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Climate and Vegitation
Exam 2
73
Geography
10/21/2008

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Term
Definition
Term

The eruption of Mount Pinatubo in June 1991...

A) lofted several million tons of ash, dust, and SO2 into the atmosphere. 
B) was tracked by instruments aboard Earth-orbiting satellites. 
C) eventually affected almost half the planet after only a few weeks of circulation. 
D) produced spectacular sunrises and sunsets for almost two years. 
E) All of these are correct.  

Definition
E) All of these are correct
Term

Particles produced by the eruption of Mount Pinatubo __________ the albedo of the atmosphere, and this __________ the Earth. 

A) increased; warmed 
B) increased; cooled 
C) decreased; warmed 
D) decreased; cooled 

Definition
B) Increased; cooled
Term
Which of the following refers to primary circulation?  
A) migratory high and low pressure systems  
B) the monsoons  
C) general circulation of the atmosphere  
D) land-sea breezes
Definition
C) General circulation of the atmosphere
Term
Which of the following refers to secondary circulation?  
A) migratory high and low pressure systems  
B) weather patterns  
C) general circulation of the atmosphere  
D) mountain-valley breezes
Definition
A) Migratory high and low pressure systems
Term
Which of the following refers to tertiary circulation?  
A) migratory high and low pressure systems  
B) subtropical high pressure systems  
C) general circulation of the atmosphere  
D) land-sea breezes
Definition
D) land-sea breezes
Term
Air flow is initiated by the  
A) Coriolis force.  
B) pressure gradient force.  
C) friction force.  
D) centrifugal force
Definition
B) Pressure Gradient Force
Term
The horizontal motion of air relative to Earth's surface is  
A) barometric pressure.  
B) wind.  
C) convection flow.  
D) a result of equalized pressure across the surface.  
Definition
B) Wind
Term
Which of the following is not true of the wind?  
A) It is initiated by the pressure gradient force.  
B) It blows from regions of high pressure to regions of low pressure.  
C) The direction of flow can be affected by the rotation of the Earth.  
D) Air blows from regions of hotter air to regions of colder air.  
E) Winds are named based on the direction from which they blow.
Definition
D) Air blows from regions of hotter air to regions of colder air
Term

Which instrument would you use to measure wind speed?  
A) a wind vane.  
B) the Beaufort wind scale.  
C) the wind chill chart. 

D) an anemometer.  
E) a barometer.

Definition
D) anemometer
Term
Normal sea level pressure has a value of  
A) 1013.2 millibars or 29.92 inches of mercury in a barometer.  
B) 28.50 inches of lead.  
C) 32.01 millibars of mercury.  
D) 500 mb.
Definition
A) 1013.2 millibars or 29.92 inches of mercury in a barometer
Term
The normal range for air pressure at sea level is  
A) 500 to 1000 mb.  
B) 100 to 650 mb.  
C) 980-1050 mb.  
D) 1060-2010 mb.
Definition
C) 980-1050 mb
Term
The mercury barometer (consisting of mercury in a tube, sealed at one end and open at the other, and inserted in a vessel of mercury), was invented by  
A) Galileo.  
B) Sir Isaac Newton.  
C) Eratosthenes.  
D) Evangelista Torricelli
Definition
D) Erathosthenes
Term
The average height of a column of mercury (Hg) in a barometer at sea level is  
A) 760 mm (76 cm).  
B) 1013 inches.  
C) something that can not be determined without knowing air temperature.  
D) 29.00 millibars.
Definition
A) 760 mm (76 cm)
Term
An instrument used to measure air pressure is  
A) a thermometer.  
B) an aneroid barometer.  
C) a mercury thermometer.  
D) a bowl of mercury.  
E) an anemometer.
Definition
B) an aneroid barometer
Term
An increase in air pressure will cause the mercury in a barometer to __________.  
A) rise  
B) fall  
C) freeze  
D) none of the above, barometers do not measure air pressure
Definition
A) Rise
Term
The highest surface air pressure ever recorded occurred when the air was  
A) very cold.  
B) very warm.  
C) very wet.  
D) very high above the surface of the Earth.
Definition
A)very cold
Term
Airplanes measure their altitude using  
A) a mercury barometer.  
B) an anemometer.  
C) a hygrometer.  
D) an aneroid barometer.  
E) sextants.
Definition
D) an aneroid barometer
Term
Which of the following describes the pressure gradient force?  
A) It drives air from areas of higher to lower barometric pressure.  
B) It decreases with height above the surface.  
C) It causes apparent deflection of winds from a straight path.  
D) It is the only force acting on atmospheric flows in the upper troposphere.  
Definition
A) It drives air from areas of higher to lower barometric pressure
Term
An isoline of equal pressure plotted on a weather map is known as  
A) an isotherm.  
B) an equilibrium line.  
C) an isobar.  
D) the thermal equator.
Definition
C) an isobar
Term
Air flows __________ a surface high pressure area because the density of the air in the high pressure zone is __________ than that of the surrounding air.  A) into; more dense  
B) into; less dense  
C) out of; more dense  
D) out of; less dense
Definition
C) out of; more dense
Term
Which is true of air flowing into a low pressure center?  
A) Air converges and ascends.  
B) Air diverges and ascends.  
C) Air converges and descends.  
D) Air diverges and descends.
Definition
A) Air converges and ascends
Term
If the Earth did not rotate, air would flow  
A) perpendicular to the isobars, i.e., straight across the isobars.  
B) to the right of its direction of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.  
C) to the left of its direction of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.  
D) parallel to the isobars.
Definition
A) perpendicular to the isobars, i.e., straight across the isobars
Term

