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Chapters 7+9
cognitive and motivation
68
Psychology
03/20/2009

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Term
Mental activitythat goes on in the brain when a person is processing information-organizing it, understanding it, and communicating it to others- is termed_____
Definition
thinking (cognition)
Term
PET scans have demonstrated that when you are creating a visual image______
Definition
providing evidence for role of visual cortex in mental imagery
Term
Concepts are ideas that represent ___
Definition
a class or category of objects, events or activities
Term
Compared to formal concepts learned in science and math, natural concepts tend to be _____
Definition
formed as the result of their experiences in real world
Term
The trial and error method of solving problems is also known as ____
Definition
mechanical solution
Term
What problem-solving strategies dont guarentee solutions but make efficient use of time?
Definition
heuristic strategies
Term
A seemingly arbitrary flash "out of the blue," through which the solution to a problem suddenly becomes apparent to you, but you do not consciously know how you "figuredit out," is called____
Definition
in sight
Term
The main difference between the AI programs Deep Blue and Deep Junior is that Deep Blue used ___ whereas Deep Jounior was programmed to use ____
Definition
heuristics, algorithms
Term
What term do psychologist use to describe our tendency to search for evidence that supports our belief and to ignore evidence that might disprove it?
Definition
confirmation bias
Term
The tendancy to percieve and approach problems in the same ways that have worked in the padt is called ____
Definition
mental sets
Term
Ability to produce solutions that are unusual, inventive, novel, and appropriate is called ___
Definition
divergant thinking
Term
Which type of thinking is most closely related to creativity?
Definition
divergant thinking
Term
A group of buisness men and woman get together to try to solve the problem of decreased sales of their compnay's products. one of them suggests that they generate as many ideas as they can in a short period of time without being critical of any of them. This technique of stimulating divergent thinking is called ____
Definition
brainstorming
Term
The ability to understand the world, think rationally or logically, use resources efficiently when faced with challenges or problems is the psychologist working definiton of ___
Definition
intelligence
Term
An 8 year old child who scored like an average 10 year old intelligence test would have a mental age of ___ and an IQ of ____
Definition
10,125
Term
Jane is 22 years old. for her job, she needs to take and intelligence test. which would be the most appropriate test for her age group?
Definition
WAIS-IV
Term
Psychologist tests that yeild relatively consistent results are said to be ____
Definition
reliable
Term
A psychological test that measures what we intend to measure is said to be ____
Definition
validity
Term
Which of the following is a desirable characteristic of culture-fair test?
Definition
whatever doesnt discriminate or create a disadvantage for different cultures
Term
Which of these is an element of the formal definition of mental retardation?
Definition
IQ falls below 70 or 2 sd below average, not adaptive behavior skills
Term
People are termed gifted in terms of intelligence if their IQ is above _____
Definition
130
Term
Having a high IQ doesnt always guarentee sucess. Terman and Oden (AU: Oden? see question 99) examined the most and least sucessful me in their sample of gifted individuals. the most sucessfull were the ____
Definition
healthier, less likely to be divorsed and nonalcholics
Term
what 3 types of intelligence constitute Sternberg's Triarchic theory of intelligence?
Definition
goal oriented, more persistent in pursuing goals and self confident
Term
Howard Gardner and Robert sternberg agree to be interveiwed together on the topic of intelligence. At the end of the interveiw, what do you conclude is their major point of agreement?
Definition
standardized test arent the only way intelligence ahould be measured
Term
Gardner's theory of multiple intelligences divides intelligence into _____ independant abilities.
Definition
9
Term
If intelligence is determined primarily by heredity, which should show the highest correlation bewtween IQ scores?
Definition
identical twins
Term
Which of the following statements is true about language?
Definition
is a system for combining symbols so that an infinite number of meaningful statemnets can be made for purpose of communicating with others
Term
The system of rules for combining words and phrases to make meaningful sentences is caled ____.
Definition
syntax
Term
The word playing consist of two morphemes, play and ing. Play is a good example of ____ morpheme.
Definition
free
Term
The linguistic relativity hypothesis suggests that _____.
Definition
thought processes and concepts are controlled by language
Term
Reasearchers have found that ____ influenced by culture
Definition
language and thought
Term
Which of the following statements is true about Kanzi, the bonobo chimp?
Definition
he was able to learn 150 english words, follow compact instructs compared to a 2 year old
Term
You are worried that your aging father might develop senile dementia. What advice might you want to give him?
