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Chapters 7-14
Middle Ages and Reniassance
58
Music
09/29/2009

Additional Music Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Genres
Definition
Opera, Symphony, and Gregorian Chant
Term
Secular
Definition
entertainment, art, and utilitarian (useful or functional)
Term
Orchestral Genres
Definition
symphony, concerto, etc.
Term
Chamber Music Genres
Definition
string quartet, etc.
Term
Vocal Genres
Definition
choral, ensemble, solo, language, subject
Term

Genre:

OPERA

Definition

-Text is secular

-Function is Theatrical Entertainment

-Performing Forces are Voices and Orchestra

Term

Genre:

SYMPHONY

Definition

-Text is none

-Function is Concert Performance

-Performing Forces are Orchestra

Term

Genre:

Gregorian Chant

Definition

-Text is Latin Sacred

-Function is Church Service

-Performing Forces is unison voices

Term
Style
Definition

combination of qualities that make a work of art distinctive (produced by the interaction of rhythm, melody, harmony, color, texture, and form)

 

ex. new orleans style jazz, Beethoven's middle style periods, and baroque style

Term

The Middle Ages

(Medieval Music)

Definition

(476-1475)

-most surviving music of the middle age is sacred

-christianity brought to Europe by Roman Empire

-Medieval Christian church was center of politcal power, culture, and learning. was the source of financial support of arts, and scribes preserved sacred texts and music

Term
Sacred Music in the Middle Ages
Definition
Gregorian Chant (also called plainsong)- music sang at eight monastic hours of prayer and at mass
Term
Gregorian Chant
Definition

large body of unaccompanied vocal music, written for the western Roman Catholic Church

(plainsong)

-Latin Text

-Monophonic

-weak rhythm- nonmetric

-variation (unison-solo, syllabic-mellismatic)

Term
Syllabic Singing
Definition
only one or two notes for each syllable of text
Term
Melismatic Singing
Definition
many notes sung to just one syllable
Term
Early Polyphonic Music
Definition

Organum (first systematic use of harmony in West)- new melody added above or below a chant.

 

example: All Ends of the Earth by Leonin

Term
Organum
Definition

new melody added below or above a chant.

started by Leoninus

Term
The Mass
Definition

Proper of the Mass- chants that vary throughout the year

Ordinary of the Mass- chants that stay the same throughtout the year

Term
Proper of the Mass
Definition

Introit (anintroductory chant for the the entry of the celebrating clergy)

Gradual (a reflective chant)

Alleluia or Tract ( a chant of thanksgiving or penance)

Sequentia (a chant commenting on the text of the Alleluia)

Offertory (a chant for the offering)

Communion (chant for communion)

Term
Ordinary of the Mass
Definition

Kyrie (a petition for mercy)

Gloria (a hymn of praise to the Lord)

Credo ( a profession of faith)

Sanctus (an acclamation to the Lord)

Agnus Dei (a petition for mercy and eternal peace)

Term
Poet-Musicians that flourished in Southern France
Definition

troubadours (men)

trobairitz (women)

Term
Chanson
Definition
a love song, normally in french, for two, three, or four voices.
Term
Rondeau
Definition

rondo

ex. this month of may

Term
Medieval Musical Instruments
Definition

sackbut (forerunner of trombone)

shawm (ancestor of the oboe)

the drums

Cornetto (cross between trumpet and clarinet)

Term
The Renaissance
Definition

-rebirth of classical (greek and roman) culture

-reawakening after middle ages

-humanism (focus on man, not just God, appreciation of hte human mind and body, wordly knowledge and pursuit)

-Era of exploration, scientific discovery, and artisitc achievement

Term
Humanism
Definition

-focus on not only God, but man

-appreciation of the human mind and body

-worldly knowledge and pursuits

Term
Renaissance Music
Definition

-believed music should be pleasing to the ear

ex. Ave Maria by Josquin

 -sacred genre

 - SATB

 -a cappella

 - imitative counterpoint

Term
Josquin Desprez
Definition

-said to be one of the greatest composers of the Renaissance or any age

-wrote over 70 motets (a composition for a choir, latin text, and made ot be sung in a church or private devotion)