Which of the following is true of high pressure areas? 

A) Air converges and ascends within high pressure systems.  
B) Air descends and diverges within high pressure systems.  
C) They generally involve atmospheric pressures lower than 1000 mb.  
D) They are characteristic for areas along the equator.  

Definition
B) AIr descends and diverges withing high pressure systems
Term
On a weather map of air pressure, what can you infer from a closer spacing of isobars?  
A) little without knowing temperature patterns  
B) a steep pressure gradient creating a slower flow of air  
C) a steep pressure gradient creating a faster flow of air  
D) higher pressures  
E) a weak pressure gradient creating a slower flow of air
Definition
C) a steep pressure gradient creating a faster flow of air
Term
The closer the spacing of the isobars, the __________ the wind blows.  
A) slower  
B) faster  
C) none of these, isobar spacing does not affect wind speed  
Definition
B) Faster
Term
The Coriolis force  
A) drives air from areas of higher to lower barometric pressure.  
B) decreases with height above the surface.  
C) causes the apparent deflection of winds from a straight path.  
D) is the only force acting on flows of air in the upper troposphere.  
Definition
C) causes the apparent deflection of winds from a straight path
Term
Objects and wind moving over distance and time on Earth's surface are   
A) always deflected from a straight path to the west in the Southern Hemisphere  
B) affected only by the pressure gradient and friction force.  
C) always deflected to the right by the friction force.  
D) apparently deflected from a straight path to the right in the Northern Hemisphere  
Definition
D) apparently deflected from a straight path to the right in the Northern Hemisphere
Term
The deflection produced by the Coriolis force is caused by  
A) the fact that Earth's rotation decreases in speed toward the poles.  
B) differing pressure gradients.  
C) forces that affect winds but not ocean currents.  
D) air temperature.  
E) the fact that the Earth revolves.
Definition
A) the fact that earth's rotation decreases in speed toward the poles
Term
Which of the following is true regarding the effects of the Coriolis force?  
A) The amount of Coriolis deflection is uniform from equator to poles.  
B) Coriolis deflection occurs only along parallels, not meridians.  
C) The Coriolis force is zero at the poles, increasing to maximum along the equator.  
D) The Coriolis force is zero along the equator, increasing to one-half of maximum at 30° latitude and maximum at the poles.  
Definition
D) The Coriolis force is zero along the equator, increasing to one-half of maximum at 30° latitude and maximum at the poles. 
Term
Which of the following would cause the Coriolis force to increase?  
A) increase in wind speed  
B) decrease in the spacing of isobars  
C) decrease in friction  
D) air movement to higher latitudes  
E) all of these would increase the Coriolis force  
Definition
E) All of these would increase the Coriolis force
Term
The effect of the Coriolis force is __________ in the upper atmosphere because __________.  
A) enhanced; the pressure gradient is weaker  
B) enhanced; there is less friction  
C) enhanced; there is more friction  
D) diminished; the pressure gradient is weaker  
E) diminished; there is less friction
Definition
B) enhanced; there is more friction
Term
If Santa flew from the North Pole due south along the 100° meridian and did not correct his course, he would land  
A) on the 100° meridian.  
B) east of the 100° meridian.  
C) west of the 100° meridian.  
Definition
C) west of the 100° meridian
Term
In the absence of friction, the combined effect of the Coriolis force and the pressure gradient force produces  
A) geostrophic winds at altitude above the ground.  
