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Cis103-Operating Systems
Final Test
211
Computer Networking
08/12/2011

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Term
The ____ allocates each resource,starts its operation ,and, finally,deallocates the resource ,making it available to the next resource or job.
Definition
Device Manager
Term
______include(s)every peripheral units in the system such as printers,disk drives,CD/DVD drives,flash memory,keyboards,and so on.
Definition
I/O Devices
Term
______ operating systems are typically used for a network platform.
Definition
Linux,Net Ware,UNIX,Windows
Term
The type of system designed to perform one specific type of function is________.
Definition
Embedded.
Term
______ means that several logical records are grouped within one physical record.
Definition
Blocking
Term
The most common mechanism for implementing multiprogramming was the introduction of the _______ concept,which is when the CPU is notified of event needing operating systems services.
Definition
interrupt
Term
A system with blank divide programs into parts and keep them in secondary storage, bringing each part into memory only as it is needed .
Definition
virtual memory
Term
The ____ is used to indicate that a program is permanently held in ROM(read only memory),as opposed to being held in secondary storage.
Definition
firmware
Term
A typical ______computer houses devices to perform audio,video and graphic creation and editing.
Definition
multimedia
Term
A thread (or____)can be defined as a unit smaller than a process,which can be scheduled and executed.
Definition
lightweight process
Term
The name for the core part of the operating system is ____________.
Definition
kernel
Term
_____ are self-contained modules(units of software)that provide models of the real world and can be reused in different applications.
Definition
Objects
Term
In a single-user system,jobs are processed_______.
Definition
sequentially
Term
Fixed partitions are also called_______ partitions.
Definition
static
Term
In the partition scheme, the table that the Memory Manager uses to keep track of jobs is composed of the_________.
Definition
partition size,memory address,access,and status
Term
The ______keeps the free/busy list organized by memory locations,low-order memory to high-order memory.
Definition
first-fit memory allocation
Term
______ has the least wasted space and the smallest partition fitting the requirements.
Definition
Best-fit memory location
Term
______ has the least wasted space and the smallest partition fitting the requirements.
Definition
Best-fit memory location
Term
Consider the following space requirements for jobs 1-4 and memory blocks.Assuming a first-fit scheme is used,the job,____,is not able to run.
J1 10k
J2 20k
J3 30k
J4 10k
Blocks:
B:1 30k
B2 15k
B3 50k
B4 20k

Definition
J3
Term
Consider the following space requirements for jobs 1-4 and memory blocks.Assuming a best-fit scheme is used,the job ,____,is placedin the last block:
Jobs:
J1. 10k
J2. 20k
J3. 30k
J4. 10k
Blocks:
B1. 30k
B2. 15k
B3. 50k
B4. 20k

Definition
J2
Term
_____ is how memory is deallocated in a fixed partition scheme.
Definition
Memory Manager resets the status of the memory block were the job was stored to "free".
Term
In a dynamic partition scheme ,_____,is how the Memory Manager deallocates a block that is between two other free blocks?
Definition
The size of the three free partition must be combined.
Term
When memory is deallocated,an entry can be removed from the free list by creating a(n)_______.
Definition
null entry
Term
The ____of memory,sometimes referred to as garbage collection or deragmentation,
is preformed by the operating system to reclaim fragmented sections of the memory space.
Definition
compaction
Term
The _____contains the value that must be added to each addressed referenced in the program so it will be able to access the correct memory addressed after relocation.
Definition
relocation register
Term
_____ is the actual memory address for a job that starts at 18k.
Definition
18,432
Term
By compacting and relocating, the Memory Manager optimizes the use of memory and thus improves throughput,but an unfortunate side effect is more_____.
Definition
overhead
Term
The primary advantage of storing programs in a noncontagious location is that ________.
Definition
main memory is used more efficiently.
Term
There are_____ entries per page in the PMT.
Definition
1
Term
If the page size is 100 lines,______ is the displacement for line 214 of a program.
Definition
14
Term
A page size that is to small will generate_________.
Definition
very long PMTs.
Term
With demand paging ,jobs are divided into equally sized_______ that initially reside in secondary storage.
