtering step occurs before the incoming information is analyzed to determine its meaning

sensory memory hold all info for a very short time before transferring it all to the next stage. filter identifies the attended message and filters all other info out. detector processes the message for higher level information. STM receives the detector outut, holds onto it for 5-10 seconds and can transfer it to long term memory

Term
Attenutation theory of attention
Definition
Term
Filter model of attention
Definition
Term
Attenuator
Definition
Analyzes the incoming messages in term of its physical characteristics, language, and meaning
Term
dictionary unit
Definition
contains stored words, each of which have thresholds for being activated. A threshold is the smallest signal strength that can barely be detected
Term
Late-selection models
Definition
the selection of stimuli for final processing doesn't occur until after the infor has been analyzed for its meaning
Term
task load
Definition
how much of a person's cognitive resources are used to accomplish a task
Term
high-task load
Definition
uses most or all of a person's resources and so leaves no capacity to handle other tasks
Term
low-load tasks
Definition
uses few resources, leaving some to handle other tasks
Term
Flanker-compatability task
Definition
central display that may contain a target, and a "flanker" distractor stimulus off to the side; detect the target in the central display as rapidly as possible; compatible and incompatible distractors
Term
Divided Attention
Definition
the distribution of attention to two or more tasks. high task or low task - automatic or controlled processing
Term
Automatic processing
Definition
type of processing that occurs without intention and at the cost of only some of cognitive resources
Term
stroop effect
Definition
the names of the words interfere with the ability to name the colors of the ink, is caused by the inability to avoid paying attention to the meanings of the words, even though they are instructed to ignore them
Term
Controlled processing
Definition
processing used in the varied mapping condition; close attention at all times; search is slower
Term
saccades
Definition
rapid movements of the eye from one place to another
Term
fixation
Definition
short pauses on points of interest
Term
eyetracker
Definition
measure and study eye movements
Term
stimulus salience
Definition
conspicuous and therefore attract attention based on their stimulus properties; bottom-up
Term
saliency map
Definition
indicates hwo the observers will fixate different areas of a scene
Term
scene schema
Definition
knowledge about what is contained in typical scenes
Term
Attentional blindness
Definition
looking right at something without paying attention; a stimulus that is not attended is not perceived
Term
precueing
Definition
participant is prsented with a "cue" that indicates where a stimulus is most likely to appear
Term
location-based attention
Definition
how people move their attention from one place to another; spotlight scanning
Term
object-based attention
Definition
attention is directed to one place on an object, the enhancing effect of this attention spreads throughout the object; locks onto objects
Term
autism
Definition
serious developmental disorder in which one fo the major symptoms is the withdrawal of contact from other people
Term
Behaviorism’s impact on the growth of cognitive psychology was:
Definition
Negative. Behaviorism stated that it was unscientific to explain behaviors in terms of mental states or processes.
Term
The CogLab: Brain Asymmetry that you completed predicts that left handed participants
will choose the chimeric face with the younger half face on the left as the younger face:
Definition
less often than right handed participants
Term
The inverse projection problem states that ambiguity occurs because the image on the retina:
Definition
can be caused by an infinite number of different objects.
Term
Imagine that U.S. lawmakers are considering changing the driving laws. You have been
consulted as an attention expert. Given the principles of consistent vs. varied mapping,
which of the following possible changes to driving laws would MOST interfere with a
skilled driver's automatic performance when driving a car?
Definition
creating conditions where sometimes a green light meant "Stop"
Term
Robert is interested in designing an experiment that uses the physiological approach to
better understand reading comprehension. Which of the following methods would you
recommend he use?
Definition
Ask participants to read a word and monitor which areas of the brain are
activated
Term
A 10-month-old baby is interested in discovering different textures, comparing the touch
sensations between a soft blanket and a hard wooden block. Tactile signals such as these
are received by the ____ lobe.
Definition
parietal
Term
Based on your experience with the CogLab: Visual Search, you would predict that
reaction times would increase as the number of distractors increase in a conjunctive
search because:
Definition
the items in the display are searched item by item.
Term
The main difference between early and late selection models of attention is that in late
selection models, selection of stimuli for final processing doesn't occur until the
information is analyzed for:
Definition
meaning
Term
When conducting an experiment on how stimuli are represented by the firing of neurons,
you notice that neurons respond differently to different faces. For example, Arthur's face
causes three neurons to fire, with neuron 1 responding the most and neuron 3 responding
the least. Roger's face causes the same three neurons to fire, with neuron 1 responding the
least and neuron 3 responding the most. Your results support ____ coding.
Definition
DISTRIBUTED
Term
Suppose twin teenagers are vying for their mother's attention. The mother is trying to pay
attention to one of her daughters, though both girls are talking (one about her boyfriend,
one about a school project). According to the operating characteristics of Treisman's
attenuator, it is most likely the attenuator is analyzing the incoming messages in terms of:
Definition
meaning
Term
Which of the following does NOT characterize the information processing (IP)approach
to the study of cognition?
Definition
IP supports the principle of behaviorism that behavior is a stimulus response
relationship.
Term
In a study, participants briefly see a first stimulus which is then obscured. Soon after, two
letters are presented, one that appeared in the first stimulus and one that did not. The
participants are asked to indicate which letter appeared in the first stimulus. Suppose that,
for a given trial, the two letters presented were "K" and "M". We can expect that
feedback activation will be smallest if the first stimulus was:
Definition
K
Term
Patient H.M., who had his hippocampus removed, was able to form short-term memories
(he could remember things that had just happened 30 seconds earlier), but was not able to
form new long-term memories. H.M.'s condition provides an example of
Definition
a single dissociation.
Term
A series of letters is written on a blackboard. The letters include only X, V, and Z.
Assuming an equal number of each letter, the interactive activation model would predict
that feature unit activation would be WEAKEST for a
Definition
Vertical Line
Term
The Stroop effect demonstrates
Definition
how automatic processing can interfere with controlled processing.
Term
Describe how neurons communicate. Be sure to mention the key components of the neurons
that are involved and how the electrical signal (the information) is transferred from one neuron to
another.
Definition
-dendrites receive the signal from other neurons
-the action potential travels along the axon
-synaptic vesicles release neurotransmitters which travel across the synapse, which
communicate with other neurons
signals can be either excitatory (meaning that the neuron will depolarize) or inhibitory
(meaning that the neuron will hyperpolarize)
Term
Explain how covering an object, we can still see it
Definition
Basically, all objects are made up of geons (3-d
shapes). Geons have several properties that allow them to be recognized in less than
ideal conditions: view invariance (they can be identified when viewed from different
angles), discriminability (they can be distinguished from each other from different
angles), and resistance to visual noise (we can still recognize geons even in “noisy”
conditions). ---- OR ---- There are many Gestalt principles that can explain how we can