B) surface winds.  
C) air flow from low to high pressure centers.  
D) air flow in a north-south direction.  
E) air flow perpendicular to the isobars.  
Definition
A) geostropic winds at altitude above the ground
Term
Latitudinal winds in the lower troposphere always flow  
A) out of a high and into a low.  
B) out of a low and into a high.  
C) to the right of their pressure-directed line of motion in the Northern Hemisphere.  
D) both A and C  
E) both B and C
Definition
D) both A and C
Term
The intertropical convergence zone is characterized by  
A) convergence and uplift of warm surface air.  
B) convergence and subsidence of cold surface air.  
C) divergence and uplift of warm surface air.  
D) divergence and subsidence of cold surface air.  
Definition
A) convergence and uplift of warm surface air
Term
Between 20° to 35° north latitude and 20° to 35° south latitude are  
A) the largest zone of water surpluses in the world.  
B) warm and wet conditions, and the world's great tropical forests.  
C) the world's arid and semi-arid desert regions.  
D) cyclonic systems of low pressure.
Definition
C) the world's arid and semi-arid desert regions
Term
On the Earth between 30° north latitude and the equator, winds flow from the __________ as they flow out of the __________ pressure zone toward the ITCZ.  
A) NE; subtropical high  
B) NW; subtropical high  
C) SE; subtropical high  
D) SW; subtropical high  
E) NE; polar high
Definition
A) NE; subtropical high
Term
On the Earth between 30° and 60° north latitude, winds flow from the __________ as they flow out of the __________ pressure zone toward the __________ pressure zone.  
A) northeast; subtropical high; subpolar low  
B) west-southwest; subtropical high; subpolar low  
C) northeast; subpolar low; subtropical high  
D) west-southwest; subpolar low; subtropical high  
Definition
B) west-southwest; subtropical high; subpolar low
Term
Winds that blow predominantly from the northeast and the southeast are the  
A) westerlies.  
B) polar easterlies.  
C) horse latitudes.  
D) trade winds.
Definition
D) Trade winds
Term
The dominant surface winds from the subtropics to high latitudes are the  
A) westerlies.  
B) trade winds.  
C) polar easterlies.  
D) geostrophic winds.
Definition
A) Westerlies
Term
 If you were between 40° and 50° north latitude, and you wanted to stand with the average winds blowing in your face you would stand facing  
A) north.  
B) south.  
C) east.  
D) west.
Definition
D) West
Term

Which of the following are correctly matched?  
A) high pressure - ascending, converging air movements 

B) cyclones - low pressure cells  
C) high pressure cells - cyclonic circulation  
D) anticyclones - subpolar pressure cells

Definition
B) Cyclones- low pressure cells
Term

Air flow in a Northern Hemisphere high pressure zone is  
A) downward, outward and clockwise.  
B) downward, outward and counterclockwise. 

C) inward, upward and clockwise.  
D) inward, upward and counterclockwise.  
E) downward, inward and clockwise.

Definition
A) Downward, outward and clockwise
Term
Which of the following is true of Hadley cells?  
A) They dominate the polar circulation.  
B) They appear most vertically symmetrical on either side of the equator at the equinoxes.  
C) They are associated with the subpolar low pressure systems.  
D) They occur at great depth in the oceans.
Definition
B) They appear most vertically symmetrical on either side of the equator at the equinoxes
Term
Which of the following is associated with these names: Sonora, Kalahari, Namib, Atacama?  
A) subpolar lows  
B) world's equatorial rain forests  
C) subtropical high pressure  
D) major agricultural regions
Definition
C) subtropical high pressure
Term

Which of the following is true of the polar front zone? 