Definition
pages
Term
One of the most important innovations of demand paging was that it made _____ feasible.
Definition
virtual memory
Term
In demand paging when a job requires a certain page to be loaded and there is no empty page frame,______.
Definition
A resident page must be swapped back into secondary storage.
Term
When there is an excessive amount of page swapping between main memory and secondary storage, the operation becomes inefficient, which is called ______.
Definition
thrashing
Term
The____ policy is based on the theory that the best page to remove is the one that has been in memory the longest.
Definition
FIFO
Term
Assume that four page frames are available and are numbered 1-4.Pages A-D have been loaded into page frames 1-4 in order.Assume that page E is requested. The page frame to be loaded into FIFO algorithm is used is______.
Definition
1
Term
In a computer,the_____ holds the central Processing Unit,the Arithmetic and Logic Unit,registers,cache,and main memory,
Definition
tower
Term
A hybrid system is a combination of the ______ systems.
Definition
batch and interactive
Term
In second-generation computers,to reduce discrepancy in speed between the I/0 and the CPU,an interface called the ______was placed between them to act as a buffer.
Definition
control unit
Term
______ is the partitioning of a single server ,each of which can support a different operating system.
Definition
Virtualization
Term
In the algorithm to load a job in a single-user system,the program counter is initially set to __________.
Definition
the address of the first memory location.
Term
Assume the memory manager receives a request for a block of 200. When the best-fit algorithm is used,_____is the beginning address of the block granted by the memory manager.
Definition
7600
Term
The primary advantage of storing programs in noncontinuous locations is that_______;
Definition
main memory is used more efficiently.
Term
There are _____ entries per page in the PMT.
Definition
1
Term
If the page size is 100 lines,______is the displacement for line 214 of a program.
Definition
14
Term
A page that is to small will generate______________.
Definition
very long PMTs.
Term
With demand paging,jobs are divided into equally sized _____ that initially reside in secondary storage.
Definition
pages
Term
One of the most important innovations of demand paging was that it made ______ feasible.
Definition
virtual memory
Term
In demand paging when a job requires a certain page to be loaded and there is no empty page frame,_________.
Definition
A resident page must be swapped back into secondary storage.
Term
In demand paging when a job requires a certain page to be loaded and there is no empty page frame,_________.
Definition
A resident page must be swapped back into secondary storage.
Term
When there is an excessive amount of page swapping between main memory and secondary storage,the operation becomes inefficient,which is called_________.
Definition
thrashing
Term
The _____ policy is based on the theory that the best page to remove is the one that has been in memory the longest.
Definition
FIFO
Term
Assume that four page frames are available and are numbered 1-4.Pages A-D have been loaded into page frames 1-4 in order . assume that page E is requested .The page____ frame to be loaded into when FIFO algorithm is used is ____.
Definition
1
Term
If a particular demand paging configuration has 9 interrupts out of 11 page request,failure rate is ______.
Definition
82%
Term
Assume that four page frames are available and are numbered 1-4.Pages A-D have been loaded into page frames 1-4 in order .The program has accessed the pages in the following order:B,D,A,C.Assume page E is requested. The _____page frame will be loaded when the LRU algorithm is used.
Definition
2
Term
In the PMT, the ______bit for all pages in memory is 1.
Definition
Status
Term
Consider the following four cases.Under the LRU policy,______,will be least likely to swap
Modified Referenced Meaning
Case 1 0 0 Not mod-for Ref
Case 2 0 1 not mod-for was Ref
Case 3 1 0 Was Modf but not Ref
Case 4 1 1 WAS Mod and was Refrd
Definition
Case 4
Term
The following phrase___,means that during any phase of it's execution,the program references only a small fraction of its pages.
Definition
locality of reference
Term
To access a location in memory when using segmented memory management , the address is composed of two entries:_____.
Definition
the segment number and the displacement
Term
_____ gives users the appearance that there programs are being completely loaded in main memory during their processing time.
Definition
virtual memory
Term
During the second generation,programmers started dividing their programs into sections that resemble working set,really segments,originally called roll in/roll out and now called________.
Definition
overlays
Term
______can be thought of as being an intermediary between main memory and the special-purpose registers, which are the domain of the CPU.
