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CLT3378 Ancient Mythology
Ancient Mythology Exam 1 questions
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Classics
02/11/2011

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Term
What culture do the Illuyanka Myths and the Kumarbi cycle fall under?
Definition
Hittites for Illuyanka myth, Hurrian but written in Hittite for Kumarbi cycle
Term
What is the name of the Hittites and Hattian's storm god?
Definition
the storm god's name is unknown
Term
Who is Illuynaka?
Definition
the serpent in the Hittite myth: Illuyanka Myth
Term
Who is Hupasiya?
Definition
mortal man that helps the storm god in the Hittite Myth: Illuyanka myth version 1
Term
Who is Inara?
Definition
daughter of the Hittite storm god in Illuyna Myth version 1
Term
Kumarbi: culture and god of what?
Definition
culture= Hittite
god of ____, he isn't a god of something, he IS associated with the underworld but he is NOT the god of the underworld
Term
Alalu
Definition
Hittite, in the Song of Kumarbi, king of the gods, father of Kumarbi, overthrown by Anu, fled to the underworld
Term
Anu
Definition
multiple myths:
1. Hittite, Song of Kumarbi, overthrew Alalu, Alalu's son Kumarbi overthrew Anu and while Anu was fleeing up Kumarbi castrated him and ate his genitals so that Anu couldn't have a son to overthrow Kumarbi, btw: Anu sky god
2. Babylonian Enuma Elish:
- son of Anshar and Kishar
- uppermost part of sky
- father of Ea, Ea gives birth to Marduk
- gives Marduk the 4 winds
Term
Tessub
Definition
Hittite storm god, Kumarbi Cycle: Song of Kumarbi and Song of Ullikummi
1. Song of Kumarbi:
- son of Anu (Anu's sperm in Kumarbi caused Kumarbi to give birth to him)
- born out of Kumarbi's good spot (his penis)
- storm god/sky god
overthrows Kumarbi
2. Song of Ullikummi: Sun God warns him that Ullikummi is growing on Ubelurri and is meant to grow so big that he will kill all of the heaven gods.
Term
Ullikummi
Definition
Hittite, Kumarbi Cycle, Song of Ullikummi
- Kumarbi's son, meant to grow big and storm heaven
- stone child
- placed on Ubelurri's shoulder for safekeeping until he grew big enough to overthrow heaven
- eventually grows bigger than heaven and earth, know this because Ubelluri is so gigantic that he doesn't feel heaven and Earth on him but he does feel Ullikummi indicating how massive he is
- associated with sea because he grows out of sea (i think)
Term
Ubelurri
Definition
Hittite, Kumarbi Cycle, Song of Ullikummi
- sky supporter
- just like Atlas who holds the sky so it doesn't crush earth, earth is built on top of Ubelurri
Term
Enuma Elish
Definition
Babylonian, means "when on high"
Term
Myth
Definition
A myth is a traditional story that usually involves gods or other powerful supernatural beings.
A traditional story is a story that his handed down from one generation to the next (often orally).
Term
tricksters
Definition
amoral (good or bad), shape-shifting deceivers, instigators, can be culture heroes by mistake
culture heroes: heroes that bring culture to people, create a civilization
ex: Ea, serpent in Genesis?
Term
Polytheism
Definition
Polytheism is the belief in and worship of more than one god. Then could say:
- Many of the culture we've studied have been polytheistic.
- In a polytheistic culture, each god has a separate sphere of influence.
Term
anthropomorphism
Definition
conception of gods "in shape (morph) of human beings"
anthropo: look or behave like human beings
ex: Tiamat?
Term
binaturalism
Definition
conception of gods with "two natures" could be a god and: - physical space (sky, earth, sea) ex: Tiamat, Chaos: god and empty space - abstract concept (love, victory, envy) ex: Eros: sexual desire  - thing (Vedic gods Agni (fire) and Soma (sacred drink)
Term
Enuma Elish culture and type of myth(s)
Definition
Babylonian, Creation myth and succession myth (Apsu/Tiamat to Marduk)
Term
Marduk
Definition
Babylonian storm god, Enuma Elish represents order
- son of Ea and Damkina
- has 4 eyes, 4 ears, and breathes fire
Term
Tiamat
Definition
Babylonian, Enuma Elish, sea, serpent, chaos, binatural: god and sea
Term
Apsu
Definition
Babylonian, Enuma Elish, binatural: god and fresh water
Term
Enki
Definition
= Ea, Enki (Sumerian) Ea (Akkadian)
Term
Who is Marduk's mother
Definition
Damkina
Term
Theogony, what does it mean, who wrote it, culture
Definition
means "birth of gods", Greek, Hesiod, creation myth and succession myth
Term
Who is Mnemosyne?
