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Child Development Test 1 Study Guide
Child Development Study Guide for Test 1 on Chapters 1 & 2
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Education
01/31/2010

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Cards

Term

 

 

 

 

Romans 8:28

Definition

 

 

 

"And we know that all things work together for good to those who love God, to those who are the called according to His purpose."

Term

 

 

 

The scientific study of the patterns of growth, change, and stability that occur from conception through adolescence.

Definition

 

 

 

Child Development

Term

 

 

 

Time frames of development 

 

Definition
  • Prenatal: from conception to birth
  • Infancy or toddlerhood: from birth to 3 years old
  • Preschoolers: from 3 years old to 6 years old
  • School-agers: from 6 years old to 12 years old
Term

 

 

 

Five Perspectives on Human Development

Definition

 

 

  • Psychodynamic
  • Behavioral
  • Cognitive
  • Contextual
  • Evolutionary

 

Term

 

 

 

 

 

The approach (perspective) to the study of development that states behavior is motivated by inner forces, memories and conflicts of which a person has little awareness or control

 

Definition

 

 

 

Psychodynamic Perspective

 

 

Term

 

 

 

 

suggests that unconscious forces determine personality and behavior

 

id, ego, superego

 

 

 

 

Definition

 

 

 Psychoanalytic Theory

 

SIGMUND FREUD

(Psychodynamic Perspective)

 

 

 


 

Term

 

 

 the approach to the study of development that encompasses changes in the understanding individuals have of their interactions with others, of others' behavior and of themselves as members of society

Definition

 

 

Psychosocial theory

 

ERIK ERIKSON

(Psychodynamic Perspective)

Term

 

 

The approach to the study of development that suggests that the keys to understanding development are observable behavior and outside stimuli in the environment

Definition

 

 

 

Behavioral Perspective

Term

 

 

B.F. Skinner

(Behavioral Perspective)

Definition

Classical Conditioning

A type of learning in which an organism responds in a particular way to a neutral stimulus that normally does not bring that type of response

 

Operant Conditioning

A form of learning in which a voluntary response is strengthened or weakened, depending on its association with positive or negative consequences

Term

 

 

 

A formal technique for promoting the frequency of desirable behaviors and decreasing the incidence of unwanted ones

 

Definition

 

 

Behavior Modification

(Behavioral Perspective)

 

Term

 

 

 

The approach to the study of development that focuses on the processes that allow people to know, understand, and think about the world

Definition

 

 

 

Cognitive Perspective

 

 

Term

 

 

 

Jean Piaget's Theory

(Cognitive Perspective)

Definition

Schemes--> the way he suggest human thinking is arranged into... organized mental patterns that represent behaviors and actions

 

Adaptation: the way in which children respond and adjust to new information

 

Assimilation: the process in which people understand an experience in terms of their current stage of cognitive development and way of thinking

 

Accommodation: refers to changes in existing ways of thinking in response to encounters with new stimuli or events (change their actions)

Term

 

 

Approaches to the study of cognitive development that seek to identify the ways individuals take in, use, and store information

Definition

 

 

Information-Processing Approaches

(Cognitive Perspective)

Term

 

 

 

The perspective that considers the relationship between individuals and their physical, cognitive, personality, social, and physical worlds.

Definition

 

 

Contextual Perspective

Term

 

 

The perspective suggesting that different levels of the environment simultaneously influence every biological organism

 

Urie Bronfenbrenner

Microsystem, Mesosystem, Exosystem, Macrosystem, Chronosystem

Definition

 

 

Bioecological Approach

(Contextual Perspective)

Term

 

 

An approach that emphasizes how cognitive development proceeds as a result of social interactions among members of a culture

 

Lev Vygotsky (ZPD: ZONE OF POSSIBLE DEVELOPMENTS)

 

Definition

 

 

 

Sociocultural Theory

(Contextual Perspective)

 

 

Term

 

 

The theory that seeks to identify behavior that is the result of our genetic inheritance from our ancestors

 

 evolution of the environment and its influences on individuals  (Konrad Lorenz)

Definition

 

 

 

Evolutionary Perspectives

Ethology

 

Term

 

 

 

the process of posing and answering questions using careful, controlled techniques that include systematic, orderly observation and the collection of data

 

Definition

 

 

 

   Scientific Method (Scientific Method and Research)


 

Term

 

 

 

John Locke

Definition

 

 

 

Tabula rasa/ blank slate (nuturing aspect)

Term

 

 

 

Jean-Jacques Rousseau

Definition

 

 

 

 

noble savage (nature aspect)

Term

 

 

 

Alfred Binet

Definition

 

 

 

 

studied child intelligence looking at memory and mental calculation

Term

 

 

 

G. Stanley Hall

Definition

 

 

 

 

used questionnaires to look at thinking and behavior

Term

 

