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Climate and Vegitation
Exam 1
292
Geography
09/24/2008

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Cards

Term
Life is possible on Earth primarily because 
 
A) Gamma rays and X-rays reach the surface.
 
B) The ozonosphere and ionosphere shield the surface from harmful radiation. 
 
C) Variable gases of all types exist in the atmosphere. 
D) Ultraviolet radiation reaches the surface.  

 

Definition
B) The Ozoneshpere and ionsphere shield the surface from harmeful radiation
Term
 Three criteria used for classification of the atmosphere explained in the text are...
 
A) structure, origin, temperature.
B) structure, origin, evolution.
C) composition, origin, evolution.  
D) composition, temperature, and function.  
Definition
D) Compostion, Temperature, and Function
Term
Based on composition, the atmosphere is divided into
 
A) one continuous region.
B) two broad classifications: homosphere and heterosphere.
C) two functional areas that absorb radiation from the Sun.
 D) the troposphere and the stratosphere.  
Definition
B) Two broad classifications: Homosphere and Heterosphere
Term
Based on temperature, the atmosphere is divided into...
A)four regions: ranging from the troposphere to the thermosphere.
B) two broad regions. 
C)two functional areas that absorb radiation from the Sun.
D) nitrogen, oxygen, argon.
Definition
A) Four regions: ranging from the troposhpere to the thermosphere.
Term
Based on function, the atmosphere has..
A) five regions beginning with the outermost thermosphere.  
B) two functional areas that absorb radiation from the Sun.  
C) one continuous region.  
D) the troposphere and the stratosphere
Definition
B) Two functional areas the absorb raditation from the Sun
Term
The outermost region of the atmosphere, based on composition, is the  
A)homosphere.  
B) heterosphere.  
C) troposphere.  
D) thermosphere.
Definition
B) Heterosphere
Term
The heterosphere is the layer of the atmosphere in which the gases are __________ because of __________.  
A) well mixed; thermal motions (i.e., convection)  
B) well mixed; the influence of gravity which causes gases of different weight to diffuse randomly  
C) poorly mixed; thermal motions (i.e., convection)  
D) poorly mixed; the influence of gravity which causes gases of different weight to separate into layers
Definition
D) Poorly mixed; the influence of gravity which causes gasses of different weight to spearate into
Term
The region of the atmosphere that is so evenly mixed that it behaves as if it were a single gas is the
A) homosphere.  
B) heterosphere.  
C) exosphere.  
D) thermosphere.
Definition
A) Homosphere
Term
The solar constant is measured at  
A) the outer boundary of the exosphere.  
B)the outer boundary of the thermosphere.  
C) the top of the stratosphere.  
D) the top of the troposphere.  
E) the earth's surface at the equator.  
Definition
B) The outer boundary of the exosphere
Term
The thermosphere closely corresponds to the  
A) ionosphere.  
B) heterosphere.  
C) homosphere.  
D) exosphere.  
E) both A and B
Definition
E) Both A and B
Term

Which of the following is true of the ionosphere?  
A) It primarily absorbs harmful infrared wavelengths. 

B) All radio signals pass through this region virtually unaffected.  
C) The region principally absorbs gamma rays, X-rays, and interacts with the solar wind.  
D) It is being depleted through interactions with human-produced chlorofluorocarbons.  

Definition
C) The region principally absorbs gamma rays, X-rays, and interacts with solar winds
Term
Which of the following lists the correct sequence of gases, from most to least, in terms of percentage within the homosphere?  
A) nitrogen, argon, oxygen, xenon, carbon dioxide  
B) nitrogen, oxygen, argon, carbon dioxide, trace gases  
C) oxygen, ozone, nitrogen, PAN, carbon dioxide  
D) oxygen, nitrogen, neon, hydrocarbons, carbon dioxide  
Definition
B) Nitrogen, Oxygen, Argon, Carbon Dioxide, Trace Gases
Term
Which of the following is true regarding the depletion of ozone in the ozonosphere?  
A) The depletion is restricted to the arctic and antarctic regions.  
B) It results from chemical reactions with chlorine that is derived from CFCs.  
C) It results from the burning of fossil fuels.  
D) The notion that ozone is being depleted as a result of human activity is pure conjecture and has little scientific evidence to support it.  
Definition
B) Its results from chemical reactions with chlorine that is derived from CFC's
Term
The ozonosphere is critical to life because it 
A) affects temperatures. 
B) absorbs visible light wavelengths. 
C) absorbs most ultraviolet wavelengths. 
D) produces the auroras.
Definition
C) absorbs most ultraviolet wavelenghts.
Term
Temperatures within the stratosphere  
A) decrease with altitude according to the normal lapse rate.  
B) remain about the same from the tropopause to the stratopause.  
C) increase with altitude because of the absorption of ultraviolet radiation.  
D) decrease with altitude due to radiation losses.
Definition
C) Increase with altitute because of the absorption of ultraviolet radiation
Term
Temperatures increase with increasing altitude in what two atmospheric layers?  
A) troposphere and mesosphere  
B) troposphere and stratosphere  
C) stratosphere and mesosphere  
D) stratosphere and thermosphere  
Definition
D) Stratosphere and thermosphere
Term
Temperatures decrease with increasing altitude in what two atmospheric layers?  
A) troposphere and mesosphere  
B) troposphere and stratosphere  
C) stratosphere and mesosphere  
D) stratosphere and thermosphere  
E) None of the abovetemperature decreases with increasing altitude in all layers of the atmosphere.
Definition
Term
Which of the following is true of chlorofluorocarbons?  
A) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release carbon which then destroys ozone.  
B) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release fluorine which then destroys ozone.  
C) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release chlorine which then destroys ozone.  
D) Most of the CFC-induced ozone destruction is occurring near the equator, rather than near the poles.  
Definition
C) The CFC molecules react with ultraviolet light to release chlorine which then destroys ozone
Term
Temperatures in the stratosphere __________ with increasing altitude because __________.  
A)decrease; of the normal lapse rate effect  
B) decrease; ozone blocks sunlight from entering this layer  
C) increase; ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun and then reradiates it at infrared wavelengths  
D) increase; ozone acts as a greenhouse gas which traps ultraviolet energy radiated by the Earth's surface  
Definition
C) Increase ozone absorbs ultraviolet radiation from the sun and then reradiates it at infared wavelenghts
Term
Increased levels of ultraviolet light at Earth's surface  
A)pose a threat of skin cancer to all races.  
B) are related to an increasing rate of skin cancer.  
C) have been identified as causing damage to oceanic life forms.  
D) are tied to the general reduction in stratospheric ozone.  
E)  All of these are correct.
Definition
C) Have been identified as causing damage to oceanic life forms
Term
At sea level, the pressure of the atmosphere is about __________ kg per square centimeter, or __________ pounds per square inch.  
A) 1.0; 14.7  
B) 2.6; 9.4  
C) 8.2; 3.3  
D) 6.7; 19.9
Definition
A) 1.0; 14.7
Term
Half of the Earth's atmosphere lies below an elevation of __________ meters.  
A) 14,000  
B) 11,000  
C) 8300  
D) 5500
Definition
D) 5500
Term

Weather (rain, fog, storms, etc.) occurs primarily in the troposphere

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Based on composition, the atmosphere is divided into two broad regions: the ionosphere and the ozonosphere. 

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

The heterosphere has a layered structure, whereas the homosphere occurs as an even mixture of gases

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The ionosphere resides principally within the thermosphere, and the ozonosphere resides within the stratosphere.

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The principal gases of the homosphere (by volume) are nitrogen, helium, and argon

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

The ozone layer protects Earth's surface from most of the incoming ultraviolet radiation

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The normal lapse rate for temperature decreases is an average of 3°C per 1000 m

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

Atmospheric circulation ultimately connects all places on the Earth to one another.

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The higher the UV Index, the faster a person will sunburn

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Air pressure is produced through the motion, size, and number of air molecules. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The atmosphere exerts an average force of approximately 1 kg/cm2 (14.7 lbs/in2) at sea level. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Approximately fifty percent of the atmosphere is compressed by gravity below an elevation of 5500 m (18,000 ft).