A) The polar jet stream is usually located above it.  
B) It is a zone in which warm and cold air mix.  
C) It is a zone of frequently strong winds.  

D) All of the above are true.  

E) A and B only

Definition
D) All of the above are true
Term
Within the upper-air westerly wind flow are great waving undulations  
A) that were first described by Hadley, an eighteenth century English scientist.  
B) known as Rossby waves that involve contact between cooler and warmer air masses.  
C) that are unrelated to the jet stream.  
D) that are called Hadley cells.
Definition
B) known as Rossby waves that involve contact between cooler and warmer air masses. 
Term
The polar jet tends to flow above the  
A) ITCZ.  
B) subtropical high.  
C) polar front.  
D) polar high.
Definition
C) Polar front
Term
Land-sea breezes are caused by  
A) the fact that water heats and cools faster than land surfaces.  
B) cooler air flowing offshore (toward the ocean) in the afternoon.  
C) onshore (toward the land) air flows that develop in the afternoon as the land heats faster than neighboring water surfaces.  
D) the fact that warmer air is denser and settles to the surface of the land.  
Definition
C) onshore (toward the land) air flows that develop in the afternoon as the land heats faster than neighboring water surfaces
Term

During the day along the coast, the wind tends to blow toward the __________ because __________.  
A) land; land heats more rapidly than water  
B) land; land heats more slowly than water

C) water; water heats more slowly than land  
D) water; water heats more rapidly than land

Definition
Term
Definition
Term
Mountain-valley breezes are caused by  
A) warmer air descending mountain slopes during the day.  
B) valley air ascending the mountain slopes at night.  C) warm air rising upslope during the day and cooler air descending the slopes at night.  
D) gravity-drainage.
Definition
C) Warm air rising upslope during the day and cooler air descending the slopes at night
Term

Monsoonal winds are  
A) katabatic in nature.  
B) regional wind systems that seasonally vary.  
C) limited to the Indian subcontinent. 

D) a form of mountain-valley wind.

Definition
B) regional wind systems that seasonally vary
Term
A monsoon climate is characterized by __________ summers and __________ winters.  
A) dry; dry  
B) dry; wet  
C) wet; dry  
D) wet; wet  
Definition
C) wet; dry
Term
Ocean currents are produced by  
A) the frictional drag of winds.  
B) the Coriolis force and water density differences.  
C) land-sea breezes.  
D) Both A and B are correct.  
Definition
D) Both A and B are correct
Term
Forceful northward flowing warm currents in the Northern Hemisphere are the  
A) equatorial countercurrents.  
B) California and Peru currents.  
C) upwelling and downwelling currents.  
D) Gulf Stream current and Kuroshio.  
Definition
D) gulf stream current and Kuroshio
Term
The equatorial currents are driven by  
A) the upper-level easterlies.  
B) the trade winds.  
C) salinity differences in the ocean.  
D) monsoon winds.
Definition
B) The trade winds
Term

The eruption of Tambora in 1815 produced few atmospheric effects. 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

E. Torricelli invented a device used for the measurement of air pressure.

True/False

Definition
True
Term

A mercury barometer measures air pressure using a small cell or chamber partially emptied of air.

True/False

Definition
False
Term

Normal sea level pressure has a standard value of 1013.2 mb (29.92 in.) of Hg. 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Wind speed is measured with an anemometer.

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The pressure gradient force drives air from areas of higher pressure to areas of lower pressure. 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Friction creates a deflection in wind movements that is always to the right in the Northern Hemisphere

True/False

Definition
False
Term

The forces that control the wind include gravity, the pressure gradient force, Coriolis force, and friction force. 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

A line connecting points of equal pressure on a weather map is called an isobar.

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The pressure gradient force and the friction force together produce geostrophic winds along Earth's surface

True/False

Definition
False
Term

A primary low-pressure area occurs from 20° to 35° north latitude and south latitude.

True/False

Definition
False
Term

The intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) shifts as far north as the Persian Gulf region in July even though it is associated with equatorial circulation.

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Subtropical high-pressure systems generate both the trade winds and the westerlies

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Cherrapunjui, India received over 2,000 cm of rainfall in one year. 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Ocean currents play a relatively small role in regulating climate. 

True/False

Definition
False