Definition
do crossword puzzles, take classes, read and stay mentally active
Term
Process by which activities are started, directed, and continued so that physical or psychological needs or wants are met is called ___
Definition
motivation
Term
A desire to perform a behavior to obtain an external reward or avoid punishment is known as ____
Definition
extrinsic motivation
Term
Which statement about motivation is true?
Definition
energizes and directs behavior
Term
What do we call biologically determined, innate patterns of behavior?
Definition
instincts
Term
Which of the following behaviors is NOT an example of drive-reduction theory?
Definition
an approach to motivation that assumes behaviors arise from psychological needs
Term
Thirst, sexual desire, and hunger are examples of ____ drives.
Definition
Primary
Term
Drives that are learned through experience are called _____ drives
Definition
acquired (secondary)
Term
nAch is an abbreviation for ____
Definition
need for approvement
Term
The need for achievement involves a strong desire to suceed in attaining goals
Definition
achievement
Term
According to Carol Dweek, need for achievement is closely related to ____
Definition
personal factors
Term
Glenn believes he can learn from his mistakes and that study and preseverance will help him improve his intelligence. According to Dweek, what locus of control does Glenn have?
Definition
internal
Term
Sydney said, "I don't care much about my grades as long as im the most popular girl in class!" what need is this?
Definition
need for affiliation (nAFF)
Term
Indiana Jones goes off to foreign lands in search of artifacts hiddden in dangerous places and guarded by feirce protectors. Dr. Jones would be described as ____ in arousal theory
Definition
sensation seeker
Term
The Yerkes-dodson law says _____
Definition
performance is related to arousal
Term
Lester has high test anxiety, which tends to affect his test performance even though he studies a lot. According to Yerkes-Dodson law, which of the following activities will help lester improve his performance?
Definition
mantaining an optimal level of arousal
Term
Although Kim just ate a huge meal and feels "stuffed," the idea of a chocolate sundae is too good to pass up, so she orders one. which motivational term explains the appeal of the sundae?
Definition
incentives
Term
which level of Abraham Maslow's hierarchy is epitomized by the US army's slogan "Be all you can be"?
Definition
self actualization
Term
Which of these is the correct sequence of Abraham Maslow heiracrchy of needs from the lowest to highest?
Definition
psychologica, safety, love, esteem, cognative, desthetic, self
Term
Self-determination theory (SDT) best fits which type of motivation?
Definition
human motivation
Term
Intrinsic motivation is one that propels a person to pursue an activity _____
Definition
because act itself is rewarding or satisfying in some internal matter
Term
The ventromedial hypothalamus (VMH) may be involved in _____
Definition
stoppin th eeating responce when glucose level goes up
Term
The concept of "comfort food" suggest eating _____
Definition
can be immediate escape from whatever is unpleaseant
Term
The highest rate of obesity in the world is found in ____
Definition
US
Term
Which hormone is secreted into the bloodstream by fatty tissue to signal the hypothalamus that the body has had enough food, reducing appetite and increasing the feeling of being full?
Definition
leptin
Term
People who are attempting to become extremely thin by refusing to eat suffer from____
Definition
anorexia nervosa
Term
Which individual has the highest risk for developing anorexia nervosa?
Definition
teenage girls
Term
An eating disorder characterized by eating binges followed by self induced vomiting is called ____
Definition
bulimia
Term
the nerotransmitter asociated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia is
_____
Definition
serotonin
Term
The part of the brain that seems to influence emotion is called____
Definition
amygdala
Term
A psychologist who has studied emotions with Paul Ekman for decades is going to present a summary of the research. Which title might this psychologist consider?
Definition
facial expressions communicate emotions
Term
which theory of emotion proposes that stimuli cause physiological changes in our bodies emotions result from those physiological changes?
Definition
james-lange theory of emotion
Term
Which theory maintains that emotion is caused by interaction of phsiological changes and the cognitive labeling of the reson for the physical reaction?
Definition
cognative arousal theory
Term
Schachter and Singer proposed that 2 things have to happen before emotion occurs: _____ and ____
Definition
physical arousal and labeling of arousal based on cues from the surrounding environment
Term
Facial feedback hypothesis is defined as ____
Definition
theory of emotion that assumes facial expressions provide feedback to brain
Term
According to cognitive-mediational theories, appraisal of the situation would come ___ the physical arousal and ____ the experience of emotion
Definition
before,before