Definition
Greek, Hesiod's Theogony, Zeus's wife, binatural: god and concept: memory, mother of the arts
Term
Apollo
Definition
Greek, Hesiod's Theogony, son of Zeus binatural god: god and multiple things: music,, healing/disease, prophecy
Term
According to the Greek, Hesiod's Theogony, who are the 4 primal gods?
Definition
1. Chaos (empty space)
2. Gai (earth)
3. Tartaros (prison in the underworld, not the god of the underworld, just the god of the prison in the underworld, still binatural though because prison is a space)
4. Eros (sexual desire)
Term
Which gods are NOT binatural?
Definition
- Marduk, Tessub and Baal, strom gods but they only control the winds but they are not physically the wind - Aphrodite, unlike Eros who is a binatural god of sexual desire, Aphrodite just controls sexual desire but is not physically sexual desire
Term
Who gives birth to Erebos and Night, and how?
Definition
Chaos, impregnates himself
Term
Who gives birth to air and day and how?
Definition
Erebos and Night, sexual
Term
Who is Ouranos, whose his mother, who are his children?
Definition
Greek, Theogony, Ouranos= sky - mother is Gaia - has sex with Gaia and gives birth to 3 sets of children: 1. Titans (Okeanos, Kronos, Rhea... there are 12) 2. Cyclopes (3, give Zeus his thunderbolts?) 3. hundred handers (3)
Term
Who is Okeanos?
Definition
Greek, Hesiod's Theogony
- binatural, ocean
- son of Gaia and Ouranos
Term
Aphros
Definition
Aprhos is the Greek word for "sea foam". According to Hesiod's Theogony, Aphrodite was born from the foam that surrounded the severed genitals of Ouranos after Kronos castrates him.
Term
Whats the name of Krono's wife?
Definition
Rhea
Term
Where is Zeus hidden? Where is Ullikummi hidden?
Definition
Zeus is hidden on Crete. Ullikummi is hidden on Ubelurri.
Term
Athena
Definition
Athena is the Greek goddess of wisdom and of war. She was born from Zeus's head after Zeus swallowed Metis.
- could mention she is the good side of war: strategy and such instead of the bad side of war: bloodshed (Ares)
Term
ID he did in class: Baal Cycle
Definition
Baal Cycle is a group of poems about the Caanite storm god Baal.
- In one poem, Yam demands Baal from El, Baal gets clbus from Kothar, and Baal fights Yam and defeats him.
- Some scholars think that the poems in the Baal Cycle were recited in the spring, with the return of rain (brought by Baal)
Term
Who is Metis?
Definition
Greek, Hesiod's Theogony
- binatural god: cleverness
- Zeus impregnates her, afraid her kid is going to overthrow him so he eats her
- Zeus gives birth to Athena from his head, so thus technically she is Athena's mother
Term
parthenogenesis
Definition
"virgin birth" in the Greek Hesiod's Theogony Chaos impregnates himself to give birth to Erebos and Night, Gaia also impregnates herself to give birth to Ouranos (sky), mountains, and the sea
Term
Atrahasis and the Flood
Definition
Babylonian, author: Ipiq-Aya, very first flood myth (origin of ancient flood myths)
Term
Belet-ili/Nintu/Mami
Definition
Babylonian, Atrahasis and the Flood
- created humans
Term
Ilawela
Definition
Babylonian, Atrahasis and the Flood
- god sacrificed to create humans
Term
mud brick
Definition
seen in the Babylonian flood myth: Atrahasis and the Flood - primordial building block - ritual symbol - present in all child births, including the first creation of humans out of Ilawela
Term
Atrahasis
Definition
Babylonian flood myth, Atrahasis and the Flood
- king of Shuruppak
- extra wise
- speaks to Ea/Enki
Term
adonay/adonai
Definition
adonay/adonai= means Lord, its a title
- Persians told the Isrealites they didn't have the right to call Yahweh by his name so after the Persian War, instead of referring to him as Yahweh they referred to him as adonay
Term
berit
Definition
as seen in Noah's flood myth in Genesis
- means covenant
- Yahweh says he will never flood the Earth again, but he will make rules to prevent humans from killing each other.