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Air pressure is only exerted downward

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term
Definition
Term
Geography is described as  
A) an Earth science.  
B) a human science.  
C) a physical science.  
D) a spatial science.
Definition
D) A spatial science
Term
The capacity to change the motion of, or to do work on, matter is the definition of  
A) energy.  
B) plasma.  
C) thermodynamics.  
D) acceleration.  
E) system.
Definition
A) Energy
Term
Living systems are considered  
A) biotic.  
B) inorganic.  
C) part of the lithosphere.  
D) abiotic.
Definition
A) Biotic
Term
The oblateness of the Earth occurs at the  
A) poles.  
B) equator.  
C) subtropics.  
D) prime meridian
Definition
A) Poles
Term
The diameter of Earth is largest when measured around the  
A) poles.  
B) equator.  
C) subtropics.  
D) prime meridian.
Definition
B) Equator
Term
A parallel of latitude  
A) is used to measure distances east and west of the equator.  
B) measures longitude.  
C) is called a meridian.  
D) is used to measure distances north or south of the equator.  
E)is a line which passes through both poles.  
Definition
D) Is used to measure distances north of south of the equator
Term
An angular distance measured north or south of the equator from the center of Earth is termed  
A) longitude.  
B) latitude.  
C) zenith.  
D) Greenwich distance.  
Definition
A) Longitude
Term
The basis for defining the length of a day is the fact that  
A) Earth rotates east to west.  
B) Earth moves through 365.25 days a year in its orbit about the Sun.  
C) Earth rotates on its axis in 24 hours; i.e., it rotates 15° of longitude per hour.  
D) Earth does not rotate; rather, it revolves.
Definition
C) Earth rotates on its axis in 24 hours; i.e., it rotates 15 degrees of longitude per hour
Term
The meridian opposite of Earth's prime meridian (0° longitude) is called  
A) secondary meridian.  
B) the anti-meridian.  
C) the equator.  
D) the International Date Line.
Definition
D) The International Date Line
Term

Latitude is  
A) the angular distance measured north or south of the equator.  
B) the angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian.  
C) the basis for establishing meridians. 

D) portrayed on a globe as lines that cross the equator at right angles.

Definition
A) The angular distance measured north or south of the equator
Term
The most extreme northern and southern parallels to experience perpendicular rays of the sun at local noon are located at  
A) 90° north and south.  
B) 23.5° north and south.  
C) 45° north and south.  
D) 66.5° north and south.
Definition
B) 23.5 degrees north and south
Term
Areas located above __________ latitude experience 24 hours of daylight for six months of the year and 24 hours of night for six months of the year.  
A) 10°  
B) 23.5°  
C) 66.5°  
D) 80°
Definition
C) 66.5 degrees
Term
Longitude is  
A) an angular distance measured north or south of the equator.  
B) an angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian.  
C) the basis for establishing parallels.  
D) determined by Sun altitude above the horizon
Definition
B) an angular distance measured east or west of a prime meridian
Term
If you were standing at 20° north latitude you would be within which latitudinal geographic zone?  
A) tropical  
B) midlatitude  
C) equatorial  
D) subarctic  
E) subtropical
Definition
E) Subtropical
Term
If you were standing at 60° north latitude you would be within which latitudinal geographic zone?  
A) subantarctic  
B) midlatitude  
C) antarctic  
D) subarctic  
E) subtropical
Definition
D) Subarctic
Term
A line connecting all points along the same longitudinal angle is called a  
A) meridian.  
B) parallel.  
C) prime latitudinal angle.  
D) great circle.
Definition
A) Meridian
Term
If City A is located west of City B, the time at City A is __________ than that at City B because the earth rotates from __________ when viewed from above the North Pole.  
A) earlier; west to east(i.e., counterclockwise)  
B) earlier; east to west (i.e., clockwise)  
C) later; west to east (i.e., counterclockwise)  
D) later; east to west (i.e., clockwise)  
Definition
A) earleir; west to east (i.e., counterclockwise)
Term
The difference in sun time between two places located 30° in longitude apart from one another is  
A) 30 seconds.  
B) 30 minutes.  
C) one hour.  
D) two hours.  
E) three hours.
Definition
D) Two Hours
Term
If a clock on a ship indicates that it is 2:00 P.M. in its home port, while another clock on the ship indicates that it is 12:00 noon at the ship's present location, what is the difference in longitude between the ship's position and its home port?  
A) The ship is 2° east of its home port.  
B) The ship is 2° west of its home port.  
C) The ship is 30° east of its home port.  
D) The ship is 30° west of its home port.  
E) The ship is 45° west of its home port.
Definition
D) The ship is 30 degrees west of its home port
Term
If it is 10:00 PM on July 3rd at 30° west, what date and time is it at 15° east? 
A) July 3rd; 11 P.M. 
B) July 3rd; 9 P.M. 
C) July 3rd; 6 P.M. 
D) July 4th; 1 A.M. 
E) July 4th; 2 A.M.
Definition
D) July 4th; 1 A.M.
Term
Travelers flying west from Los Angeles (118° W) to Tokyo (139° E) will cross the __________ and, as a result, they will __________ when crossing this meridian.  
A) International Dateline; gain a day (Example: Sunday becomes Saturday.)  
B) International Dateline; lose a day (Example: Saturday becomes Sunday.)  
C) prime meridian; gain a day (Example: Sunday becomes Saturday.)  
D) prime meridian; lose a day (Example: Saturday becomes Sunday.)  
Definition
B) International Dateline; lose a day (Example: Saturday becomes Sunday)
Term
The practice of setting time ahead or behind during the year, out of coordination with the Sun, is termed  
A) Coordinated Universal Time.  
B) Daylight Saving Time.  
C) Standard time.  
D) Greenwich Mean Time.
Definition
B) Daylight Saving Time
Term

Which of the following statements is true regarding Daylight Saving Time (DST)?  
A) The length of the day is one hour longer than it was before the adoption of DST.  
B) The length of the day is one hour shorter than it was before the adoption of DST.  
C) Crops can grow faster because the day is longer.

D) The length of the day is not changed.  
E) Both A and C are true.

Definition
D) The lenght of the day is not changed
Term
The part of geography that embodies map making is known as  
A) theodesy.  
B) geodesy.  
C) cartography.  
D) calligraphy.
Definition
C) Cartography
Term
A great circle is  
A) any parallel of latitude.  
B) the longest distance between two places on the surface of the Earth.  
C) a circle of circumference whose center coincides with the center of Earth.  
D) a correct magnetic compass direction on a flat map.
Definition
C) a circle of circumference whose center coincides with the center of the Earth
Term
Any orderly system of parallels and meridians drawn on a flat surface is called a  
A) diagram.  
B) cone.  
C) map projection.  
D) globe.
Definition
C) Map projection
Term
The larger the scale of a map, the __________ the area covered by the map and the __________ detail it provides.  
A) larger; more  
B) larger; less  
C) smaller; more  
D) smaller; less
Definition
C) Smaller, more
Term

Longitude measures distances east or west of a prime meridian on Earth's surface. 


True/False

Definition
True
Term

Latitude is the angular distance measured north or south of the equator from the center of Earth and it describes a parallel line on the surface. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Observers in the southern hemisphere use the North Star (Polaris) to determine their latitude

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

The prime meridian and the 180th meridian are opposite halves of the same great circle.

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

All parallels are 360° in length. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

When Daylight Saving Time is in effect, clocks "spring forward" one hour in the Spring (Example: 1:00 A.M. becomes 2:00 A.M.) and "fall back" one hour in the Fall (Example: 2:00 A.M. becomes 1:00 A.M.).

