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Chapter Review 14
Cypress College Microbio Chapter 14 Review
64
Microbiology
10/12/2011

Additional Microbiology Flashcards

 


 

Cards

Term
Define pathogenesis.
Definition
__________, the manner in which a disease develops.
Term
Define Pathology.
Definition
_________ is the scientific study of diseases
Term
Define Etiology.
Definition
Pathology is first concerned with the cause, or ________, of diseases.
Term
Define Infection
Definition
_________ is the invasion or colonization of the body by pathogenic microorganisms.
Term
Define Diseases.
Definition
_______ occurs when an infection results in any change from a state of health.
Term
Define Transient Microbiota.

Example:
Skin - Staphylococcus
Definition

_________ _________ are microorganisms that are present in an animal for a short time without causing a disease.

 

 

Term
Define Normal Microbiota.

Example:
Large Intestine: Escherichia coli
Definition
The microorganisms that establish more or less permanent residence (colonize) but that do not produce disease under normal conditions are members of the body's ______ ________.
Term
Define parasitism.

Example:
Helminths or Parasitic Worm.
Definition
One organism benefits by deriving nutrients at the expense of the other; this relationship is called __________.
Term
Define Opportunistic Pathogens.
Definition
_____________ __________ ordinarily do not cause disease in their normal habitat in a healthy person but may do so in a different environment.
Term
Define Pathogen
Definition
A _______ is an agent that causes disease, especially a living microorganism such as a bacterium, virus, or fungus.
Term
How do opportunistic pathogens differ from pathogens?
Definition

 

True Pathogen - are capable of causing disease in healthy persons with normal immune defenses. ex. influenza virus, plague bacillus, and ect.


Opportunistic pathogen - cause disease when the host's defenses are compromised or when they grow in part of the body that is not natural to them.

 

Term
List Koch’s postulates in the order in which his experiments applied the postulates.
Definition

 

 

  1. The same pathogen must be present in every case of the disease
  2. The pathogen must be isolated from the diseased host and grown in pure culture.
  3. The pathogen from the pure culture must cause the disease when it is inoculated into a healthy, suscptible laboratory animal.
  4. The pathogen must be isolated from the inoculated animal and must be shown to be the orginal organism.

 

 

 

Term
What is the main goal of Koch’s postulates (give an example)? What are the exceptions?
Definition

A specific infectious disease is associated with a specific microbe.

 

Exceptions - Some infectious diseases can be caused by several different pathogens, all of which causing the same signs and symptoms. Others cause several disease conditions.

Term
Define Symptoms.
Definition
The patient may experience certain ________, or changes in body function, such as pain and malaise (a vague feeling of body discomfort).
Term
Define signs.
Definition
The patient can also exhibit _____, which are objective changes that the physician can observe and measure.
Term
Define syndrome.
Definition
A specific group of symptoms or signs may always accompany a particular disease; such a group is called a  ________.
Term
Define Communicable Disease.
Definition

Any disease that spreads from one host to another, either directly or indirectly, is said to be a __________ ______.

 

Example: Chickenpox, measles, genital herpes, typhoid fever, and tuberculosis.

Term
Define Noncommunicable Diseases.
Definition

_______________ _____ is not spread from one host to another.

 

Example: Skin Cancer, Diabetes Type 2

Term
Define Contagious Disease.
Definition

__________ _______ is a disease that is easily spread from one person to another.

 

Example: Chickenpos and Measles.

Term
Define Incidence.
Definition

The ________ of a disease is the number of people in a population who develop a disease during a particular time period.

 

ie: The ________ of AIDS in the US in 2007 was 56,300 vs 1,185,000 cases up to that point.

 

Term
Define Prevalence.
Definition

The _______ of a disease is the number of people in a population who develop a disease at a specified time, regardless of when it first appeared.

 

Taking into account both old and new cases.

Term
Define Sporadic Disease.
Definition

A _______ _____ is a particular disease tha only occurs occasionally.

 

ie: typhoid fever

Term
Define Endemic Disease.
Definition

A disease constantly present in a population is called an _____ _____.

 

ie: common cold, malaria, colora

Term
Define Epidemic Disease.
Definition

If many people in a given area acquire a certain disease in a relatively short period, it is called a/an ________ _______.

 

ie: influenza, AIDS

Term
Define Pandemic Disease.
Definition

An epidemic disease that occurs worldwide is called a _______ ______.

 

ie: influenza, AIDs

Term
Define Herd Immunity.
Definition

____ _______ is when many immune people are present in a community.

 

ie: Chickenpox, Measles

Term
Define Acute Disease.
Definition

An _____ ______ is one that develops rapidly but last only a short time.

 

ie: influenza

Term
Define Chronic Disease.
Definition

A ______ _____ develops more slowly, and the body's reactions may be less sever, but the disease is likely to continue or recur for long periods.

 

ie: Hepatitis B, tuberculosis, and infectious mononucleosis

 

Term
Define Latent Disease.
Definition

A ______ ______ is one in which the causative agent remains inactive for a time but then becomes active to produce symptoms of the disease;

 

ie: shingles, one of the disease caused by varicella virus.

