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CJA/334 RESEARCH METHODS IN CRIMINAL JUSTICE
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25
Criminal Justice
10/20/2011

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Term
Quantitative research
Definition
uses numerically based data.
Term
Qualitative research
Definition
uses text, language, and visually based data
Term
Experimental Research
Definition
A method that divides people being studied into two or more groups, applying a treatment to one of the groups, and determining if there are any differences in the reaction of the groups over a set period of time.
Term
Survey and Interview Research
Definition
A method that uses a written questionnaire or formal interview to gather quantitative data on the backgrounds, behaviors, beliefs, or attitudes of a large number of people or agencies.
Term
Non-reactive Research
Definition
The unobtrusive collection of data that have usually been left behind by others.
Term
EXISTING DOCUMENTS/STATISTICS RESEARCH
Definition
A method that involves the collection and reanalysis of existing quantitative data.
Term
CONTENT ANALYSIS RESEARCH
Definition
A nonreactive method used to examine the content, or information and symbols, contained in written documents or other communication media.
Term
ETHNOGRAPHIC FIELD RESEARCH
Definition
A method in which the researcher engages the natural environment of their subjects and strives for an up close, personal, and highly detailed understanding of the research subjects’ culture.
Term
QUALITATIVE DOCUMENTS ANALYSIS (QDA) RESEARCH
Definition
A nonreactive method that attempts to make theoretical sense of documents (text or visual) by analyzing their cultural meaning.
Term
HISTORICAL RESEARCH
Definition
A method that examines past events systematically in an effort to accurately describe and account for what has happened in the past.
Term
HISTORICAL-COMPARATIVE RESEARCH:
Definition
A method that examines aspects of social and political life across different cultures and eras.
Term
ACADEMIC LEGAL RESEARCH
Definition
The systematic collection and analysis of legal-related documents in order to generate knowledge about a given crime and justice subject.
Term
BASIC RESEARCH:
Definition
A genre of research that generates knowledge for the sake of knowledge.
Term
DISINTERESTED KNOWLEDGE:
Definition
Knowledge not pursued for any instrumental purpose, but merely for the sake of making ethical, intellectual, and theoretical sense of our world.
Term
APPLIED RESEARCH:
Definition
A genre of research where a study is conducted to address a specific concern or to offer solution to a problem.
Term
EXPLORATORY RESEARCH:
Definition
Research in which the primary purpose is to examine a little understood issue or phenomenon to develop new ideas and move toward refined research questions.
Term
DESCRIPTIVE RESEARCH:
Definition
Research in which the primary purpose is to “paint” a picture using words or numbers and to present a profile, a classification or types, or an outline of steps to answer the questions such as who, when, where, or how.
Term
EXPLANATORY RESEARCH
Definition
Research in which the primary purpose is to explain why events occur and to build, elaborate, or test a theory.
Term
EVALUATION RESEARCH:
Definition
Research in which the primary purpose is to assess the effectiveness of a program, policy, or way of doing something.
Term
CRITICAL THINKING:
Definition
A type of thinking that scrutinizes knowledge claims using the criteria of reason and evidence.
Term
arbitrary scales
Definition
Scales developed by the researcher based primarily on face validity and personal judgment.
Term
branching procedure
Definition
Interview technique used to narrow down sensitive responses such as income into less threatening categories or ranges.
Term
case study (life history)
Definition
In-depth investigation of a single case (individual, group, or community).
Term
ecological fallacy
Definition
Error of assuming that relationships proven true of groups are true of individuals.
Term
Ordinal level variables
Definition
contain all the properties of nominal variables, but they also enable the placement of objects into ranks, that is, highest to lowest. In Table 10.1, the city with the highest victim rate was assigned a rank of 1, the city with the second highest a rank of 2, and
so forth to 13 for the lowest.