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

A great circle route is the shortest distance between any two points on Earth's surface. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term
A __________ is any circle of Earth's circumference whose center coincides with the center of Earth. All other circles on Earth constitute __________.
Definition
Great Circle, small circles
Term
The four classes of map projections are called: 
Definition
Planar, Cylindrical, conic, oval
Term
Average air temperatures worldwide  
A) have appeared to stabilize after a century of increase.  
B) are at present demonstrating no apparent trend one way or another.  
C) are being influenced by human-induced changes in the greenhouse effect.  
D) are generally lower than 20 years ago.
Definition
C) are being influenced by human-induced changes in the greenhouse effect
Term
Air temperature is a measure of the presence of which of the following?  
A) heat capacity  
B) apparent temperature  
C) relative humidity  
D) sensible heat
Definition
D) Sensible heat
Term
Official temperature measurements are taken in shelters that   
A) are louvered, white, and at least 1.2 m (4 ft.) above the ground.  
B) are louvered, have an albedo of 31%, and are at least 1.2 m (4 ft.) above the ground.  
C) are louvered, white, and always at least 1.2m (4 ft.) above a grassy surface.  
D) are not louvered, have an albedo of 31%, and are at least 1.2 m (4 ft.) above the ground.  
E) are pressurized to sea level pressure, white, and at least 1.2 m (4 ft.) above the ground
Definition
A) are louvered, white, ad at least 1.2 m (4 ft.) above the ground
Term
The principal controls and influences of temperature patterns include  
A) Earth's tilt, rotation, revolution, and sphericity.  
B) latitude, altitude, land-water heating differences, cloud cover, ocean currents, and surface conditions.  
C) land-water heating differences only.
D) specific heat only.
Definition
B) Lattidude, altitude, land-water heating differences, cloud cover, ocean currents, and surface conditions.
Term
The single most important control on temperature is  
A) latitude.  
B) altitude.  
C) distribution of land and water.  
D) evaporation.
Definition
A) Latitude
Term
Relative to latitude and surface energy receipts, which of the following is true?  
A) Insolation intensity increases with distance from the subsolar point.  
B) Daylength decreases with increasing latitude in summer.  
C) Insolation intensity decreases with distance from the subsolar point.  
D) Seasonal effects increase toward the equator.  
Definition
C) Insplation intensity decreases with distance from the subsolar point
Term
In general, as distance from the subsolar point increases, the average annual insolation __________ and the average annual temperature __________.  
A) increases; increases  
B) increases; decreases  
C) decreases; increases  
D) decreases; decreases  
Definition
D) Decreases, Decreases
Term
Based on information discussed previously in the course, you know that average temperatures in the troposphere __________ with increasing elevation because the atmosphere is heated __________.  
A) increase; from the top-down by insolation  
B) increase; from the top-down by energy emitted from the stratosphere  
C) decrease; from the bottom-up by reflected insolation  
D) decrease; from the bottom-up by terrestrial infrared energy
Definition
D) Decrease; from the bottom-up by terrestrial infrared energy
Term
6.5°C/1000 m (3.5°F/1000 ft.) refers to  
A) a latitudinal lapse rate.  
B) a normal lapse rate.  
C) an environmental lapse rate.  
D) a measure of air pressure.
Definition
B) a normal lapse rate
Term
Air pressure at 5500 m (18,000 ft.) is __________ (percent) of that at sea level.  
A) 0  
B) 10  
C) 30  
D) 50
Definition
D) 50
Term
Which of the following is true regarding locations at high elevations?  
A) Higher elevations experience higher temperatures during the day because they are closer to the sun.  
B)  Higher elevations experience lower average temperatures during both day and night.  
C) The density of air increases with increasing elevation.  
D) Temperatures at night, and in the shadows, are greater at higher elevations
Definition
B) Higher elevations experience lower average temperatures during both day and night.
Term
At night, temperatures at high elevations decrease __________ than at lower elevations because __________.  
A) more quickly; the air is thinner and contains less heat energy  
B) more quickly; the air is thicker and radiates energy away more rapidly  
C) less quickly; the air is thinner and contains less heat energy  
D) less quickly; the air is thicker and radiates energy away more rapidly  
Definition
A) more quickly; the air is thicker and radiates energy away more rapidly
Term
If the temperature at the surface of the earth (at sea level) is 100°F, what is the temperature at 2000 feet if the normal lapse rate is 3.5°F/1000 feet?  
A) 93°F  
B) 96.5°F  
C) 103.5°F  
D) 107°F
Definition
A) 93 degrees
Term
The temperature control that includes the heat capacity of a substance is  
A) movement.  
B) evaporation.  
C) cloud cover.  
D) specific heat.
Definition
D) Specific Heat
Term
Which of the following is true regarding clouds?  
A) They increase temperature minimums and temperature maximums.  
B) They cover about 15 percent of Earth's surface at any one time.  
C) They act like insulation in that they have a moderating influence on temperatures.  
D) They decrease nighttime temperatures and increase daytime temperatures.  
Definition
C) They act like insulation in that they have a moderating influence on temperatures
Term
The temperature on a cloudy night is likely to be __________ those on a clear nightall other factors being equal.  
A) warmer than  
B) colder than  
C) the same as
Definition
A) Warmer than
Term
The temperature on a cloudy night is likely to be __________ than that on a clear night because __________.  
A) colder; the clouds reflect more energy  
B) colder; the clouds absorb heat energy and store it  C) warmer; the clouds absorb heat energy and then reradiate some of it back to the ground  
D) warmer; the clouds absorb heat energy and store it  
Definition
C) Warmer, the clounds absorb heat energy and then reradiate some of it back to the ground
Term
Evaporation  
A) tends to increase temperatures over land.  
B) tends to lower temperatures more over water bodies than over land.  
C) tends to increase the temperature over water.  
D) affects land more than ocean surfaces.  
E) affects the temperature of land surfaces and water bodies the same amount.
Definition
B) Tends to lower temeratures more over water bodies than over land
Term
The land surface cools off more rapidly at night than water does because  
A) the energy is stored in a shallow layer near the surface of the land, and so it can be radiated away faster.  
B) the amount of energy stored in the land is less than that stored in the water column.  
C) all of the above
 D) none of the above land does not cool off more rapidly than water at night
Definition
C) all of the above
Term
Which of the following is true regarding the specific heat of land and water?  
A) Water can hold more heat energy than a comparable volume of rock.  
B) The temperature of water will rise faster than that of land when exposed to the same amount of insolation.  
C) Land surfaces have a higher specific heat than water surfaces.  
D) Land and water have very similar specific heat values.  
Definition
A) Water can hold more heat energy than a comparable volume of rock
Term
Land has a __________ specific heat than water and therefore heats more __________.  
A) higher; slowly  
B) higher; quickly  
C) lower; slowly  
D) lower; quickly
Definition
D) lower quickly
Term
As a result of the characteristics of water, cities located near a coast should experience a temperature range that is __________ those of cities located in the interior at the same latitude.  
A) the same as  
B) smaller than  
C) larger than
Definition
B) Smaller than
Term
Both City A and City B are located at the same latitude and the same amount of cloud cover. City A has a mean annual temperature of 27°C and a temperature range of 22°C. City B has a mean annual temperature of 26°C and a temperature range of 14°C. Which city is located in the interior of the continent?  
A) City A  
B) City B  
C) It is impossible to say.  
Definition
A) City A
Term
During summer, cities located near the coast are __________ than those in the interior at the same latitude, while in the winter they are __________.  
A) warmer; warmer  
B) warmer; cooler  
C) cooler; warmer  
D) cooler; cooler
Definition
C) Cooler, warmer
Term
In general, more moderate temperature patterns  
A) are created by continentality.  
B) are exemplified by Winnipeg and Wichita.  
C) indicate maritime influences.  
D) occur in continental interiors.  
Definition
C) indicate maritime influences
Term

The Gulf Stream  
A) moves southward and moderates temperatures in eastern South America.  
B) moves equatorward, warming the California coast. 

C) moves northward in the western Atlantic, moderating temperatures in Iceland.  
D) creates a warming effect on Japan and the Aleutians.

Definition
C) moves northmard in the western Atlantic, moderating temberatures in Iceland
Term
Which of the following results from convection currents?  
A) Heat energy is more evenly distributed in soil and rock than in water.  
B) Heat energy tends to concentrate in one spot.  
C) Warmer and cooler water mix, thereby spreading heat over a greater volume.  
D) none of the abovecurrents have no affect on either land or water body temperatures
Definition
C) Warmer and cooler water mix, thereby spreading heat over a greater volume
Term

If the Gulf Stream shifted away from Iceland and England, winter temperatures in these locations would  
A) become cooler, thereby decreasing the average winter temperature.  
B) become warmer, thereby increasing the average winter temperature.  
C) remain the same. 

D) It is impossible to say what would happen to the winter temperatures.

Definition
A) Become cooler, thereby decreasing the average winter temperature
Term
Which of the following would experience the least continentality?  
A) central Nevada  
B) north central Asia  
C) a tropical island  
D) 200 kilometers inland from the Gulf of Mexico
Definition
C) a tropical island
Term
Which of the following experiences the greatest continentality? 
A) central Kansas 
B) north central Asia 
C) a tropical island 
D) 200 kilometers inland from the Gulf of Mexico 
Definition
B) North Central Asia
Term
Which of the following is true of the thermal equator during the month of July?  
A) It trends equatorward over continents and poleward over the oceans.  
B) It trends poleward over continents and equatorward over the oceans.  
C) It assumes an orientation that closely parallels that of the equator.  
D) Its orientation is apparently random and has yet to be adequately explained.
Definition
B) It trends poleward over continents and equatorward over the oceans
Term
Which of the following is true?  
A) Northern Hemisphere temperatures are more strongly dominated by continentality than are Southern Hemisphere temperatures.  
B) Southern Hemisphere temperatures are more strongly dominated by continentality than are Northern Hemisphere temperatures.  
C) The Northern and Southern hemispheres are dominated equally by maritime influences.  
D) The Northern and Southern hemispheres are dominated equally by continentality.  
Definition
A) Northern Hemisphere temperatures are more strongly dominated by continentality than are Souther Hemisphere temperatures
Term

The annual temperature range map in your text shows that the  
A) lowest ranges occur over continental interiors in the Northern Hemisphere.  
B) greatest ranges occur in the subtropics over the oceans.  
C) greatest ranges occur over the continental masses in the Southern Hemisphere. 