see objects that are partially covered up, but a few are good continuation (lines tend
to be seen as continuing, even if part is obscured), closure (we tend to view objects as
whole, even if part is missing), simplicity (we tend to view objects in the simplest
way possible), and familiarity (we tend to view objects as whole if they are
meaningful or familiar).
Term
Dichotic Listening Task
Definition
2 messages are presented simultaneously, one to each ear. E.g., In this task, a participant would be
presented simultaneously with two messages, one in each ear. The participant would be asked to attend to only one of the two messages. In order to ensure that the participant was attending to the correct message, shadowing (i.e., repeating the attended message out loud while listening) would generally also be required. Explanation of how the task was extremely important for understanding selective
attention and informed several models of attention. E.g., This task was very important
as it was initially used to show that individuals were able to pay attention to one message
while ignoring other messages (i.e., selective attention) and was the basis for several models
of attention. One benefit
of this task is that it is easy to administer and can help inform theories of attention. One limitation of
this task is that it is not generalizable, as individuals would normally not repeat an attended message
to ensure constant attention, nor would we normally only be presented with 2 messages at a time.
Term
Which is right: early or late selection?
Definition
The principle here is task load, as high task load generally supports the early selection
model and low task load generally supports a late selection model. The study was the
flanker task – basic idea, participants either had to identify a target presented by itself in
an array with either a similar or dissimilar distracter presented at the same time. In this
one, RTs were longer in the dissimiliar condition, suggesting that when the task load was
low, participants were able to process information from the distracter as well (even though
they weren’t supposed to). In the second one, they presented the target in an array with
more objects, and the distracter conditions were the same. No difference in RTs this time
though, suggesting that when task load was high, participants were unable to process the
extraneous distracter information.
Term
More on Change Blindess
Definition
Change blindness is more likely to occur in situations where our attention/vision is
disrupted for some reason, as change is usually accompanied by motion that we don’t
perceive when we experience a disruption. Alternatively, in the same situation it’s more
difficult because we need to start the processing of the visual scene from scratch. Significance of change blindness is that it underscores how important attention is for
perception – the information is available in the environment, but a lack of attention can
prevent us from receiving/interpreting it.
Term
More on template matchin
Definition
Template matching uses templates or “stencils” to identify objects. Basically, whenever we
encounter a stimulus, we would try and find a matching template that could help us
identify it. An example would be if I saw the letter “A”, I would search through every
template until I found one that matched the letter “A” and then I would be able to identify
it.
Term
More on featural analysis
Definition
Featural analysis used the analysis of individual features of an object to guide
identification. Basically, every visual stimulus can be broken down into component parts
or features. By first identifying the individual features, we are able to identify an infinite
number of objects, just based on how the features work together. An example would be if I
saw the letter “A”, I would break it into 3 features: / \ and - . I would then use the features
to find a match that had the same combination of features and determine that the letter
was an “A” (different individual models discuss how this happens in different ways, so
depending on whether they discussed this as the umbrella category or as an individual
model, they might get into more detail here).
Term
More on Prototype-matchin
Definition
Prototype-matching models use prototypes or characteristic representations of an object to guide identification. Prototype-matching doesn’t require an exact match – just an approximate match based on the relationship between features, and no specific features need to be present for a match to occur. So using the same example, if I saw the letter “A”, I would compare it with the prototypes for similar stimuli, looking for other stimuli that had the same features in the same relationship. Once I find a match, I can identify the object.
Term
Automatic processing can be a disadvantage when people
Definition
name the color of words
Term
Imagine that you view a brief flash of letters. In which series will it be easiest to judge
whether the letter C or M was the third letter?
Definition
FACE
Term
The main difference between early and late-selection models of attention is
Definition
where the filter in information processing occurs
Term
Obtaining precise temporal information about the time course of mental operations is
achieved by using
Definition
EEG
Term
When you use only sensory information to read / recognize a word, you are using
Definition
bottom-up processing
Term
A method for distinguishing between real people and intelligent computer programs is
to require both to recognize
Definition
a mangled word
Term
The dominant theoretical approach to cognitive psychology today is
Definition
information processing approach
Term
The interactive activation model of word recognition proposes that information about
the letters in a word comes from
Definition
feature and word level
Term
Which brain imaging technique uses radioactive tracers to measure blood flow?
Definition
PET
Term
Shadowing is an experimental technique that is used to verify that people
Definition
are attending to the correct message
Term
One of the problems for Broadbent's model of attention, but not Triesman's, is that
Definition
in shadowing tasks people reported hearing their names in the
unattended channel
Term
The visual cortex is to the auditory cortex as the occipital lobe is to the
Definition
temporal lobe
Term
You are sitting in an arena watching the end of a very close basketball game and you
fail to notice that one of the referees has removed his shirt. This an example of:
Definition
inattentional blindness
Term
Cells in the visual cortex that respond selectively to specific features of complex
stimuli are called
Definition
feature detectors
Term
How does task load affect attention?
Definition
High load tasks require most of the resources available, which means that you can
only perform well on one task at a time, while low load tasks require few resources
and allow you to perform multiple tasks simultaneously without hurting
performance. Early selection models explain what happens during high load tasks,
as participants in high load tasks are often only able to focus on one message, which
is predicted by early selection models. Late selection models explain when happens
during low load tasks since participants were able to focus on multiple messages,
which is what late selection models predict.
Term
Coglab: Brain Asymmetry
Definition
Two chimeric faces, which is younger? When staring at the middle of a face, the information to the left of fixation goes first to the right hemisphere, while information to the right of fixation goes first to the left hemisphere. Right-handed would have right hemisphere more involved in judgment. Percentage of reports that the chimeric face with the younger half on the left looked younger will be smaller for left-handed people than for right-handed people.
Term
Coglab: Visual Search
Definition
Circles and squares of various colors were shown on the screen. Your task was to determine whether or not there was a green circle among the shapes.
For the first set of trials (feature search), the other distractor shapes were all blue. For the other set of trials (conjunctive search), some of the other shapes were blue circles and others were green squares. For feature searches, the reaction time should not change as the number of distractor shapes increases. For conjunctive searches, the reaction time should increase as the number of distractor shapes increases. For the conjunctive searches, the rate of increase should be faster for target-absent searches than for target-present searches.