Definition
Cache memory
Term
Studies have shown that having any ____, even a small one,can substantially improve the performance of the computer system.
Definition
Cache
Term
A______ is a portion that can run independently.
Definition
thread
Term
The _____ is also called the high level scheduler.
Definition
Job Scheduler
Term
The Job scheduler seeks to ______,when scheduling jobs.
Definition
balance CPU and I/O intensive jobs.
Term
The process scheduler assigns the CPU to execute the process of those jobs placed on_______ and placed on a queue.
Definition
Hold and Ready
Term
The transition from____ is initialed by the Job Scheduler according to some pre- defined policy.
Definition
Hold - Ready
Term
The transition From ______ is initiated by the process scheduler or the Job Scheduler.
Definition
Ready and Finished
Term
Queues use _____to track jobs the same way customs officials use passports to track international visitors.
Definition
PCBs
Term
An I/0 Request is called a(n)____wait in multiprogramming environments.
Definition
natural
Term
First-come,first-served(FCFS)is a very simple algorithm to implement because it __________.
Definition
Uses a FiFO queue
Term
The first-come,first-served(FCFS)algorithm is fine for most____ systems.
Definition
Batch
Term
Assume that four jobs A-D require the CPU cycles listed below. Using the SJN algorithm the ____ job is run first.
JOB: A B C D
CPU cycles 5 2 6 4
Definition
D or 4
Term
Some systems increase the priority of jobs that have been in the system for an unusually long time to expedite their exit, which is known as _______.
Definition
aging
Term
When selecting the proper time quantum it should be long enough to allow ______ percent of the CPU cycles to run to completion.
Definition
80
Term
No movement between queues is a very simple policy that rewards those that have ______ jobs.
Definition
high-priority
Term
________ jobs are treated like all the others once they are in the system.
Definition
High-priority
Term
_______ allows for faster turnaround of CPU-bound jobs.
Definition
Variabletime quantum per queue
Term
Internal interrupts,or_____interrupts,also occur as a direct result of the arithmetic operation or job instruction currently being processed.
Definition
syncronous
Term
When the operating system detects a nonrecoverable error,the folloeing step is performed first by the interrupt handler:
Definition
the type of interrupt is described and stored
Term
Interactive systems generaly improve the use of resource through _____resource sharing,but this resource sharing capability also increasesthe posssibility of deadlocks.
Definition
dynamic
Term
For ____ systems, deadlocks quickly become critical situations.
Definition
real-time
Term
Failure to lock datdbase records before updating them may result in a _____between processes.
Definition
race
Term
_____ is when, in modern printing systems,a disk accepts output from several users and acts as a temporary storage area for all output until the printer is ready to accept it.
Definition
spooling
Term
A network thats congested or has filled a large percentage of it I/0 buffer space can become deadlock if it doesn't have _____ to control the flow of messages through the network.
Definition
protocols
Term
______ is the act of allowing only one process to have accessto a dedicated resource.
Definition
Mutual exclusion
Term
_____ occurs when two processes do not release control of resourcews they are using.
Definition
Resource holding.
Term
_____allows a resource to be held by a processes as long as it is needed.
Definition
No preemption
Term
_____ is when each process involved in the impasse is waiting for another to voluntarily release the resourc so at least one will be able to continue on.
Definition
Circular wait.
Term
_____ showed how the four conditions can be modeld using directed graphs.
Definition
Holt
Term
______ is necessary in any computer system because some resources such as memory, CPU, and dedicated services must be exclusively allocated to one user at a time.
Definition
Mutual exclusion
Term
The scheme of _____ removes the possibility of circular wait and therefore guarantees the removal of deadlocks.
Definition
hierarchical ordering
Term
_______ developed the Bankers Algorithm.
Definition
Dijkstra
Term
Whuch of the folling steps in reducing a directed graph to eleminate deadlock?
Definition
Find a process that is currently using a resource and not waiting for one.
Term
The first and simplest recovery method,and the most drastic, is to______.
Definition
terminate every job that is active in the system and restart them from the beginning.
Term
iN THE "dining philosophers" problem,a philosopher can pick up a fork when _______.