D) greatest ranges occur in east central Siberia in Russia.

Definition
D) Greatest ranges occur in east central Siberia in Russia
Term
The effects of wind and temperature on the human skin is called the  
A) heat index.  
B) sensible heat measurement.  
C) wind chill factor.  
D) apparent temperature index.
Definition
C) Wind Chill Factor
Term
As reported by the National Weather Service, the heat index  
A) relates temperature and relative humidity.  
B) combines air pressure and temperature in a comfort index.  
C) gives you an indication of the effect of wind on the skin.  
D) is generally reported during critical winter months
Definition
Term
Which of the following is true regarding future temperatures?  
A) Humans can influence long-term (millions of years) temperature trends.  
B) Short-term changes appear to be beyond human influence.  
C) Human society appears to be causing short-term changes in global temperatures and temperature patterns.  
D) The climate of the Earth will remain completely stable over the long term.
Definition
C) Human society appears to be causing short-term changes in global temeratures and temperature patterns
Term
The warmest years in the history of weather instruments were  
A) recorded during the period 1910 to 1921.  
B) recorded during the period 1970 and 2003.  
C) observed in the 1880s and 1890s.  
D) recorded in the first half of this century.
Definition
B) Recorded during the period 1970 and 2003
Term
The amount of heat energy present in any substance is expressed as its  
A) temperature.  
B) latent heat.  
C) sensible heat.  
D) surface motion.
Definition
C) Sensible heat
Term
-273°C (-459.4°F) is  
A)  the same as 273 Kelvin.  
B) an average boiling temperature.  
C) absolute zero 
D) not possible on any scale.
Definition
C) absolute zero
Term
The Celsius and Fahrenheit scales only coincide at: [°C → °F = (°C × 1.8) + 32]  
A) -40°.  
B) -273°.  
C) 0°.  
D) 212°.
Definition
C) 0 degrees
Term
The best thermometer to use where temperatures drop below -39°C (-38.2°F) is  
A) a barometric thermometer.  
B) a mercury thermometer.  
C) a bulb mounted in direct sunshine.  
D) an alcohol thermometer
Definition
D) an alchohol thermometer
Term

Air temperature is an indication of the average kinetic energy of individual molecules within the atmosphere. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Official temperature measurements are made in black, sealed boxes placed on the ground surface in direct sunlight. 

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

There is as yet no scientific consensus concerning the idea that the Earth is warming as a result of human activities. 

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

Temperatures are usually quite uniform and unchanging with altitude

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

The subsolar point migrates annually between 47° N and 47° S latitude. 

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

The average annual temperature of a location is controlled primarily by latitude

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The normal lapse rate of temperature change is 6.5 C°/1000 m (3.5°/1000 ft). 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Clouds moderate temperatures producing lower daily maximums and higher nightly minimums

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

If you went for a walk on a hot beach, you could cool your feet off substantially by digging them into the sand. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Because water has a higher specific heat than land, it cools more quickly. 

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

Because water has a higher specific heat than land, it cools more quickly. 

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

You would expect a tropical island to have a high degree of continentality.

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Maritime influences tend to decrease both daily and monthly temperature ranges

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Ocean currents along midlatitude west coasts, even near deserts, are cool. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The Southern Hemisphere is dominated by maritime influences, whereas the Northern Hemisphere is dominated by continentality.

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term
Our planet and our lives are powered by  
A) energy derived from inside Earth.  
B) radiant energy from the Sun.  
C) utilities and oil companies.  
D) shorter wavelengths of gamma rays, X-rays, and ultraviolet.  
Definition
B) Radiant energy from the sun
Term

The plane of the Earth's orbit about the Sun is called  A) perihelion. 

B) aphelion.  
C) the plane of the ecliptic.  
D) a great circle.

Definition
C) the plane of hte ecliptic
Term
Which of the following accurately describes Earth's distance from the sun?  
A) The earth-sun distance averages 150 million kilometers (93 million miles).  
B) It takes light an average of 8 minutes and 20 seconds to travel from the sun to the earth.  
C) The earth is closer to the sun in January (perihelion) and farther away in July (aphelion).  
D) All of these are correct.
Definition
D) ALl of these are correct
Term
Which of the following is true of Earth's orbit about the Sun?  
A) It is perfectly circular.  
B) It is elliptical.  
C) It takes approximately the same time for the earth to orbit the sun as it does for the rest of the planets in the solar system to orbit the sun.  
D) The orbit does not vary over millions of years.  
E) both B and C
Definition
B) It is elliptical
Term
Earth's diameter is  
A) about 10,000 km (6,000 mi.).  
B) about 20,000 km (12,000 mi.).  
C) about 40,000 km (24,000 mi.).  
D) about 50,000 km (30,000 mi.).
Definition
C) about 40,000 km (24,000 m.i.)
Term
The Sun produces which of the following?  
A) mainly visible light and infrared energy  
B) mainly ultraviolet and X-rays   
C) only solar wind  
D) only radiant energy that is beneficial to life  
Definition
A) Mainly visible light and infared energy
Term
On its way to Earth, the solar wind first encounters  
A) the atmosphere.  
B) the magnetosphere.  
C) Earth's surface.  
D) the lower atmosphere.
Definition
B) the magnetosphere
Term
Auroras  
A) have been seen as far south as Jamaica.  
B) are created by solar wind interacting with the magnetosphere.  
C) are related to sunspot activity.  
D) are an important component of Earth's energy budget.  
E) A, B, and C only
Definition

E) A, B, and C only

Have been seen as far south as Jamaica

are created by slar wind interacting with the magnetosphere

are related to sunspot activity 

Term
The auroras in the upper atmosphere are caused by  
A) the interaction of electromagnetic energy with atmospheric gases.  
B) AM radio broadcasts.  
C) various weather phenomena.  
D) the interaction of the solar wind and atmospheric gases.
Definition
D)  The interaction of the solar wind and atmospheric gases
Term
Radio waves have a __________ wavelength than visible light and are therefore __________ energetic.  
A) longer; less  
B) longer; more  
C) shorter; less  
D) shorter; more
Definition
A) Longer; less
Term
The two main portions of the solar spectrum which enter the atmosphere are  
A) X-rays and visible light.  
B) visible and infrared energy.  
C) infrared and gamma rays.  
D) ultraviolet and visible light.
Definition
B) visible and infared energy
Term
The dominant wavelength of energy emitted by the sun is  
A) shorter than that emitted by the Earth.  
B) longer than that emitted by the Earth.  
C) the same length as that emitted by the Earth.  
Definition
A) shorter than that emitted by the Earth
Term
Which of the following is correctly matched?  
A) sun longwave radiation infrared  
B) sun shortwave radiation radio waves  
C) earth longwave radiation infrared  
D) earth shortwave radiation infrared  
E) earth longwave radiation ultraviolet
Definition
C)earth-longwave radiation-infrared
Term
The dominant wavelength emitted by the earth is  
A) gamma radiation.  
B) X-ray radiation.  
C) visible light.  
D) infrared.
Definition
D) infrared
Term
Which of the following sequences is arranged in order from shorter wavelength to longer wavelength?  
A) infrared, visible, ultraviolet, X-rays  
B) X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared  
C) gamma rays, microwaves, visible, X-rays  
D) radio waves, light, heat, X-rays
Definition
B) X-rays, ultraviolet, visible, infrared
Term
The thermopause refers to  
A) Earth's magnetic field.  
B) the solar atmosphere that extends into space.  
C) the top of Earth's atmosphere, some 480 km (300 mi.) above the surface.  
D) the Sun's surface.
Definition
C) the top of Earth's atmospherem sine 480 km (300mi.) above the surface
Term
1372 watts per square meter (2 calories per cm2 per minute) refers to the  
A) solar constant, which is the average value of energy received at the thermopause.  
B) solar wind input to the atmosphere.  
C) average energy receipt at Earth's surface.  
D) amount of energy absorbed by the atmosphere.  
Definition
A) Solar Constant, which is the average value of energy receieved at the thermopause
Term
The solar constant is measured at  
A) the sun's surface.  
B) the edge of the sun's atmosphere.  
C) the thermopause.  
D) sea level.
Definition
C) the thermopause
Term
The solar constant is the value obtained  
A) for the earth's average distance from the sun.  
B) when the earth is closest to the sun.  
C) when the earth is furthest from the sun.  
D) none of the above
Definition
A) for the earth's average distance from the sun
Term

The uneven distribution of insolation by latitude is primarily a result of  
A) variability in the Sun's output.  
B) the changing distance of Earth from the Sun.  
C) variation in the value of a watt. 