The pattern of results for the conjunctive searches is consistent with the idea that attentional focus is moved around from shape to shape. Each focus on a shape takes time to judge whether it is the target or not. This explains why search time increases with the number of distractor shapes. If the target is found, the search stops. On the other hand, if the target is not present, you must search all the shapes. This explains why the target-absent trials take longer than the target-present trials.
Term
Coglab: Change Detection
Definition
On half the trials, the two pictures were identical. On the other half of the trials, the two pictures differed in some way . For each kind of pair, either the pictures appeared immediately one after the other (no flicker condition), or a blank gray box appeared in between the pictures (flicker condition). Your task was to report whether the pictures were identical or differed. The expected pattern of results is that percentage correct is smaller and reaction time is slower for the flicker condition than for the no flicker condition.

In the no flicker condition, the changing object is easy to identify because the change is immediately detected. Likewise it is easy to tell that no change is occuring. In the flicker condition, these cues are no longer helpful because the intervening gray leads to changes all over the picture. As a result, you have to search the scene, object by object until you happen to find the changed object.
Term
Coglab: Phonological Similarity Effect
Definition
On each trial, you saw a list of letters presented one at a time in random order and were asked to recall the letters in the same order in which they were presented. On some trials, you were asked to say "one, two, three, four, one, two, three, four..." out loud over and over.
There are two independent variables: whether the letters sounded similar or dissimilar, and whether you were asked to engage in articulatory suppression. You should recall more dissimilar than similar letters. When you engage in articulatory suppression, performance should be worse than when you did not, and you should also find no difference in recall of similar and dissimilar letters.
Term
Coglab: Encoding Specificity
Definition
There were two parts. In Phase I, you saw a list of word pairs, such as car-PORT. The first word (in lower case letters) was a cue, and the second word (in UPPER CASE LETTERS) was the target. Sometimes, there was no cue. In Phase II, your task was to produce the target (the second word) when shown the cue (the first word). You saw something like car-P--T and were asked to type in two letters to complete the target with the one that you saw in Phase I. You should have been more accurate in recalling the target when the cue at encoding (none, Cue A, or Cue B) matched the cue at retrieval than when there was a mismatch.Percent correct for the cued-recall test recall test as a function of whether the cue at test (Phase II) was the same or different as the cue word at study (Phase I). You should do better when the context word is the same; this reflects the encoding specificity principle.
Term
Coglab: Forgot-It-All-Along Effect
Definition
This was a quite complicated experiment. There were three parts. In Phase I, you saw a list of word pairs, such as car-PORT. The first word (in lower case letters) was a cue, and the second word (in UPPER CASE LETTERS) was the target. In Phase II, your task was to produce the target (the second word) when shown the cue (the first word). You saw something like car-P--T and were asked to type in two letters to complete the target with the one that you saw in Phase I. In Phase III, you were given another test. Again, you saw a pair of items, such as car-PORT, but this time you were asked whether you remembered entering the UPPERCASE word as a response in Phase II. You should have been more accurate in remembering that you remembered the key word when the cue was the same than when the cue was different between Phases II and III. In other words, you should have forgotten that you remembered the the target word more often in the different context condition. Percent correct for the cued-recall test as a function of whether the context word at test (Phase II) was the same or different from the context word at study (Phase I). You should do better when the context word is the same; this reflects the encoding specificity principle. The next two lines show the percent correct memory judgments (Phase III) for those items that you correctly recalled in the cued-recall test (Phase II) as a function of whether the context word was the same or different. You should have remembered remembering the target word more often when the contexts matched than when they mismatched. In other words, you should have forgotten that you remembered the the target word more often in the different context condition.
Term
Coglab: Prototypes
Definition
On each trial you were shown a dot pattern and were asked to classify it as belonging to Category A or Category B. You were asked to respond as quickly and as accurately as you could. In the training phase, each dot pattern was a variation of one of two fixed prototype random dot patterns. The variations are made by randomly taking ten of the twenty-five dots in a prototype and moving them to a new position. In the test phase, a new set of dot patterns was presented. The dot patterns in the testing phase were of four types. One was the prototype that corresponds to the A category. Another was the prototype that corresponds to the B category. The other two patterns were new variations of these prototypes (one variation for each prototype). You should find that the response time to the prototype patterns is faster than the reaction time to the new variants. Average reaction times for previously unseen prototypes and previously unseen variations of the prototypes. The expected effect is that the RT for the prototypes is smaller.
Term
Memory
Definition
processes involved in retaining, retrieving, and using information about stimuli, images, events, ideas, and skills after the original information is no longer present
Term
Sensory Memory
Definition
initial stage that holds all incoming information for seconds or fractions of a second; 1. collecting info to be processed
2. holding the info briefly while initial processing is going on
3. filling in the blanks when stimulation is intermittent
Term
STM
Definition