- rainbow in the sky represents Yahweh's covenant that he won't flood earth again.
Term
Metamorphoses
Definition
- means transformation
- written by Roman poet Ovid
- all of Ovid's myths invovles a transformation, sometimes transformation is already present, sometimes Ovid forces one in there
Term
xenia
Definition
xenia= hospitality
xenos= guest/host
- appears in Roman Poet Ovid's Metamorphosis
- Jupiter wants to see if humans are evil so he tests their hospitality
Term
elohim
Definition
Israelite, Genesis
- title signifying god status
Term
monolatry
Definition
worships only one god but they recognize that multiple gods do exist, they however choose only one to worship
- When Israelites were banished to Babylon they were monolatry, when the exile was lifted they were now called Jews and instead of being monolatry, they were now monotheistic
Term
monotheism
Definition
worship and belief in one god
- When Israelites were banished to Babylon they were monolatry, when the exile was lifted they were now called Jews and instead of being monolatry, they were now monotheistic
- Jews were monotheism, their god was Yahweh in the book of Genesis
Term
bereshith
Definition
means: in the beginning
- Hebrew, in the Israelite's Genesis
Term
Genesis
Definition
- means "origin"
- its a Greek word in the Israelite's Genesis
Term
Genesis
Definition
- Israelite - written in Prose, most other cultures wrote in poetry so why did the Israelites write in prose? We think the Israelites did this to distinguish themselves from the polytheistic cultures surrounding them: Canaanites and Babylonians, remember the Israelites were monotheistic - two creation myths, Yahweh vs. the sea, and Noah and the flood
Term
JDEP theory
Definition
due to discrepancies present in the Israelites Genesis the JDEP theory states that certain sections were actually written by 4 different authors and one editor compiled the 4 different works together and put them in one book
- ex: JDEP theory explains why for Genesis there are actually 2 different versions of the creation myth, 2 different authors
- some people think the JDEP theory is wrong and that the 2 different creation myths actually go hand in hand with each other
Term
shemesh
Definition
Sun in Hebrew, in the Hebrew/Isrealites Genesis
- author refers to the sun as a great light because he doesn't want people to think of the sun as a god due to the Israelites being a monotheistic culture
Term
yareah
Definition
moon in Hebrew, Hebrew/Israelites Genesis
- author refers to the moon as a great light because he doesn't want people to think of the sun as a god due to the Israelites being a monotheistic culture
Term
tehom
Definition
deep in Hebrew
- sorry but i don't really understand this, this is all i got if i really need something put this:
- in Genesis God like what he did on days 1,3-6 but not on day 2 when he put the sky inbetween the waters
- God didn't like doing this because this is too similar to what Marduk did with Tiamat?
Term
serpent
Definition
Israelite Genesis
- trickster (amoral)
- tells Eve that if she and Adam eat the fruit from the tree of knowledge they will gain knowledge of the gods
- by eating the fruit Adam and Eve actually became more like humans rather than gods like the serpent said
- god punishes serpent by making him crawl on his belly and making humans his enemey
- culture hero because he made Adam and Eve human-like
Term
adamah
Definition
Israelite Genesis
- means :earth, soil
- When Adam ate the fruit from the tree of knowledge, God punished him by forcing him to work on the land forever.
Term
of good and evil
Definition
Israelite, Genesis
- means: knowing everything
- the serpent tells Adam and Eve that if they eat from the tree of knowledge they will know everything the gods know
Term
ba'al
Definition
Canaanite, Baal Cycle
- means: Lord
- i guess it refers to how Baal is considered lord of Earth (El is king of the gods)
Term
Shapash
Definition
in multiple myths such as Kumarbi Cycle and Baal cycle
- sun goddess
- linked to both life and death (summer, drought)
- in Kummarbi cycle she spots Ullikummi on Ubelluri
- in Baal Cycle she tells Baal to trick Mot (death) by making a substitute for himself
- she also tells Mot that he better stop fighting Baal because El said so
Term
Kothar
Definition
Canaanite, Baal Cycle
- craftsman god
- builds Baal the clubs he uses to defeat Yam and Baal's house