D) Earth's sphericity, which presents varied angles to parallel solar rays.  

Definition
D) Earth's sphericity, which presents varied angles to parallel solar rays.
Term
High latitudes receive less energy than the equatorial regions because  
A) the orientation of the Earth's surface relative to the sun's rays diminishes the intensity of solar radiation at high latitudes.  
B) the sun's rays must pass through more atmosphere at higher latitudes.  
C) both A and B  
D) none of the aboveeach latitude receives the same amount of energy at the surface  
Definition

C) both A and B

The orientation of the Earth's surface relative to the sun's rays diminishes the intesnity of solar radiation at high latitudes

Term
What is the name of the location on the surface of the earth that receives insolation when the sun is directly overhead? (When this occurs, the sun's rays are perpendicular to this surface.)  
A) solar point  
B) zenith  
C) subsolar point  
D) North Polar point
Definition
C) Subsolar point
Term
On the northern hemisphere's summer solstice, the north polar region receives __________ daily insolation than areas nearer the equator because __________. 
A) more; the sun does not set 
B) more; the sun is higher in the sky 
C) less; the sun does not rise 
D) less; the sun does not rise
Definition
A) more; the sun does not set
Term
The term "net radiation" refers to 
A) the total amount of energy received by the Earth. 
B) the total amount of energy radiated by the Earth. 
C) the difference in amount of incoming and outgoing radiation. 
D) radiation emitted by satellite networks.
Definition
C) The differnece in amount of incoming and outgoing radiation
Term
The amount of energy received above the South Pole during the southern hemisphere's summer solstice is __________ than that received above the North Pole during the northern hemisphere's summer solstice because __________.  
A) more; the atmosphere is thinner above the South Pole  
B) more; the Earth is closer to the sun during the southern hemisphere's summer solstice  
C) less; the atmosphere is thicker above the South Pole  
D) less; the Earth is further from the sun during the southern hemisphere's summer solstice  
Definition
B) morel the Earth is close to the sun during the southern hemisphere's summer solstice
Term
Changes in daylength and the Sun's altitude above the horizon over the course of the year  
A) produce the earth's rotation.  
B) are phenomena that occur only at the equator.  
C) are responsible for the seasons.  
D) are factors that follow an irregular, random cycle.  
Definition
C) Are responsible for the seasons
Term
At all times during the year, the circle of illumination  
A) divides Earth between northern and southern hemispheres.  
B) divides Earth into eastern and western halves.  
C) separates winter from summer.  
D) divides Earth between equal halves of lightness and darkness.
Definition
D) Divides Earth between equal halves of lightness and darkness.
Term
The Sun's altitude refers to  
A) the angular distance from the equator to the latitude at which direct overhead insolation is received.  
B) the angular height of the sun above the horizon.  
C) the subsolar point.  
D) how far the Sun is from Earth.  
Definition
B) The angular height of the sun above the horizon
Term
The Sun's declination refers to  
A) the angular distance from the equator to the latitude at which direct overhead insolation is received.  
B) the angular height of the sun above the horizon.  
C) how far the Sun is from Earth.  
D) its altitude, in thousands of feet, above the horizon.  
Definition
A) The angular distance from the equator to the latidtude at which direct overhead insolation is recieved
Term
The sun's declination migrates through  
A) 23.5°.  
B) 30°.  
C) 47°.  
D) 66.5°.  
E) 133°.
Definition
C) 66.5
Term
Which of the following is true regarding daylength?  
A) The equator experiences at least six-hours difference in daylength from winter to summer.  
B) Nowhere on Earth does daylength vary by as much as 24 hours.  
C) Daylength varies more at the equator than at higher latitudes.  
D) The people living at 40° N or S latitude experience about six-hours difference in daylength from winter to summer.  
Definition
D) The people living at 40° N or S latitude experience about six-hours difference in daylength from winter to summer. 
Term
Which of the following characterizes the Earth's revolution?  
A) It takes approximately 24 hours.  
B) It is responsible for creating the circle of illumination, and hence, day/night relationships.  
C) It is clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole.  
D) It determines the timing of seasons and length of the year.
Definition
D) It determines the timing of seasons and length of the year.
Term
Earth's rotation is described as  
A) east to west.  
B) north to south.  
C) west to east.  
D) clockwise when viewed from above the North Pole.  
Definition
C) West to east
Term
Which of the following is true regarding Earth's axis?  
A) The amount of axial tilt fluctuates during the year and forms the basis for seasonal changes.  
B) The axis remains parallel to the plane of the ecliptic.  
C) Axial tilt is unrelated to the phenomenon of seasonal change.  
D) The axis is tilted 23.5° from a perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic.  
Definition
D) The axis is tilted 23.5° from a perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic. 
Term
Which of the following is not true regarding rotational velocities at different latitudes?  
A) At 90° latitude, the rotational velocity is 1452 kmph (902 mph).  
B) At 0° latitude, the rotational velocity is 1675 kmph (1040 mph).  
C) At 60° latitude, the rotational velocity is 838 kmph (521 mph).  
D) At 30° latitude, the rotational velocity is 1449 kmph (900 mph).  
Definition
A) At 90° latitude, the rotational velocity is 1452 kmph (902 mph). 
Term
On the earth, the sun passes directly overhead at 25° north latitude __________ times a year.  
A) 0  
B) 1  
C) 2  
D) 4
Definition
A) 0
Term
While standing at the Tropic of Cancer, Emma's shadow points north at noon (sun time). Based on this, which of the following can be definitely concluded?  
A) It must be the summer solstice.  
B) It must be the winter solstice.  
C) It must be one of the equinoxes.  
D) It must not be the summer solstice.  
E) It must not be the winter solstice.
Definition
D) It must not be the summer solstice
Term

On June 21, the sun never sets at Finn's location. Based on this, it can be concluded that Finn lives  
A) between the Tropic of Cancer and the Arctic Circle. 

B) between the Tropic of Capricorn and the Antarctic Circle.  
C) above the Arctic Circle.  
D) below the Antarctic Circle.

Definition
C) above the arctic circle
Term

Which of the following statements is true?  
A) December 21 = vernal equinox.  
B) September 22 = summer solstice in Australia.  
C) March 21 = equal day and nights everywhere on Earth.  
D) June 21 = equal day and nights everywhere on Earth.  

 E) December 21 = subsolar point at the Tropic of Cancer

Definition
C) March 21=equal day and nights everywhere on Earth
Term
During which time period would the number of daylight hours always be greater than, or equal to, the number of nighttime hours for observers in the northern hemisphere?  
A) From the summer solstice, to the autumn equinox, to the winter solstice.  
B) From the autumn equinox, to the winter solstice, to the spring equinox.  
C) From the spring equinox, to the summer solstice, to the autumn equinox.  
D) From the winter solstice, to the spring equinox, to the summer solstice.
Definition
C) From the spring equinox, to the summer solstice, to the autumn equinox. 
Term
The Tropic of Cancer refers to  
A) the parallel that occurs at 23.5° south latitude.  
B) the location of the subsolar point on September 22.  
C) the parallel that is the farthest northern location for the subsolar point during the year.  
D) 0° latitude when the Sun crosses the equator
Definition
C) the parallel that is the farthest northern location for the subsolar point during the year. 
Term
The equinox  
A) occurs four times during the year.  
B) has 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night for all locations.  
C) is the longest day of the year at any given place.  
D) is when the subsolar point is at one of the tropics.
Definition
B) has 12 hours of day and 12 hours of night for all locations. 
Term
The Tropic of Capricorn refers to  
A) that parallel that is 23.5° south latitude.  
B) the location of the subsolar point on September 22.  
C) the parallel that is the farthest northern location for the subsolar point during the year.  
D) that parallel that is 66.5° south latitude.
Definition
A) that parallel that is 23.5 degrees south latitude
Term
The longest days of the year in the Southern Hemisphere are experienced during the Northern Hemisphere's  
A) Summer solstice.  
B) Spring equinox.  
C) Winter solstice.  
D) Autumn equinox.
Definition
C) Winter Solstice
Term
The longest days of the year in the Northern Hemisphere are experienced during the  
A) time of 24-hour days at the South Pole.  
B) vernal equinox.  
C) winter solstice.  
D) autumnal equinox.  
E) time that the sun is directly overhead at the Tropic of Cancer.  
Definition
E) time that the sun is directly overhead at the Tropic of Cancer. 
Term
Which of the following relationships is incorrect?  
A) December solstice - subsolar point at 23.5 S latitude  
B) March equinox - subsolar point at 0° latitude  
C) June 21 - subsolar point at 23.5 N latitude  
D) June solstice - subsolar point at 23.5 N latitude  
E) September equinox - subsolar point at 23.5° S latitude
Definition
E) September equinox - subsolar point at 23.5° S latitude
Term
According to the text, which of the following is true regarding the point of sunrise for a location in the northern hemisphere?  
A) It migrates from southeast to northeast from winter to summer.  
B) It remains fixed throughout the year; only the Sun's altitude changes.  
C) It moves to the south from winter to summer.  
D) It is along the western horizon in summer, and the eastern horizon in winter.  
Definition
A) It migrates from southeast to northeast from winter to summer. 
Term
Which of the following is true regarding dawn and twilight?  
A) Dawn and twilight last longest at the equatorapproximately 2.5 hours.  
B) The polar regions do not experience dawn and twilight.  
C) 60° north and south latitudes receive the most dawn and twilight.  
D) The duration of both increases with increasing latitude.
Definition
D) The duration of both increases with increasing latitude.
Term
On June 21st, the Sun's declination is at  
A) the equator.  
B) Rid de Janeiro, Brazil and Alice Springs Australia
 C) the Tropic of Capricorn.  
D) the Tropic of Cancer.
Definition
D) The Tropic of Cancer
Term