holds 5-7 items for about 15-30 seconds; memory trace decays within 20 s w/o rehearsal
Term
LTM
Definition
large amount of information held for years or even decades; a. LTM an “archive” that retains information from the past and works closely with working memory to help create our ongoing experience
b. Wealth of background information that we are consulting as we use working memory to make contact with what is happening at a particular moment
Term
Controlled processes
Definition
active processes that can be controlled by the person and may differ from one task to another (rehearsal, strategies)
Term
Persistence of Vision
Definition
retention of the perception of light in your mind
Term
Whole Report Method
Definition
report as many letters as possible from the whole matrix
Term
Partial Report Method
Definition
after it was flashed, sounded tones which tell row of letters to report; attention was directed to whatever trace remained; were not able to report all of these letters because they rapidly faded as the initial letters were being reported
Term
Partial Report Method
Definition
after it was flashed, sounded tones which tell row of letters to report; attention was directed to whatever trace remained; were not able to report all of these letters because they rapidly faded as the initial letters were being reported
Term
Delayed Partial Report Method
Definition
: presentation of cue tones was delayed for a fraction of a second after the letters were extinguished
Term
Iconic Memory
Definition
brief sensory memory for visual stimuli
Term
Echoic Memory
Definition
sounds also persist in the mind
Term
Proactive Interference
Definition
interference the occurs when info that was learned previously interferes with learning new info; material learned first can disrupt retention of later matieral
Term
Digit span
Definition
the number of digits a person can remember
Term
Chunking
Definition
small units (like words) can be combined into larger meaningful units
Term
Chunk
Definition
collection of elements that are strongly associated with one another but are weakly
Term
Coding
Definition
the information is represented
Term
Physiological Approach to Coding
Definition
determining how a stimulus is represented by the firing of neurons
Term
Mental Approach to Coding
Definition
how a stimulus or an experience is represented in the mind
Term
Auditory Coding
Definition
remembering the sound of your professor’s voice; a. The code for STM is auditory (based on the sound of the stimulus), rather than visual (based on the visual appearance of the stimulus)
Term
Visual Coding
Definition
imagining what your professor look like by conjuring up an image in your mind; a. Ability to remember the radicals must be due to visual coding because the radicals have no sound or meaning; better when symbols have auditory sound
Term
Semantic Coding
Definition
remembering what your professor was talking about; b. Depends on the words’ categories, which involve meanings – semantic coding
Term
Release from proactive interference
Definition
Performance increased for the meat group and the professions group because shifting to fruits eliminated the proactive interference that had built up
Term
Working Memory
Definition
limited-capacity system for temporary storage and manipulation of information for complex tasks; consists of number of parts, manipulation of info that occurs during complex cognition; has three components
Term
Phonological Loop
Definition
WM: holds verbal and auditory information; can't do more than one phonological task at a time
Term
Visuospatial Sketch pad
Definition
WM: holds visual and spatial information; easier to point to Y?N than to say Yes/No. Easier when tasks involved different components
Term
Central Executive
Definition
pulls information from long-term memory and coordinates the activity of the phonological loop and visuospatial sketch pad by focusing on specific parts of a task and switching attention from one part to another; decides how to divide attention between different tasks. i. Controls the suppression of irrelevant information; good suppressors and bad suppressors
Term
Phonological Similarity Effect
Definition
letters or words that sound similar are confused; i. Verbal tasks depend on the phonological loop
ii. Spatial tasks depend on the visuospatial sketch pad
iii. When the stimulus and task were both verbal, the PL was overloaded and the task was difficult
iv. When the stimulus was verbal and the task was spatial, processing was distributed and task became easier
Term
Word-Length Effect
Definition
memory for lists of words is better for short words than for long words
Term
Articulatory Suppression
Definition
iii. Articulatory suppression: person is prevented from rehearsing items to be remembered by repeating an irrelevant sound; speaking interferes with rehearsal
1. it reduces the memory span
2. it eliminates the word-length effect
3. it reduces the phonological similarity effect for reading words
Term
Episodic Buffer
Definition
a “backup” store that communicates with both LTM and the components of working memory; holds information longer and has greater capacity than the PL or VSSP; can hold info longer, greater capacity, and vague addition
Term
Delayed Response Task
Definition
requires a monkey to hold information in working memory during a delay period
Term
Serial-Position Curve
Definition
memory is better for words at the beginning of the list and at the end of the list
Term
Primacy Effect
Definition
superior memory for stimuli presented at the beginning of a sequence because words are rehearsed during presentation of the list, so they get into the LTM – to increase, present the list more slowly, so there is more time for rehearsal
Term
Recency Effect
Definition
superior memory for stimuli presented at the end of a sequence because words are still in the STM – to decrease, test after waiting 30 seconds after end of the list, so information is lost from STM
Term
Declarative Memory
Definition
LTM:our conscious recollection of events we have experienced or facts we have learned
Term
Implicit Memory
Definition
LTM:memory that occurs when a past experience influences behaviors, but we are not aware of the experience that is influencing the behavior (repetition priming, procedural and recognition)
Term
Episodic Memory
Definition
Dec: memory for personal events in our lives
i. Mental time travel: traveling back in time to reconnect with events that happened in the past