Definition
there are two available
Term
An algorithym designed to detect starvation by tracking how long each job has been waiting for a resource is the same concept as___________.
Definition
aging
Term
_______devices are assigned to only one job at a time.
Definition
Dedicated
Term
_______devices are assigned to only one job at a time.
Definition
Dedicated
Term
The number of charecters that can be recorded per inch on a magnetic tape is determined by the _______ of the tape.
Definition
density
Term
In a fixed-head magnetic disk,each circle is called a _________.
Definition
track
Term
Moveable-head mgnetic disk,such as the computer hard drive,have _____read/write head(s) per platter surface.
Definition
one
Term
The davent of optical disk was made possible by developments in _____technology.
Definition
Laser
Term
On a optical disk, all sector are _______.
Definition
of the same size throughout the disk.
Term
The data-transfer rate for an optical disk is measured in_____ per second and refers to the speed of which massive amounts of data can be read from a disk.
Definition
megabytes
Term
To put data on a optical disk require a high-intensity laser baem,which burns indentations, called pits,and flat areas,called ___________.
Definition
lands
Term
A dual-layer single-sided DVD can hold the equivalent of ________CDs.
Definition
13
Term
To write data to flash memory,an electric charge is sent through on transistor called the control gate where the charge is stored in a cell until it's erased.
Definition
floating gate
Term
Of the three componants of acess time in a moveable-head DASD's _______is the longest.
Definition
seek time
Term
_______ control the transfer of information between the disk drives and the rest of the computer system.
Definition
Disk drive interfaces
Term
The I/O_____allocates the devices,control units,and channels.
Definition
scheduler
Term
_______ use the same underlying philosophy as shortest job next,where the shortest jobs are processed first and longer jobs are made to wait.
Definition
SSTF
Term
________ is a way to optimize search times by ordering the requist once the reaqd/write heads have been positioned.
Definition
Rotational ordering
Term
The file maneger is in charge of the system's________ componants.
Definition
physical
Term
A ______ is a group of related records that contain information to be used by specific application programs to generate reports.
Definition
Directories
Term
________contain instructions and data files contain dat; but as far as storage is concerned,the file manager treats them the same way.
Definition
Program files
Term
Many computer users and some operating systems call subdirectories _______.
Definition
folders
Term
The purpose of an extension is to_____.
Definition
identify the type of file.
Term
Whenever a file is accessed, the user type in the_____name,and the_____adds the proper prefix.
Definition
relitive,File Maneger
Term
a UNIX OR LINUX system might identify a file as:/usr/imfst/flynn/inventory.doc.The root dirctory is represented by________.
Definition
/
Term
As long as user refer to filesin the _____directory,they can access their files without entering the complete name from the highest level to the lowest.
Definition
working
Term
When data is stored in fixed length fields,data that extends beyond the fixed size__________.
Definition
is truncated
Term
When using random access files,the program used to store the data follows a set of instructions,called a _______ algorithm,that transforms each key into a number,the records logical address.
Definition
hashing
Term
The primaty disdvantige of contigious storage is that___________.
Definition
a file can't be expanded unless theres is a empty space available immmiediatly following it.
Term
_______ allocation allows files to use any storage space availble onthe disk.
Definition
Noncontigious storage
Term
In indexed storage,when a file is created,the pointer in the in the index block are all set to___________.
Definition
null
Term
The file maneger uses the address of the_______to access the next sequential record.
Definition
last byte read
Term
Usually,the term"_____"indicates a specific location in a network containing one or more computer systems.
Definition
site
Term
The geometric arrangment of connections (cables,wireless,or both)that link the nodes is called a ___________.
Definition
topology
Term
When deciding which configuration to use,designers should keep in mind four criteria:
Definition
basic cost,communication cost,reliabity,and user enviroment.
Term
In the _________topology configuration host are connected to each other through a central controller which assumes all responsability for routing messages to the appropriate host.
Definition
star
Term
A ____is a specific set of rules used to control the flow of messages through the network.
Definition
protocol
Term
In the ____topology,host are connected to one another in a linear fashion.
Definition
bus
Term
A_________ is typically a cluster of personal computers or workstations located in thesame general area.