Earth is at perihelion in early January when it is closest to the Sun.  

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Earth is farthest from the Sun at perihelion and closest at aphelion. 

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

Sunspots are associated with magnetic storms

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The electromagnetic spectrum of radiant energy travels in waves at the speed of light in all directions from the Sun. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Large magnetic disturbances on the Sun's surface are called sunspots and produce increased amounts of solar wind. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term
Water covers approximately __________ of Earth's surface.  
A) 50 percent  
B) 90 percent  
C) 25 percent  
D) 71 percent
Definition
D) 71 percent
Term
When water freezes, its density  
A) increases.  
B) decreases.  
C) remains the same as in the liquid state.  
Definition
B)Decreaes
Term
When water freezes, its volume  
A) increases.  
B) decreases.  
C) remains the same as in the liquid state.  
Definition
A) Increases
Term
Which of the following is true of the distribution of land and water on Earth?  
A) The Southern Hemisphere is dominated by water.  
B) The Northern Hemisphere is dominated by water.  
C) They are evenly distributed in both hemispheres.  
Definition
A) The Southern Hemisphere is dominated by water. 
Term
The largest portion of fresh water today is located in  
A) clouds.  
B) groundwater resources.  
C) ice caps and glaciers.  
D) the major rivers and lakes of the world.
Definition
C) Ice caps and glaciers
Term
Earth's oceans possess  
A) most of the fresh water on Earth.  
B) about the same amount of water as is in the atmosphere.  
C) fifty percent of Earth's waters.  
D) ninety-seven percent of Earth's waters.  
Definition
D) Ninety-seven percent of Earth's waters
Term
Other than ice sheets and glaciers, the largest repository of fresh water is located in  
A) lakes and saline seas.  
B) groundwater.  
C) soil moisture storage.  
D) rivers and streams.
Definition
B) Groundwater
Term
__________ lakes occur in areas of interior drainage, which means that __________.  
A) Fresh water; the water in the lakes is derived from water that flows through the interior of the Earth just before reaching the surface  
B) Fresh water; the water in the lakes flows into basins that have no outlet to the sea  
C) Saline; the water in the lakes is derived from water that flows through the interior of the Earth just before reaching the surface  
D) Saline; the water in the lakes flows into basins that have no outlet to the sea
Definition
D) Saline; the water in the lakes flows into basins that have no outlet to the sea
Term
Water molecules bind tightly to one another. This is a result of  
A) hydrogen bonding.  
B) covalent bonding.  
C) atomic friction.  
D) molecular hold.
Definition
A) Hydrogen BOnding
Term
Surface tension and capillarity are the result of  
A) hydrogen bonding.  
B) gravitational attraction.  
C) magnetic bonding.  
D) molecular hold.
Definition
D) Molecular Hold
Term
Water movement through the soil and water held in a straw above the surface of the liquid you are drinking result from a common phenomenon. What is this phenomenon?  
A) barometric pressure  
B) surface tension  
C) capillary action  
D) vacuum suction  
Definition
C) capillary action
Term
The term deposition refers to  
A) water freezing to ice.  
B) ice melting to water.  
C) vapor condensing into liquid.  
D) water vapor freezing to ice.  
Definition
D) water vapor freezing to ice
Term
What is the heat energy involved in the change of state, or phase, in water?
A) mechanical heat  
B) sensible heat  
C) fusion heat  
D) latent heat
Definition
D) Latent heat
Term
Which of the following is true regarding the evaporation of water?  
A) The phase change involves the latent heat of sublimation.  
B) The phase change involves the latent heat of evaporation.  
C) The phase change involves the latent heat of deposition.  
D) The phase change involves the sensible heat of vaporization
Definition
B) The phase change involves the latent heat of evaporation. 
Term
When water condenses, it __________ heat energy and __________ the surrounding air.
A) absorbs; cools  
B) absorbs heats  
C) releases; cools  
D) releases; heats
Definition
D) releases; heats
Term
When water evaporates, it __________ heat energy and __________ the surrounding air.  
A) absorbs; cools  
B) absorbs heats  
C) releases; cools  
D) releases; heats
Definition
A) absorbs; cools
Term
Which of the following phase changes decreases the temperature of the air?  
A) water to ice  
B) ice to water  
C) steam to water  
D) steam to ice
Definition
B) Ice to water
Term

Most of the precipitation and evaporation on Earth takes place over the  
A) land masses.  
B) oceans. 

C) poles of the planet.  
D) ice caps and glaciers combined.

Definition
B) Oceans
Term
Water vapor in the atmosphere is called  
A) water.  
B) deposition.  
C) sublimation.  
D) humidity.
Definition
D) Humidity
Term
Relative humidity is  
A) the amount of water vapor in the air compared to the normal amount.  
B) the amount of moisture in the air relative to your own sensible feelings.  
C)  the amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature expressed as a percentage of the water vapor capacity of the air.  
D) a basically unused concept when it comes to weather topics.  
Definition
C)  the amount of water vapor in the air at a given temperature expressed as a percentage of the water vapor capacity of the air. 
Term

The capacity of the air to hold water vapor is basically a function of  
A) the temperature of both the water vapor and the air. 

B) the water vapor content.  
C) freezing temperature.  
D) latent heat.

Definition
A) the temperature of both the water vapor and the air. 
Term
As temperature increases, the amount of energy available for evaporation  
A) increases.  
B) decreases.  
C) remains constant.
Definition
A) increases
Term
A mass of air always becomes saturated when it reaches the  
A) highest temperature of the day.  
B) lowest temperature of the day.  
C) specific humidity point.  
D) dew-point temperature.
Definition
D) dew-point temerature
Term
If the saturation vapor pressure increases while the amount of water vapor in the air remains constant, this would indicate  
A) that the temperature had increased.  
B) that the temperature had decreased as a result of the loss of heat energy.  
C) that the air was cooling by expansion.  
D) none of the above
Definition
A) that the temperature had increased. 
Term
The greater the difference in temperature between the wet bulb and dry bulb on a sling psychrometer, the __________ the air is and the __________ the relative humidity.  
A) drier; higher  
B) drier; lower  
C) wetter; higher  
D) wetter; lower
Definition
B) Drier; Lower
Term
The elevation at which the bottoms of clouds begin to form represents the elevation at which  
A) dew point occurs.  
B) relative humidity reaches 100 percent.  
C) absolute humidity reaches 100 percent.  
D) both A and B  
E)  both A and C
Definition