ii. Self-knowing (remembering): remembering always involves mental time travel; does not guarantee that the memory is accurate
Term
Semantic Memory
Definition
Dec: involves facts and knowledge; does not have to be tied to any specific personal experience
i. Knowing: semantic memory with the idea that knowing does not involve mental time travel
Term
Connections Between Episodic and Semantic Memories
Definition
i. Episodic Memories Can be Lost, Leaving Only Semantic; ii. Semantic Memory Can be Enhanced If Associated with Episodic Memory; iii. Semantic Memory Can Influence Our Experience By Influencing Attention
Term
Personal Semantic Memories
Definition
semantic memories that have personal significance and are easier to remember
Term
NonKnowing
Definition
Imp: some previous experience improves our performance on a task even though we do not consciously remember the experience
Term
Repetition Priming
Definition
Imp: when the response to an item increases in speed or accuracy because it has been encountered recently; quick response in recall
Term
Procedural Memory
Definition
Imp: memory for how to do things
Term
Recall Test
Definition
participants are presented with stimuli and then, after a delay, are asked to remember as many of the stimuli as possible
Term
Recognition Test
Definition
present stimuli during a study period and then, later, to present the same stimuli plus other stimuli that were not presented; pick the stimuli that were originally presented
Term
Propaganda Effect
Definition
participants are more likely to rate statements they may have read or heard before as being true, simply because they have been exposed to them before
Term
Encoding
Definition
process of acquiring information and transforming it into memory. Aids: categorization, assocation, self-reference, generating
Term
Retrieval
Definition
the process of transferring information from LTM back into working memory, where it becomes accessible to consciousness
Term
Maintenance Rehearsal
Definition
helps maintain information in memory, but it is not an effect way of transferring information into long-term memory
Term
Elaborative Rehearsal
Definition
occurs when you think about the meaning of an item or make connections between the item and something you know
Term
Levels of Processing Theory
Definition
memory depends on how information is encoded
Term
Depth of Processing
Definition
upon which memory depends; distinguishing between shallow processing and deep; not adequately defined
Term
Shallow processing
Definition
involves little attention to meaning; attention is focused on physical features
Term
Deep Processing
Definition
involves close attention, focusing on an item’s meaning and relating it to something else; associated with better memory
Term
Transfer Appropriate Processing
Definition
memory performance is enhanced if the type of task at encoding matches the type of task at retrieval
1. meaning task encoding: fill-in-the-blank sentences, heard target word, if fits into sentence
2. rhyming-task encoding: statement involving rhyming, heard target words, if statement was correct
Term
self-reference effect
Definition
memory is better if you are asked to relate a word to yourself
Term
retrieval cues
Definition
cues that help us remember information that has been stored in memory
Term
generation effect
Definition
generating material yourself, rather than passively receiving it , enhances learning and retention
Term
Long-Term Potentiation
Definition
enhanced firing of neurons after repeated stimulation
Term
Retrograde Amnesia
Definition
the loss of memory for what has happened prior to the trauma; time span can vary, recovery varies, overlearned info is spared, spares procedural memory
Term
Anterograde Amnesia
Definition
impossible for him to form new memories; affects LTM but not WM. Affects all modalities of memory; impairs memory for new facts/events; spared procedural memory; hyperspecific memory
Term
Graded Amnesia
Definition
amnesia is most severe for events that occurred just prior to the injury and becomes less sever for earlier, more remote events
Term
Consolidation
Definition
transforms new memories from a fragile state, in which they can be disrupted, to a more permanent state, in which they are resistant to disruption (reorganization in the nervous system) (synaptic and systematic)
Term
Synaptic Consolidation
Definition
transforms new memories from a fragile state, in which they can be disrupted, to a more permanent state, in which they are resistant to disruption (reorganization in the nervous system)
Term
Systems COnsolidation
Definition
gradual reorganization of circuits within brain regions and takes place on a longer time scale lasting weeks, months, or even years
Term
Standard Model of Consolidation
Definition
memory retrieval depends on the hippocampus during consolidation, and then once consolidation is complete, retrieval no longer depends on the hippocampus
Term
Reactivation
Definition
a processing during which the hippocampus replays the neural activity association with a memory; results in the formation of connections between the cortical areas
Term
Remote Memories
Definition
memories for events that occurred long ago
Term
Medial Temporal Lobe
Definition
includes hippocampus and associated structures
Term
Encoding Specificity
Definition
we learn information together with its context
Term
State-Dependent LEarning
Definition
learning that is associated with a particular internal state; memory will be better when a person’s state during retrieval matches internal state during encoding
Term
Studying
Definition
Elaborate and Generate, Organize, Associate, Take Breaks, test yourself, consolidation (sleep)
Term
i. Distributed versus massed practice effect:
Definition
advantage for short study sessions
Term
Conditioning
Definition
procedure in which pairing a neutral stimulus with a stimulus that elicits a response causes the neutral stimulus to elicit that response
Term
Fear Conditioning
Definition
stimulus that initially causes a response is unpleasant and is therefore usually avoided
Term
Reconsolidation
Definition
after a memory is reactivated, memory must undergo this process which is similar to consolidation but is more rapid
Term
Prospective Memory
Definition
remembering to perform intended actions
i. Remembering what you want to do
ii. Remembering to do it at the right time
Term
Autobiographical Memory
Definition
recollected events that belong to a person’s past
