Shared Flashcard Set

Details

chapters 5&6
Learning & Memory
72
Psychology
03/08/2009

Additional Psychology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
_____ is any relatively permanent change in behavior brought about by experience or practice
Definition
learning
Term
changesic controlled by a genetic blueprint, such as an increase in height or the size of the brain, are examples of ______
Definition
maturation
Term
The researcher responsible for discovering classical conditioning was ____
Definition
Ivan Paviov
Term
Sue noticed that whenever she opened her door to the pantry, her dog would come into the kitchen and act hungry, by drooling and whining. She thought that because the dog food was stored in the pantry, the sound of the door had become _____
Definition
stimulous
Term
The acronym UCR stands for _____
Definition
Unconditioned response
Term
pavlov placed meat powder in the mouths of dogs, and they began to salivate. Pavlov's student noticed that after a few days the dogs began to salivate at the sound of the student's footsteps. the salivation to the foot steps was a _____
Definition
response
Term
Alan always turns the aquarium light on before putting fish food into the tank. after a while he notices that the fish swim to the top to look for food as soon as he turns on the light. In this example, the _____ is the unconditioned response.
Definition
fish food
Term
you decide that you are going to condition your dog to salivate to the sound of a bell. You gave the dog a biscuit, then a second later you rang the bell. You do this several times, but no conditioning seems to occur. This is probably because ______
Definition
neutralstimulus
Term
When the CS is repeatedly presented in the absence of the UCS (food, in this case), the CR will "die out" in a process called ____
Definition
extinction
Term
the reapperance of a learned response after its apparent extinction is called ______
Definition
spontaneous recovery
Term
When a strongly conditioned CS is used to make another stimulus into a CS, the effect is known as _____
Definition
higher-order conditioning
Term
John Watson and his colleague, Rosalie Rayner, offered a live, white rat to Little Albert and then made a loud noise behind his head by striking a steel bar with a hammer. The white rat served as the _____ in their study
Definition
CR
Term
Conditioned taste aversions are an example of something called ______
Definition
biological preparedness
Term
Last month Walter became sick after eating two chili dogs, so he no longer likes chili dogs. Walter has experienced ____
Definition
classical conditioning
Term
rescorla's modern conceptualization of classical conditioning is based on the idea that ____
Definition
CS must predict that the UCS is coming
Term
the kind of learning that applies to voluntary behavior is ____
Definition
operant conditioning
Term
who was the one of the firsst researchers to explore and outline the laws of voluntary responses?
Definition
Edward L Thorndike
Term
Which of the following is NOT an example of operant behavior?
Definition
anything that isnt volutary
Term
A child learns that whenever he eats all of his dinner he gets a cookie for dessert. This type of learning is BEST explained by
Definition
operant behavior
Term
in operant conditioning, _____ is necessary to create the association between the stimulus and voluntary response
Definition
reinforcement
Term
a negitive reinforcer is a stimulus that is ____ and, thus, ____ the probability of a response
Definition
unpleasent & increases
Term
what kind of reinforcement is used if Sally's parent give her $10 everytime she accumlates six A's on her test?
Definition
positive
Term
____ is an operant-conditioning procedure in which successive approximations of a desired response are reinforced
Definition
shaping
Term
al must build 25 radios before before recieves $20 . what schedule of reinforement is being used?
Definition
fixed radio schedule of reinforcement
Term
which of the following statements is true about operant conditioning?
Definition
any behavior that is voluntary
Term
a discriminative stimulus is a stimulus that _____
Definition
provides an organism with a cue for making a certain response in order to obtain reinforcement
Term
which of the following statements is true about behavior modification
Definition
involves process of shaping
Term
neurofeedback, the newer version of biofeedback, involves trying to change ____
Definition
brainwave activety
Term
which of the following conditions have been treated with neurofeedback?
Definition
epilepsy, anxiety, depression, anger, drug sddiction, chronic fatigue, obsessive compulsive
Term
learning that occurs but is not immediately reflected in a behavior change is called ___
Definition
latent learning
Term
seligman expanded his theory of learned helplessness to explain ____
Definition
that this behavior is form of learned helplessness
Term
which type of learning occurs when we observe how other people act?
Definition
observational learning
Term
in order to learn anything through observation, the learner must _____
Definition
pay attension to model, be able to retain memory, capable of reproducing, have desire
Term
a young child watches her mother make pancakes. She wants to please her mother so she pays attension. however, when she goes to make them on her own, she cant break the eggs for the batter without making a terrible mess and dropping them on the floor, no matter how hard she tries. Her attempt failed because of a problem with which part of the necessary componets for observational learning?
Definition
imitation
Term
which letters correspond to the four elements of modeling from Bandura's theory?
Definition
AMIM
Term
memory is defined as an active system taht consiste of three processes. They are ____
Definition
getting the info into the memory system, storing it here, and getting it back out
Term
the 1st step in the memory process is ____ information in a form that the memory system can use
Definition
to get sensory
Term
Which of the following statements is true about retrieval?
Definition
Getting info that is in storage into a form that can be used.
Term
Which model of memory proposes that the deeper a person processes information, the better it will be remembered?