D) Both A and B

Dew point occurs

relative humidity reachers 100 percent

Term
The general term that refers to the tendency of a parcel of air to either remain in place or change its initial position is __________.  
A) adiabatic  
B) stability  
C) conditional instability  
D) stasis
Definition
B) stability
Term
An air parcel is considered unstable when it  
A) either remains as it is, or changes its initial position.  
B) continues to rise until it reaches an altitude at which the surrounding air has a similar temperature. C) it resists displacement upward.  
D) it ceases to ascend.  
Definition
B) continues to rise until it reaches an altitude at which the surrounding air has a similar temperature.
Term
A parcel of air, with less than 100% relative humidity, that is rising because of heat energy derived from the surface is  
A) stable.  
B) unstable.  
C) conditionally unstable.
Definition
B) unstable
Term
If an air parcel will begin to rise when condensation beginsin that parcel, the air is considered to be  
A) stable.  
B) unstable.  
C) conditionally unstable.  
Definition
C) conditionally unstable
Term
Air in a thunderstorm is being heated to temperatures higher than those of the surrounding air by the process of __________, and because of this, the air is __________.  
A) condensation; stable  
B) expansion; unstable  
C) condensation; unstable  
D) compression; unstable  
E) expansion; stable
Definition
C) condensation; unstable 
Term
Definition
Term
Assume a warm air parcel, at sea level, has a temperature of 21°C (70°F) and begins to rise upward. Assume it becomes saturated at 1000 m (3300 ft) altitude, and continues to rise to 2000 m (6600 ft.) altitude. What would the approximate temperature of the parcel be at an elevation of 2000 m (6600 ft.)?  
A) 1°C (44.6°F)  
B) 5°C (46.4°F)  
C) 8.2°C (48.2°F)  
D) 9°C (41.°F)
Definition
B) 5°C (46.4°F)
Term
Air that is not saturated will cool or heat at a rate of __________ as it rises or descends, respectively.  
A) 10 C° per 1000 m (5.5 F° per 1000 ft.)  
B) 6 C° per 1000 m (3.3 F° per 1000 ft.)  
C) 6.4 C° per 1000 m (3.5 F° per 1000 ft.)  
Definition
A) 10 C° per 1000 m (5.5 F° per 1000 ft.) 
Term
The dry adiabatic rate (DAR) is  
A) 6 C° per 1000 m (3.3 F° per 1000 ft).  
B) the rate used for a saturated parcel of air.  
C) a term that refers to the temperature decrease in the still, calm air that surrounds a moving air parcel.  
D) 10 C° per 1000 m (5.5 F° per 1000 ft.) a fixed rate.  
Definition
D) 10 C° per 1000 m (5.5 F° per 1000 ft.) a fixed rate. 
Term
The wet adiabatic rate is __________ than the dry adiabatic rate because __________.  
A) greater; condensation heats the air  
B) greater; condensation cools the air  
C) less; condensation heats the air  
D) less; condensation cools the air
Definition
C) less; condensation heats the air
Term
Areas between 25° to 35° latitude usually become __________ because this area is dominated by air that is sinking and being __________.  
A) deserts; cooled by expansion  
B) deserts; heated by compression  
C) rain forests; cooled by expansion  
D) rain forests; heated by compression
Definition
B) deserts; heated by compression 
Term
The island of Oahu is located at about 18° north latitude and has a mountain range on it which runs in an east-west direction. Based on this, which side of the island receives the greatest amount of rainfall? (Consider the wind belt in which Oahu is located in order to answer this question.)  
A) north  
B) southwest  
C) southeast  
D) west
Definition
A) North
Term
As air sinks down the leeward side of a mountain, it will move into a region of __________ air pressure and will therefore be __________ by compression.  
A) higher; heated  
B) higher; cooled  
C) lower; heated  
D) lower; cooled
Definition
A) higher; heated
Term
As air rises up the windward side of a mountain, it will move into a region of __________ air pressure and will therefore be cooled by __________.  
A) higher; compression  
B) higher; expansion  
C) lower; compression  
D) lower; expansion
Definition
D) lower; expansion
Term
The condensation process requires  
A) dew-point temperatures alone.  
B) condensation nuclei and saturated air.  
C) moisture droplets.  
D) condensation nuclei alone.
Definition
B) condensation nuclei and saturated air. 
Term
The principal process for raindrop formation in tropical warm clouds is  
A) collision-coalescence process.  
B) compressional heating.  
C) ice-crystal process.  
D) sublimation.
Definition
A) collision-coalescence process. 
Term
Clouds that have vertical development and produce thunderstorms are called  
A) stratocumulus.  
B) cumulonimbus.  
C) nimbostratus.  
D) cumulus.
Definition
B) cumulonimbus. 
Term
Which of the following is not generally true of well-developed cumulonimbus clouds?  
A) They are puffy in appearance.  
B) They are more likely to form in association with a warm front than a cold front.  
C) They are capable of producing rain.  
D) They are capable of producing hail.
Definition
B) They are more likely to form in association with a warm front than a cold front
Term
The weather of the tropics is dominated by __________ clouds which forms as a result of __________.  
A) cirrus; sublimation  
B) nimbostratus; frontal activity  
C) cumulonimbus; sublimation  
D) cumulonimbus; convection  
E) cumulonimbus; frontal activity  
Definition
D) cumulonimbus; convection 
Term
Which type of cloud would dominate the weather in a region under the ITCZ?  
A) cirrus  
B) altostratus  
C) cumulonimbus  
D) cirrocumulus
Definition
C) cumulonimbus 
Term
Which of the following are correctly matched?  
A) flat or layered clouds - cumulus  
B) puffy or globular clouds - cirroform  
C) puffy or globular clouds - cumuliform  
D) wispy clouds - water droplets
Definition
C) puffy or globular clouds - cumuliform
Term
Definition
Term
Which of the following is a middle-level cloud type?  
A) cirrostratus  
B) stratocumulus  
C) cumulonimbus  
D) altostratus
Definition
D) altostratus
Term
What type of cloud that has a thin wispy appearance, consists of ice crystals, and often precedes a warm front?  
A) cirrus  
B) stratocumulus  
C) cumulonimbus  
D) altostratus
Definition
A) Cirrus
Term
Which of the following is true regarding cirrostratus clouds?  
A) They are uniform, featureless, and grey like high fog.  
B) The sun's outline is just visible through these clouds.  
C) They form a veil of ice crystals that creates a halo around the Moon or Sun.  
D) They are sharply outlined, and billowy. 
Definition
C) They form a veil of ice crystals that creates a halo around the Moon or Sun. 
Term
Which cloud type is specifically a good indicator of an arriving storm, say within the next 24 hours?  
A) fog  
B) cumulus  
C) stratocumulus  
D) cirrus
Definition
D) Cirrus
Term
A thunderstorm is associated with __________ clouds.  
A) cirrostratus  
B) stratocumulus  
C) cumulonimbus  
D) altostratus
Definition
C) cumulonimbus 
Term
The prefix nimbo- and the suffix -nimbus means  
A) that clouds are generally forming.  
B) clouds that occur in the middle altitudes (2000-6000 m).  
C) that clouds are generally dissipating.  
D) that the clouds are producing precipitation
Definition
D) that the clouds are producing precipitation
Term
Condensation in a storm __________ the temperature of the air and causes the air pressure in the storm system to __________.  
A) increases; rise  
B) increases; drop  
C) decreases; rise  
D) decreases; drop
Definition
B) Increases; drop
Term

Hydrogen bonding between water molecules produces the properties of surface tension and capillar

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The fact that water expands as it freezes allows it to break pipes and damage roads

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The bulk of the evaporation on Earth occurs over the continents

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

Evaporation from a surface cools the surface

 

True/False

 

Definition
True
Term

The phase changes of water provide a significant amount of the energy that powers the general circulation of the atmosphere. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The water vapor content of the air is termed humidity. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Air is saturated when the dew-point temperature and the air temperature coincide

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The portion of the total air pressure that is made up of water vapor molecules is termed specific humidity. 

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

Relative humidity is a direct or absolute measure of the water vapor content of the air. 

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

If a parcel of air is cooled, its relative humidity and saturation vapor pressure both rise

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

If saturation vapor pressure has been reached, then the relative humidity is 100 percent

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

When air becomes drier, difference between the wet and dry bulb thermometer readings decreases.

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

A parcel of air tends to heat by expansion and cool by compression as it moves vertically in the atmosphere. 

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

The dry adiabatic rate (DAR) applies to a moving parcel of air that is saturated, and it may vary from 4 C° to 10 C° per 1000 m (2 F° to 6 F° per 1000 ft).  

 

True/False

 

Definition
False
Term

The moist adiabatic rate varies as a function of both temperature and moisture content

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The moist adiabatic rate (MAR) is less than the dry adiabatic rate (DAR) as a result of the release of the latent heat of condensation within the rising parcel of air. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The destructive energy associated with major storms is derived largely from the condensation of water. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Clouds are only composed of raindrops. 