i. Field perspective: remembering an event as if you are seeing it
ii. Observer perspective: remembering an event as observed from the outside, so you see yourself in the event
Term
Reminiscence Bump
Definition
enhanced memory for adolescence and young adulthood that can be demonstrated in people over 40 years
Term
Life-narrative hypothesis
Definition
people assume their life identities during that time
Term
Cognitive Hypothesis
Definition
encoding is better during period of rapid change that are followed by stability
Term
Cultural Life Script Hypothesis
Definition
distinguishes between a person’s life story, which is all of the events that have occurred in a person’s life
Term
Cultural Life Script
Definition
the events that commonly occur in a particular culture
Term
Flashbulb Memories
Definition
person’s memory for the circumstances surrounding hearing about shocking, highly charged important events; thought to be retained better the other memories, but they decay like the rest.
Term
"Now Print"
Definition
memories are created like a photograph that resists fading
Term
Repeated Recal
Definition
compare the persons memory to reports collected immediately after the event (determine whether memory changes over time) (are often inaccurate or lacking in detail)(affected by peoples’ experiences following the event) (unlikely that flashbulb memories differ from ordinary episodic memories in any fundamental way; people think the memories are stronger and more accurate; involve high emotions
Term
Narrative Rehearsal Hypothesis
Definition
we hearse these events after they occur
Term
Constructive Approach to Memory
Definition
what people report as memories are constructed by the person based on what actually happened plus additional factors, such as what really happened, the person's knowledge, experiences and expectation. Its fast and efficient but creates error. This is the creative nature of memory.
Term
Repeated Reproduction
Definition
the same participants came back a number of times to try to remember the story at longer and longer intervals after they first read it
Term
Source Memory
Definition
the process of determining the origins of our memories, knowledge, or beliefs
Term
Source monitoring error
Definition
misidentifying the source of a memory
Term
Source Misattributions
Definition
memory is attributed to the wrong source
Term
Pragmatic Inference
Definition
when reading a sentence leads a person to expect something that is not explicitly state or necessarily implied by the sentence; based on knowledge gained through experience
Term
Schema
Definition
our knowledge about what is involved in a particular experience; can provide a guide for making inferences about what you remember
Term
Script
Definition
our conception of the sequence of actions that usually occur during a particular experience; if something anti-script happens it may or may not be remembered well depending on if it was a good fit or not.
Term
Misinformation Effect
Definition
misleading information presented after a person witnesses an event can change how that person describes that event later
Term
Misleading postevent information
Definition
misleading information
iii. Alter conclusions about other characteristics of the situation
Term
iv. Memory-trace replacement hypothesis
Definition
MPI impairs or replaces memories that are formed during the original experience of an event
Term
Retroactive Interference
Definition
more recent learning interferes with memory for something that happened in the past
Term
Eyewitness Testimony
Definition
testimony by an eyewitness to a crime about what he or she saw during commission of the crime; high confidence is a poor predictor of witness accuracy; attention, familiarity, suggestion, confidence
Term
Weapons focus
Definition
the tendency to focus attention on a weapon, narrow attention
Term
Eyewitness errors
Definition
Attention, Familiarity, Suggestion
Term
Cognitive Interview
Definition
: letting the witness talk with a minimum of interruption and place themselves back in the scene and recreate things like emotions they were feeling
Term
Concept
Definition
mental representation that is used for a verity of cognitive functions, including memory, reasoning, and using and understanding language
Term
categorization
Definition
process by which things are placed into groups called categories; help us figure out relationships via inferences and its efficient.
Term
Definitional Approach to Categorization
Definition
can decide whether something is a member of a category by determining whether a particular object meets the definition of the category; matching object to category definition - applies to limited situations
Term
Family Resemblance
Definition
things in a particular category resemble one another in a number of ways; allows for some variation within a category; looser and more ambiguous, not perfect but close. No one necessary feature for a category.
Term
Prototype Approach to Categorization
Definition
we decide whether an object belongs to a category by determining whether it is similar to a standard representation of the category called a prototype; doesn't necessarily match category members (corresponds positively with family resemblance) (faster response time) but experience can influence prototypes - not all category members are created equal - what can and can't belong in a category?? Context??
Term
Prototype
Definition
formed by averaging the category members we have encountered in the past; not an actual member of the category, an “average” representation
Term
Prototypicality
Definition
variations within categories as representing differences, iv. High prototypicality: category member closely resembles the category prototype
v. Low prototypicality: category members does not resemble a typical member of the category
Term
sentence verification technique
Definition
yes true, no false – responded faster for objects that are high in prototypicality
Term
Typicality Effect
Definition
ability to judge highly prototypical objects more rapidly
Term
Exemplar approach to categorization
Definition
involves determining whether an object is similar to a standard object but involves many examples that have been encountered before - helps to explain atypical cases and variable categories. However, its too unconstrained, what's an exemplar?
Term
Exemplars
Definition
actual members of the category that a person has encountered in the past
Term
Hierarchical Organization
Definition