Definition
Levels of processing model.
Term
Which of the following examples represents deep processing as described by Craik and Lockhart?
Definition
Thinking about the meaning of something
Term
Which memory system provides us with a very brief representation of all the stimuli present at a a particular moment?
Definition
Sensory memory
Term
A time machine provides you the opportunity to interview Sigmund Freud. During the interview, Freud admits that he never wanted to attend medical school. When you ask him how he made it through, he says, "I had eidetic imagery." What does he mean by that?
Definition
He had the ability to access a visual memory over a long period of time.
Term
Suzy looks up from her lunch, realizing that Jacques has just said something to her. What was it? Oh, yes, he has just asked her is she wants to go to the movies. Suzy's ability to retrieve what Jacques said is due to her _____.
Definition
Echoic memory
Term
What 'magic number" did Miller find to be the capacity of short-term memory?
Definition
7 plus or minus 2
Term
Information gets from sensory memory to short-term memory through the process of ______.
Definition
Selective attention
Term
Short-term memory is another name for _____ memory.
Definition
Working
Term
Bits of information are combined into meaningful units so that more information can be held in short-term memory through the process of _______.
Definition
Chunking
Term
If one wanted to use the best method to get storage in long-term memory, one would use ______.
Definition
Elaberate rehersal
Term
When memories are stored in long-term memory, which of the following forms of information is used?
Definition
Maintenance rehersal
Term
General knowledge, language, and concepts are seen as part of ______.
Definition
Declaritive memory
Term
In the game show Jeopardy! Contestants are tested on general information. The type of memory used to answers to these kinds of questions is _______.
Definition
Semaritic memory.
Term
Memories for general facts and personal information are called ______.
Definition
Procedural memory.
Term
A police officer is shot in a gun battle with bank robbers. Although emergency brain surgery saves his life, it leaves him unable to store new information. The officer's family is applying to the state for compensation for his injuries. When asked to supply a diagnosis of the difficulties he suffers, what will they write?
Definition
Anterior arade amnesia
Term
According to the semantic network model, it would take more time to answer "true" to which sentence?
Definition
Unrelated sentances
Term
The best place to take your biology exam to ensure good retrieval of biology concepts is in ______.
Definition
Same room which you learned the material
Term
Godden and Baddeley found that if you study on land, you do better when tested on land, and if you study under water, you do best when tested underwater. This finding is an example of ______.
Definition
Encoding specificity
Term
Janie is taking an exam in her history class. On the exam there is a question that asks her to state and discuss the five major causes of the Trans-Caspian War. Janie remembers four of them. She knows there is a fifth and can almost remember it; she knows that it is something like Texas. Janie is walking down the stairs, when all of a sudden, she remembers that the fifth point is taxes, but it is too late. Janie was suffering from ______.
Definition
Tip of the tounge phenomenon
Term
Studies have found that the best way to overcome the tip of the tounge effect is to ______.
Definition
Forget about it
Term
When given a list of items to remember, people tend to do better at recalling the first items on the list than the middle of the list. This is known as the ______.
Definition
Serial position effect
Term
Examples of tests that use recognition are ______.
Definition
Multiple-choice, matching, true and false
Term
Examples of tests that use recognition are ______.
Definition
Multiple-choice, matching, true and false
Term
A witness on the stand swears that he saw someone commit a crime. Must you believe that the testimony is valid when a witness testifies so forcefully?
Definition
NO
Term
Many middle-aged adults can vividly recall where they were and what they were doing the day that John F. Kennedy was assassinated, although they cannot remember what they were doing the day before he was assassinated. This is an example of _____.
Definition
Flashbulb memories
Term
Flashbulb memories _______.
Definition
Types of automatic encoding that occur because an unexpected event has strong emotional effects on a person
Term
Retrieving information from long-term memory is done by assembling information form various brain locations in a process known as ______.
Definition
Constructive processing
Term
Based on Loftus's 1978 study, subjects viewed a slide presantation of an accident, and some of the subjects were asked a question about a blue car when the actual slides contained pictures of a green car. When these same subjects were asked about the color of the car at the accident, they were found to be confused. This is an example of ________.
Definition
Misinformation Affect
Term
In the curve of forgetting developed by Ebbinghaus, the greatest amount of forgetting occurs ______.
Definition
Quickly within the first hour after learning lists and then taper off gradualy.
Term
Shalissa has two exams today. One is in French and the other is in history. Last night she studied French before history. When she gets to her French test, all she can remember is history! Shalissa's memory is suffering from _____.
Definition
Proactive interference.
Term
Evidence suggests that short-term memories are stored in the ______.
Definition
Prefrontal cortex/Temporal lobe
Term
A man known as H.M. lost the ability to form new memories after an operation removed portions of his _____.
Definition
Hippocampi
Term
In the famous case of H.M., after having part of his brain removed, he could no longer ________.
Definition
Remember anything new.
Term
_______ appears to be responsible for the storage of new long-term memories. If it is removed, the ability to store anything new is completely lost.
Definition
Hippocampus