 

 

Development involving the body's physical makeup, including the brain, nervous system, muscles, and senses and the need fro food, drink, and sleep

Definition

 

 

 

Physical Development

Term

 

 

 

Development involving the ways that growth and change in intellectual capabilities influence a person's behavior

Definition

 

 

Cognitive Development

Term

 

 

 

Development involving the ways that the enduring characteristics that differentiate one person from another change over the life span

Definition

 

 

Personality Development

Term

 



The way in which individual's interactions with others and their social relationships grow, change, and remain stable over the course of life

Definition

 

 


Social Development

Term

 

 

Children pass through a series of stages in which pleasure or gratification is focused on a particular biological function and body part

Definition

 

 

 

 

Psychosexual Development

 

SIGMUND FREUD

(Psychodynamic Perspective)

Term

 

 

 

 

 

An approach to the study of development that emphasizes learning by observing the behavior of another person called a model

 

Definition

 

 

Social Cognitive Learning Theory

 

(Behavioral Perspective)

Term

 

 

Explanations and predictions concerning phenomena  of interest, providing a framework for understanding the  relationships among an organized set of facts or principles

Definition

 

 

 

Theory (Scientific Method and Research)

Term

 

 

 

A prediction stated in a way that permits it to  be tested


Definition

 

 

Hypothesis (Scientific Method and Research)

Term

 

 

 

A group of people born at around the same time in the same place

Definition

 

 

 

Cohort

Term

 



Gradual Development in which achievements at one level build on those of previous levels

Definition

 

 

 

Continuous Change

Term

 

 

 

Development that occurs in distinct steps or stages, with each stage bringing about behavior that is assumed to be qualitatively different from behavior at earlier stages

Definition



Discontinuous Change

Term

 

 

 

A specific time during development when a particular event has its greatest consequences

Definition

 

 

 

Critical Period

Term

 

 

 

The degree to which a developing behavior or physical structure is modifiable

Definition

 

 

 

Plasticity

Term

 

 

 

A specific time when organisms are particularly susceptible to certain kinds of stimuli in their environment

Definition

 

 

Sensitive Period

 

Term

 

 

 

The process of the predetermined unfolding of genetic information

Definition

 

 

 

Maturation

Term

 

 

 

 

Research that seeks to identify whether an association or relationship between two factors exists

Definition

 

 

 

Correlational Research

Term

 

 

 

Research designed to discover casual relationships between various factors

Definition

 

 

 

 

Experimental Research

Term

 

 

 

 

Studies in which researchers observe some naturally occurring behavior without intervening or making changes in the situation

Definition

 

 

 

 

Naturalistic Observation

Term

 

 

 

Extensive, in-depth interviews with a particular individual or small group of individuals

 

 

 

Definition

 

 

Case Studies

Term

 

 

 

 

Research in which a group of people chosen to represent some larger population are asked questions about their attitudes, behavior, or thinking on a given topic

Definition

 

 

 

Survey Research

Term

 

 

 

A research approach that focuses on the relationship between physiological processes and behavior

Definition

 

 

 

Psychophysiological methods

Term

 

 

 

 

A process in which an investigator, called an experimenter, devises two different experiences for subjects or participants

Definition

 

 

 

Experiment

Term

 

 

 

A procedure applied by an experimental investigator based on two different experiences devised for subjects or participants

Definition

 

 

 

Treatment

Term

 

 

 

 

The group in an experiment that receives the treatment

Definition

 

 

 

Treatment group

Term

 

 

 

The group in an experiment that receives either no treatment or an alternative treatment

Definition

 

 

 

Control Group

Term

 

 

 

The variable in an experiment that is manipulated by researchers

Definition

 

 

 

Independent Variable

Term

 

 

 

The variable in an experiment that is measured and is expected to change as a result of the experimental manipulation

Definition

 

 

 

Dependent Variable

Term

 

 

 

A group of participants chosen for an experiment

Definition

 

 

 

Sample

Term

 

 

 

 

A research investigation carried out in a naturally occurring setting

Definition

 

 

Field Study

Term

 

 

 

A research investigation conducted in a controlled setting explicitly designed to hold events constant

Definition

 

 

 

Laboratory Study

Term

 

 

 

Research designed specifically tot test some developmental explanation and expand scientific knowledge

Definition

 

 

 

Theoretical Research

Term

 

 

 

Research meant to provide practical solutions to immediate problems

Definition

 

 

 

Applied Research

Term

 

 

 

Research in which the behavior of one or more individuals is measured as the subjects age

Definition

 

 

 

Longitudinal Research

Term

 

 

 

Research in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time

Definition

 

 

 

Cross-Sectional Research

Term

 

 


Studies in which researchers examine members of a number of different age groups as several points in time

Definition

 

 

 

Sequential Studies