larger, more general categories are divided into smaller, more specific, categories to create a number of levels of categories:

ii. Superordinate level:least details

iii. Basic level: psychologically special

iv. Subordinate level - most details

v. Going above the level results in a large loss of information; below results in hardly any gain; is related to extent of knowledge

Term
Semantic Network Approach
Definition
proposes that concepts are arranged in networks that represent the way concepts are organized in the mind; nodes represent categories - related concepts are connected by links (cognitive economy). can't explain typicality effect - was later revised but was too powerful.
Term
Cognitive Economy
Definition
way of storing shared properties just once at a higher-level node
Term
Spreading Activation
Definition
activity that spreads out along any link that is connected to an activated node
Term
Lexical Decision Task
Definition
participants read stimuli, some of which are words and some of which are not; reaction time was faster when the two words were associated
Term
Connectionist networks
Definition

a. Concepts are represented in networks that contain nodes and links like semantic networks but that operate very differently from semantic networks; like a circuit: feedback and two-way. related units activated together

 i. Units: connected to form networks (neuron-like) 1. input units: activated by stimulation from the environment 2. hidden units: receive signals from the input units 3. output units: receive signals from hidden units

Damage does not completely disrupt the system, learning can be generalized and computer models have been developed.

Term
Weights
Definition
positive or negative; determine how strongly an incoming signal will active the next unit
Term
Supervised Learning
Definition
network learns by a process that is analogous to the way a child gains knowledge about the world by making mistakes and being corrected
Term
Error Signals
Definition
difference between the actual activity of each output unit and the correct activity
Term
Back Propagation
Definition
error signal is transmitted backward through the circuit; changing the weights
Term
Graceful Degradation
Definition
disruption of performance occurs only gradually as parts of the system are damaged
Term
Visual Agnosia
Definition
people can see objects perfectly well, but they cannot name these objects
Term
Category-Specific Neurons
Definition
respond best to specific objects
Term
Neural Network
Definition
A method of analysis modeled after cognitive functioning in the human brain; uses existing data to train the system to be able to predict outcomes from new data
Term
Medulla
Definition
connects the brain and the spinal cord, responsible for breathing, posture reflexes
Term
Pons
Definition
bridge, neural relay center
Term
Cerebellum
Definition
Motor control
Term
Reticular system
Definition
alertness
Term
Thalamus
Definition
Processing sensory info
Term
Hypothalamus
Definition
feed, fight, flee, fuck
Term
Limbic system
Definition
1) hippocampus - memory 2) amygdala - emotions, emotional memory
Term
Lateralization
Definition
physical and functional difference between the hemispheres
Term
Plasticity
Definition
brain is not one-size-fits-all, experience-dependent
Term
Difference between STM and working memory
Definition
Short term memory (STM) has been described as a single
component that can hold approximately 7 pieces of information for about 15
seconds to 1 minute. STM was thought to be too simple and couldn’t explain more
complex situations. Working memory (WM) was proposed as a better way to
explain how we maintain information temporarily. While WM was also a limited
capacity model, it had multiple components and allowed for the manipulation of
information in addition to temporary storage. WM was described as having 3
components: the phonological loop, which deals with auditory information, the
visuo-spatial sketchpad, which deals with visual and spatical information, and the
central executive, which is responsible for coordination of the other 2 components
and long term memory, as well as allocating attentional resources. I personally
prefer WM, as I feel that it more accurately explains how we can manipulate and
store information. It also allows for the processing of information in different
modalities by different components, which seems to be supported by empirical findings.
Term
Does the way we learn influence our ability to remember? Describe the relevant research
that supports your position.
Definition
Yes, the way we learn influences our ability to remember. One
study that showed this to be true was the scuba diving experiment. In this
experiment, participants learned a list of word either underwater or on land. The
groups were then split so that half of each group was tested underwater and half
were tested on land. The results of this experiment showed that those who learned
the words underwater had the best recall when they were tested underwater. This
study indicates that similarities between where we learn and where we are tested
can influence how we remember.
Term
Is eyewitness testimony reliable? Describe the relevant research that supports your
position.
Definition
No, eyewitness testimony does not seem to be reliable. There are
many research studies that support this, but one of the more compelling was
completed by Loftus and Palmer. In this study, participants were presented with a
video of a car accident. Afterwards, participants were asked to estimate how fast
the cars were going when they “smashed”, “crashed” or “hit”. Participants were
shown to be very susceptible to the suggestion of the question, responding with
faster speeds when the word “smashed” was used than when the word “hit” was
used. In addition, participants were more likely to “remember” broken glass at the
scene when “smashed” was used, even though there was no broken glass in the
video. This study suggests that the memories of eyewitness can be affected by how
questions are asked, which calls into question testimony prompted by highly biased
lawyers during courtroom trials.
Term
Psychologists have posited two distinct mechanisms for forgetting: decay and
interference. Describe each, briefly review the experimental evidence supporting each,
and state the problem in distinguishing between them.
Definition
Term