Definition
LAN
Term
High-speed Lans have a data rate that varies from 100 megabits per to more than ______per second.
Definition
40 gigabits
Term
The IEEE Standard 802.11n has a net bit rate of_____________.
Definition
600 Mbps
Term
In the address someone@icarus.lis.pitt.edu,theb host name in this address is______.
Definition
icarus
Term
A_____is a internetworking device,primarly software driven,which directs traffic between two differant types of LANs or two network segmants withdifferant protocol addresses.
Definition
router
Term
Which characteristic is true of packet switching.
Definition
Shared by many transmissions
Term
When using CSMA/CD,and a collision occurs,a jamming signal is sent immediatly to both sending nodes,which then wait__________before trying again.
Definition
a random period
Term
There are _____layers in the TCP/IP
Definition
four --- 4
Term
In the TCP/IP model,the______layer is equivalant to the transport and session layers of the OSI model.
Definition
host-host
Term
The biggest limitation of the NOS is_______.
Definition
that is does not take global control over management functions.
Term
The major differance between NOS and DO/S is_______.
Definition
how each views and manages the local and global resources.
Term
In a NOS________.
Definition
resources are owned by local nodes.
Term
In a typical NOS enviroment,a user who wants to run a local process at a remote site must first__________.
Definition
log on to the local network
Term
For each node,the memory manager uses a kernal with a________algoritym to track the amount of memory that is available.
Definition
paging
Term
To control the demand,the Memory Manager handles requestb from the process Manager to allocate and deallocate spaced based on______.
Definition
the networks usage patterns
Term
Typically, the system's scheduling function has three parts:a______, a priority function,and arbitration rule.
Definition
decision mode
Term
When a process reaches a point at which it needs service from an external source,such as an I/O requist,it send a message searching for the service,while it waits or a response,the processer server puts theprocess in a ____state.
Definition
WAIT
Term
To determine a object's state ,one must
Definition
perform an appropriate operation on it.
Term
The main function of a DO/S File Maneger is
Definition
provide transparent mecnanism to work with files
Term
The focus of NOS is ________.
Definition
Sharing Resources
Term
The _____program helps users transfer files from one computer to another.
Definition
FTP
Term
_______techniques give the system the ability to perform concurrent reads and writes,as long as the result of these actions don't jeprerdize the contents of the database.
Definition
Concurrancy control
Term
Of the operating systems ,______ was introduced first.
Definition
UNIX
Term
The command____ is used to find a specific string of Characters in a file.
Definition
grep
Term
_____is a family of IEEE standards that define a portable operating system interface to ehnance the portability of programes from one operating system to another.
Definition
Posix
Term
For multiprograming systems most UNIX operating systems use either______ managment techniques.
Definition
swaping or demand paging memory
Term
Unix uses a ______ to keep track of which processes are using which program code, and the memory is not released until the program code is no longer needed.
Definition
text table
Term
Unix uses the _____page replacement algorithm.
Definition
least recently used ( LRU)
Term
When the Unix Processer Manager is deciding which process from the ready queue will be loaded to memory to be run first, it chooses the process_______.
Definition
with the longest time spent in secondaary storage.
Term
A____mat occur if an event happens during the process's transition between deciding to wait for the event and entering the wait state.
Definition
race
Term
The _____command allows the programmer to synchronize process execution by suspending the parent until the child is finished.
Definition
wait
Term
Subroutines that work with the operating system to supervise the transmission of data between main memory and a peripheralk unit are called the _______.
Definition
Device drivers
Term
In UNIX,the file______contains the parameters that control resources such as the numbers of internal buffers for the kernal and the size of the swap space
Definition
conf.c
Term
___are the device drivers that provide the interface to I/O hardware.
Definition
Special files
Term
The Unix file management organizes disk into blocks of 512 bytes each and devides the disk into four basic regions, the first of which is _______.
Definition
reserved for booting
Term
Using_____in a path name will move you upward in the hierarchy.
Definition
( .. )
Term
The maxinimum number of bytes that can be allocated to a single file in Unix is _____.
Definition
1,082,201,088
Term
____was intially responsable for the popularity of MS-DOS.
Definition
IBM
Term
Although MS-DOS is no longer widely used,many Windows operating systems offer a ________to allow users who are comfortable with this operating system to use some DOS-like commands in a window.