-famous for Ave Maria which has imitation in it which is a procedure where one or more voices duplicate in turn the notes of a melody

Term
Motet
Definition
a compostition for a choir, setting a latin text on a sacred subject, and intended to be sung either in a church or chapel, or in a private devotional
Term
A cappella
Definition
performed voices alone
Term
Imitation
Definition
where one or more voices duplicate in turn the notes of a melody
Term
Protestant Reformation
Definition

creations of national churches not under the control of Rome

(later Renaissance music)

Term
Counter-Reformation
Definition
a reform movement that promoted a more conservative and austere art within the established Church
Term
Palestrina
Definition

(1525-1594)-Italian

"saved" polyphonic music

Music supports the text:

-a cappella (chapel style)

-syllabic

-points of imitation

-was called master of the chapel and master composer

Term
Point of Imitation
Definition

a distinctive motive that is sung or played in turn by each voice or instrumental line

ex. Palestrina's, Sanctus, has four points of imitation

Term
The Madrigal
Definition

a piece for several solo voices (usually four or five) that sets a vernacular poem, most often about love, to music

Two types: Italian Madrigal (short, set to music, a capella, lively rhythm, light hearted character, word painting)

English Madrigal (ex. As Vesta Was by Weelkes)

Term
Word Painting
Definition
depicting the text by means of a descriptive musical gesture, wheather subtly or jokingly as a musical pun
Term
Baroque Style
Definition

"irregularly shaped pearl"

-bigger

-more ornamented

-more energetic

 

Term
Monody
Definition

-a new kind of solo singing (meaning to sing alone)

-a single singer stepped forward, accompanied by a very few supporting instruments to project a highly charged text

Term
Basso Continuo
Definition

-the bass-driven, chordal support in Baraque Music, played by one or more instruments

-bass instrument(s)- plays written part (bass line)

-chord instrument- improvises chords from bass line

Term
Most Common Basso Continuo during Baroque Period
Definition
harpsichord and low string instrument
Term
Figured Bass
Definition

numbers underneath

-numerical shorthand placed below the bass line

Term
Harmony of Baroque Musical Style
Definition

major and minor tonality

-Functional- creating and resolving dissonance

 -pull towards tonic (last tonic chord is meant to feel final)

 - each chord has a specific function

 -Harmonic Progression (chord progression)

 

Term
Contrast of Baroque Musical Style
Definition

-ornamented melody- solid chord progression

-soloist-group

-loud-soft (terraced dynamics)

-fast-slow

-example: Spring by Vivaldi

Term
Terraced Dynamics
Definition
the practice of shifting the volume of sound suddenly from one level to another
Term
Opera
Definition

-drama presented in music

-begun in Florence, Italy (1600)

-Inspired by Ancient Greek Drama

-Expression of emotion through song

 

Term
Completing elements of Opera
Definition

-visual effect

-libretto (little book)- words that are meant to be sung

- music

Term
Libretto
Definition

"little book"

words that are written to be sung

Term
Two Kinds of Solo Singing in Opera
Definition

Recitative- speechlike, moves action forward (emphasizes story)

Aria- more melodic song, expresses emotion, shows off singer (emphasizes music)

Term
Recitative
Definition
musically heightened speech, though which the plot of the opera is communicated to the audience
Term
Aria
Definition

more passionate, expansive, and more tuneful than recitative

-emphasizes emotion, more melodic song

Term
Toccata
Definition
refers to an instrumental piece for keyboard or other insturments, requires great technical dexterity of the performers
Term
Arioso
Definition
a manner of singing halfway between aria and recitative
Term
Sonata
Definition

(before the piano there were many sonatas)

-sonare- to sound

Term
Baroque Chamber Sonata
Definition

-solo sonata- solo instrument plus continuo

-trio sonata- 2 solo instruments plus continuo

(collection of stylized dances)-often in binary form

(by changing rhythm and tempo the dance changes)

Term
Solo Sonata
Definition
solo instrument plus continuo
Term
Trio Sonata
Definition
2 solo instruments plus continuo
Term
Chamber Music
Definition
music for soloists performed in home or a small auditorium
Term
Henry Purcell
Definition
"greatest of all English composers", born in London
Wrote Dido and Aeneas