Describe two ways in which our knowledge of findings from research on working
memory can help us design effective real-world strategies for coping with everyday tasks
and problems.
Definition
Term
Many people believe that flashbulb memories are better remembered. Does the empirical
evidence support this view? Describe the relevant research relating to this issue.
Definition
It is difficult for many people to accept that our memories are imperfect at best.
Our memories for events from our own life can often seem very vivid and detailed,
especially for memories that seem important or meaningful. However, the research
for these types of memories shows that, in general, individuals are no better at
recalling highly emotional events than they are at recalling mundane, everyday
occurrences.
Research on flashbulb memories, or memory for very surprising or emotionally
charged events, has demonstrated that although individuals may feel very confident
about their memories for important events, they are often highly inaccurate.
Neisser and Harsch (1992) were interested in the accuracy of flashbulb memories
over time. In their study, they asked participants about what they were doing when
they heard about the explosion of the space shuttle Challenger. Participants filled
out an initial questionnaire within 24 hours of the event, and then again between 2
and 3 years later. Comparisons of the responses showed that the participants had
altered many aspects of their memory during the intervening years. A similar study was conducted by Talarico and Rubin (2003). In this study,
participants responded to a series of questions immediately following 9/11. Some of
the questions concerned the attacks, while others asked about an everyday event
that had occurred prior to 9/11. Participants were asked to come up with a twothree
word cue for this event that would help them remember. They were then
retested either 1 week, 6 weeks, or 32 weeks later. Although participants were
extremely confident about their memories regarding 9/11, the results showed that
the number of errors made, as well as the number of details recalled, was similar for
both memories. One interesting note regarding this research is that the types of errors made by
participants tended to be similar in nature. In particular, the percent of
participants in the Neisser and Harsch (1992) who recalled hearing about the
explosion on TV doubled. The researchers suggested that this might have been due
to the prevalence of TV reports following the incident. When thinking back to the
time around the incident, participants would probably have remembered watching
a lot of TV. It stands to reason that they might simply assume that they heard the
news on TV because of their strong memories of hearing about the event after the
fact in that manner. Another possibility is that memory for flashbulb memories
may seem better because individuals engage in more narrative rehearsal, or
rehearsal of the story of our experience. However, they don’t necessarily rehearse
their own experiences, but may instead rehearse information from other sources
(e.g., TV reports, stories from other people, etc), which could increase the number of
errors that participants made when recalling the event later. Overall, while we may think that our memory for important, very emotional events
is more accurate than memory for everyday events, but the research seems to
suggest that this simply isn’t the case. Flashbulb memories do not appear to
resemble photographs after all; instead, they seem susceptible to interference and
decay just like any other memory.
Term
What is the prototype approach to categorization? How does it differ from the exemplar approach?
Definition
Prototypes are used first, then exemplars. Exemplars are for small categories and prototypes are for large categories. They work together.
Term
What are the 3 levels of a category? Describe and give an example of each.
Definition
Term
Describe the two models associated with the Semantic Network Approach that were
discussed in class and the book. Be sure to define the concepts of cognitive economy and
spreading activation in your description. What was one major criticism of each model?
Definition
Term
Distal stimulus
Definition
real world object
Term
Proximal stimulus / retinal image
Definition
one inside head, upside down & backwards
Term
Percept
Definition
in brain, our interpretation
Term
Form Perception
Definition
Gestalt: separating figure (objects) from ground (background)
Term
Pandemonium
Definition

image demons, feature demons, letter demons, decision demons, BOTTOM UP only, loud or soft screams, degraded or obscured images

Term
Direct Perception
Definition
by Gibson - no interpretation - perception is the direct acquisition of information from the environment (perceptual invariance and affordances)
Term
Speech
Definition
continuous, varies fro person to person, context plays a role
Term
Intermediate Selection
Definition
filtering can occur before the message is interpreted, but additional selection can occur after.  attenuator analyses the physical characteristics, language, and meaning of the message. all messages get through the filter, just with different strengths - "leaky filter model". dictionary unit analyses the message. Thresholds.
Term
Classical Approach to Categorization
Definition
concepts are composed of features (necessary and sufficient)
Term
Explanation-Based and Knowledge Based Views
Definition
based on experience and context
Term
Feature Comparison Model
Definition
Concepts consist of features (defining and characteristic). Compare feature lists, if overlap = match. If not, compare defining features. Explains typicality and category size effect.
Term
Memory Errors
Definition
lost, never there in the first place, blocked, revised (attention required for encoding, interrupt of consolidation)
Term
Tip of the Tongue
Definition
are able to access the semantic information but not the phonological
Term
Hypnosis
Definition
belived by some psychologists to lead to false memory creation; encouragement from therapists
Term
Amnesia
Definition
caused by damage to the hippocampal system, severity varies from case to case, can appear suddenly or gradually, some people can recover partially or fully
Term
Eidetic Memory
Definition
the ability to retain an accurate, detailed visual images of a complex scene or pattern (photographic memory)