Definition
DOS-compatible operating systemnamed MD-DOS
Term
The portion of DOS that users interact with is ________.
Definition
COMMAND.COM
Term
The DOS kernel is read into memory at initialization time from the ______file residing in the boot disk.
Definition
MSDOS SYS
Term
The Memory Manager uses a_______memory allocation scheme.
Definition
first-fit
Term
________is usualy very small in size and contains a program, a section of BIOS,with the sole task of starting up the system.
Definition
ROM
Term
Programes with the____extension are given all of the TPA,whether or not they need it.
Definition
COM
Term
When a block is formed its first five bytes contain information about the block,the _____is contained in byte zero if it is the last block.
Definition
ASCII 90h
Term
______interupts are generated by certain events occuring during a program's execution,such as divission by zero.
Definition
Internal hardware
Term
A____interupt handler's function is to terminate a process without releasing it's memory,thus providing memory-resident programming facilities.
Definition
Terminate and Stay Resident
Term
In the MS-DOS file managment schen=me,the symbol_____follows the drive name.
Definition
:
Term
There are _____disk sectors grouped into a cluster.
Definition
two to eight
Term
_______is the redirection symbol.
Definition
>
Term
The _____command allows the user to set up a series of files for printing while freeing up Command.COM to accept other commands.
Definition
Print
Term
In 1999,Microsoft changed the operating system's name from Window NtT to Windows 2000. True or False
Definition
True
Term
Much of Windows is written in assembly language, a programing laguage that's staderdized and readily available. TRUE or FALSE
Definition
False
Term
A replacement policy determines which virtual page must be removed to make room for a new page. true or false
Definition
True
Term
In Windows operating systems, almost all low-level I/O operations are asyncronous. True or False
Definition
True
Term
The SMB protocol is a high-level specification for formatting messages to be sent across the network and correlates to the application layer(layetr 7),and the presentation layer (layer6) of the OSI model. True or False
Definition
False
Term
One of the biggest concerns about Windows operating systems in general is the need for aggresive patch mangement to combat the many viruses and worms that target these systems. True or False
Definition
True
Term
The _____ version of Windows introduced X500-style directory services, Kerberos security,and improved Distributed Component Object Model (DCOM)
Definition
Windows server 2000
Term
In Windows terminology, the priveledge processormode is called___mode and the and the nonprivalidge mode is called user mode.
Definition
Kernel
Term
The ____ file system can recover from all types of including those that occur in critical disk sectors.
Definition
NTSF
Term
The portion of the memory that is used for section of the kernel that require maximum performance is.
Definition
the lower part of the resident operating system code
Term
A thread is the entity within a process that the ______schedules for execution.
Definition
kernel
Term
In a Windows device driver ,the _____is used by the I/O Manager to communicate with the driver when it generates an IRP after an I/O request.
Definition
dispatch routine
Term
_______provide high-level interface for passing databetween two processes regardless of there locations.
Definition
Named pipes
Term
An API called______interface is used to pass I/Orequest structured in the SMB format to a remote computer.
Definition
NetBIOS
Term
Active Directory groups machines into administrative unit called_____.
Definition
domains
Term
Linux was created by Denis Ritchi
Definition
False
Term
Linux brought speed ,effiencincy,flexabitiy of Unix to msmall Computer.
Definition
TRUE
Term
Linux administraters have aceess to numerous standard utilities,elimuinating the need to writespechiel code.
Definition
True.
Term
Linux offers memory protection based on type of information stored in each region belonging to the adresses space of a user reguest.
Definition
FALSE
Term
To keep track of busy pages , Linux uses a system of page tables.
Definition
TRUE.
Term
Because Linux is written and distributed under the_______General Public License,its source code is freely distributed and available to the general public.
Definition
GNU
Term
When a process begins execution,its segments have a______size.
Definition
fixed
Term
Linux is device independant, which improves its portabity from one system to another.
Definition
device independant
Term
___represents root directory.
Definition
/
Term
In Linux,information about the status of the system is available using the ____Monitor Window.
Definition
System