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term
The passage of shortwave and longwave energy through the atmosphere or water is an example of  
A) absorption.  
B) transmission.  
C) refraction.  
D) insolation.
Definition
B) Transmission
Term
What is the name for solar energy that is intercepted by Earth?  
A) advection.  
B) transmission energy.  
C) insolation.  
D) albedo.
Definition
C) Insolation
Term
Which of the following is true of insolation?  
A) It is the only energy input driving the Earth's atmospheric system.  
B) It consists of diffuse radiation.  
C) It consists of direct radiation.  
D) All of the above are true.  
E) None of the above are true.
Definition

D) All of the above are true

  It is the only energy input driving the Earth's atmospheric system.  
  It consists of diffuse radiation.  
 It consists of direct radiation.

Term
The insolation received at Earth's surface is  
A) usually low at the equator.  
B) generally greater at high latitudes because of daylength.  
C) greatest over low-latitude deserts with their cloudless skies.  
D) inadequate to sustain life.
Definition
C) greatest over low-latitude deserts with their cloudless skies.
Term
Which two gases are primarily responsible for the greenhouse effect because of their ability to absorb infrared energy?  
A) oxygen and hydrogen  
B) ozone and dust  
C) nitrogen and oxygen  
D) water vapor and carbon dioxide
Definition
D) water vapor and carbon dioxide
Term
The reflective quality of a surface is known as its  
A) conduction.  
B) absorption.  
C) albedo.  
D) scattering.  
Definition
C) albedo
Term
Which of the following has the highest albedo?  
A) forests  
B) asphalt  
C) dry, light sandy soils  
D) fresh snow
Definition
D) fresh snow
Term
If the surface of the earth were to suddenly turn white, the temperature of the planet would __________ because __________ insolation would be absorbed.  
A) decrease; less  
B) decrease; more  
C) increase; less  
D) increase; more
Definition
A) Decrease; less
Term
Earth's average overall albedo is  
A) 31 percent.  
B) 51 percent.  
C) 69 percent.  
D) unknown.
Definition
A) 31 percent
Term
Which of the following is true of the albedo of water?  
A) It changes, depending upon the sun angle.  
B) It is greatest when the sun is low in the sky.  
C) It never changes albedos are constant values  
D) It is less for frozen water than for liquid water.  
Definition
A) It changes, depending upon the sun angle.
Term
If the amount of cloud cover increases in response to greenhouse warming, this will __________ the earth's albedo and promote __________. (For this question, assume that albedo effects dominate the temperature response.)  
A) increase; warming  
B) increase; cooling  
C) decrease; warming  
D) decrease; cooling
Definition
B) increase; cooling
Term
An increase in the amount of high altitude, thin clouds would  
A) cool the planet in a process called cloud-albedo forcing.  
B) warm the planet in a process called cloud-greenhouse forcing.  
C) have no effect on the planet's temperature because insolation is constant.  
Definition
B) warm the planet in a process called cloud-greenhouse forcing
Term
On a cloudy day, Earth's surface receives  
A) direct insolation.  
B) diffuse radiation.  
C) direct radiation.  
D) a reduced daylength.
Definition
B) Diffuse radiation
Term
The Mount Pinatubo eruption in June 1991 affected the atmosphere in which of the following ways?  
A) The atmospheric albedo increased.  
B) An increase occurred in the amount of energy absorbed in the atmosphere.  
C) A worldwide decrease in surface temperatures occurred in the two years after the eruption.  
D) All of these were effects of the eruption.  
E) None of these effects occurred.
Definition

D) All of these were effects of the eruption

The atmospheric albedo increased.  
  An increase occurred in the amount of energy absorbed in the atmosphere.  
A worldwide decrease in surface temperatures occurred in the two years after the eruption.

Term
Conduction refers to  
A) the vertical movement of air in response to temperature-induced density differences.  
B) strong vertical motions in the atmosphere.  
C) the molecule-to-molecule transfer of heat energy that diffuses through the material.  
D) the behavior of something.
Definition
C) the molecule-to-molecule transfer of heat energy that diffuses through the material. 
Term
If a surface absorbs insolation,  
A) its temperature increases.  
B) its temperature decreases.  
C) its temperature is unaffected.  
D) refraction occurs.  
E) diffuse radiation occurs.
Definition
A) its temperature increases.
Term
A vertical air current that is generated by temperature-induced density differences is an example of heat transfer by  
A) advection.  
B) convection.  
C) conduction.  
D) transmission.  
E) diffusion.
Definition
B) Convection
Term
On the average, which of the following is true regarding the distribution of shortwave and longwave energy at Earth's surface by latitude?  
A) The equatorial zone is a region of net deficits.  
B) The polar regions are areas of net surpluses.  
C) The distribution shows an imbalance of net radiation from equator to poles.  
D) More energy is lost than is gained in the equatorial regions.
Definition
C) The distribution shows an imbalance of net radiation from equator to poles. 
Term
The relationship between the insolation curve and the air temperature curve on a graph of daily surface energy  
A) exhibits a lag of several hours between the plotted lines.  
B) shows little or no relationship between the two variables.  
C) shows that peak temperatures occur near noon, whereas peak insolation receipt is at 3:00 or 4:00 P.M.  
D) coincide at noon.
Definition
A) exhibits a lag of several hours between the plotted lines. 
Term
The science that specifically studies the climate at or near Earth's surface is  
A) geography.  
B) meteorology.  
C) micrometeorology.  
D) microclimatology.  
E) astronomy.
Definition
D) microclimatology
Term
The time of maximum daily temperature occurs  
A) at the same time that maximum insolation occurs, because that is when maximum energy is available for heating the air.  
B) before the time of maximum insolation, because the residual heat energy left over in the atmosphere from the previous day adds to the energy supplied by insolation.  
C) before the time of maximum insolation occurs, because the thermosphere transfers heat energy to the surface during the early morning hours as the D and E layers in the ionosphere become active.  
D) after the time of maximum insolation, because an energy surplus accumulates in the atmosphere while the sun is still high in the sky and reaches a peak in mid-afternoon.  
E) after the time of maximum insolation, because the ground starts to reflect heat energy in the late afternoon, and this creates an energy surplus.
Definition
D) after the time of maximum insolation, because an energy surplus accumulates in the atmosphere while the sun is still high in the sky and reaches a peak in mid-afternoon. 
Term
Net radiation (NET R) refers to  
A) the net energy expended for ground heating and cooling.  
B) the balance of all radiation incoming and outgoing at Earth's surface.  
C) the amount of insolation coming into the surface.  
D) the amount of insolation not absorbed at the surface
Definition
B) the balance of all radiation incoming and outgoing at Earth's surface. 
Term
Which of the following would be true for the net radiation balance in a midlatitude location?  
A) Net R is constant throughout the year.  
B) There is a surplus of Net R during the summer and a deficit during the winter.  
C) There is a deficit of Net R during the summer and a surplus during the winter.  
D) The season at which surpluses and deficits occur varies from one year to the next.
Definition
B) There is a surplus of Net R during the summer and a deficit during the winter. 
Term
Longwave radiation (+ LW) arriving at the surface  
A) comes primarily from infrared energy emitted by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere.  
B) comes directly from the sun.  
C) comes from diffuse solar radiation.  
D) comes from UV radiation reflected from the bottoms of clouds.
Definition
A) comes primarily from infrared energy emitted by greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. 
Term
When water evaporates from a surface, which of the following occurs?  
A) Energy is stored within the water.  
B) Energy is removed from the surface.  
C) The surface is cooled.  
D) All of the above occur.
Definition

D) All of the above occur

Energy is stored within the water.  

Energy is removed from the surface.  
The surface is cooled. 
Term

When water evaporates, the energy that was used to evaporate the water  
A) is stored as sensible heat in the evaporated water. 

B) is stored as latent heat in the evaporated water.  
C) is transferred to the air by advection when the water evaporates.  
D) is conducted into the underlying layer of water.  

Definition
B) is stored as latent heat in the evaporated water.
Term

Insolation is the only source of energy that is ultimately responsible for heating the atmosphere and driving weather phenomena. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The reflective quality of a surface is called its albedo and is expressed as a percentage. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The rougher a surface, the higher its albedo

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

Energy that is reflected from the Earth's surface plays a substantial role in heating the atmosphere.

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

High latitudes have a higher albedo in winter than do low latitudes.

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The greater the albedo of a surface, the less it is heated by insolation.

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Heat energy flows from objects that are hot to those that are cold.

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

A daily temperature curve exhibits a lag of about three hours relative to an insolation curve

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

The coldest time of the year occurs in December at the time of the winter solstice. 

 

True/False

Definition
False
Term

NET R refers to the balance of all radiationboth shortwave and longwave. 

 

True/False

Definition
True
Term

Relative to expenditures of NET R, LE refers to the amount of energy that went for turbulent sensible heat transfer. 

 

True/False

Definition
False