Term
Define Local infection.
Definition

A _____ ______ is one in which the invading microorganisms are limited to a relatively small area of the body.

 

ie: boils, abscesses, acne

Term
Define Systemic infection.
Definition

In a ______ ______, microorganisms or their products are spread throughout the body by the blood or lymph.

 

ie: Measles, septicemia

Term
Define Bacteremia.
Definition
The presence of bacteria in the blood is known as __________.
Term
Define Toxemia.
Definition

The presence of toxins in the blood is called _______.

 

Term
Define Viremia.
Definition
_______ refers to the presence of viruses in the blood.
Term
Define Septicemia.
Definition
_________, also called blood poisoning, is a systemic infection arising from the multiplication of pathogens in the blood.
Term
Define primary infection.
Definition

______ ______ is an accute infection that causes the initial illness.

Term
Define Secondary Infection.
Definition
A _________ _________ is one caused by an opportunistic pathogen after the primary infection has weakened the body's defenses.
Term
Name the stages of a disease. (6)
Definition
  1. Incubation Period
  2. Prodromal Period
  3. Period of Illness
  4. Peck of Illness
  5. Period of Decline
  6. Period of Convalescence

 

 

 

Term
Define Incubation Period.
Definition

The ________ _____ is the interval between the initial infection and the first appearance of any signs or symptoms. Patient is highly contagious.

 

Term
Define Prodromal Period.
Definition
The _________ ______ is a relatively short period that follows the period of incubation when the first symptoms of illness appear. Patient shows mild symptoms of the disease, such as general aches and malaise.
Term
Define Period Of Illness.
Definition

During this period the disease is most severe. Patient shows the most severe signs and symptoms and white blood cells may increase or decrease. Patient is also contagious.

 

Term
Define Period of Decline.
Definition
During this period the signs and symptoms subside but the patient is vulnerable to secondary infections.
Term
Define Period of Convalescence.
Definition

The recovery period or ______ __ __________, is when the body returns to its prediseased state. Patient becomes a chronic reservior and is the most contagious.

Term
Define Peck of Illness.
Definition
The ___ __ _____ is when the pathogen dies or our immune system wins.
Term
Define Predisposing factor.
Definition
This makes the body more suceptible to a disease and may alter the course of the disease.
Term
Give A Few Examples of Predisposing Factors.
Definition

Gender - Females have a higher incidence of urinary track infections than males

Genes - Sickle Cell disease is a severe, life-threatening form of anemia that occurs when the genes for the disease are inherited from both parents.

Climent and Weather - In temperate regions, the incidence of respiratory disease increases during the winter. Due to close contact indoors which spread respiratory pathogens.

Others - Nutrition, fatigue, age, environment, habits, lifestyle, occupation, preexisting illness, chemotherapy, and emotional disturbances.

Term
Define Reservoir of Infection.
Definition

This is a continual source of infection.

 

ie: human, animal, or nonliving.

Term
Define Carriers and give an Example.
Definition

These are people that harbor pathogens and transmit them to others without exhibiting any signs of illness. They are important living resevoirs of infection.

 

ie. incubation period, convalescent period, Typhoid Mary, AIDs

Term
Define Zoonoses.
Definition

Diseases that occur primarily in wild and domestic animals and can be transmitted to humans are called ________.

 

ie. rabies (bats, skunks, foxes, dogs, coyotes), lyme disease (field mice)

Term
Give 2 major examples of Nonliving Reservoirs.
Definition

1. Soil - harbors such pathogens as ringworm, Clostridium Botulinum (causing botulism), C. tetani (causing tetanus).

 

2. Water - Feces contaminate the water, causing gastrointestinal diseases. Vibrio cholerae, causing cholera, and Salmonella Typhi causing typhoid fever.

Term
(General) List the modes of transmission of disease. (3)
Definition

1. Contact Transmission

2. Vehicle Transmission

3. Vector Transmission

Term
Define Contact Transmission.
Definition

_______ ________ is the spread of an agent of disease by direct contact, indirect contact, or droplet transmission.

 

ie: Influenza, Rabies

 

Term
Define Direct Contact Transmission.
Definition

Also knon as personn-to-person transmission, is the direct transmission of an agent by physical contact between its source and a susceptible host; no intermediate object is involved.

 

ie: touching, kissing, and sexual intercourse. Hep A, Influenza, staphylococcal.

Term
Define Indirect Contact Transmission.
Definition

_______ _______ ____________ occurs when the agent of disease is transmitted from its reservoir to a susceptible host by means of a nonliving object.

 

ie; tissues, handkerchiefs, towels, bedding, diapers, drinking cups, eating utensils, toys, mone, etc..

Term
Define Droplet Transmission.
Definition

Transmission in which microbes are spread in droplet nuclei (mucus droplets) that travel only short distances.

 

ie: coughing, sneezing, laughing, or talking and travel less than 1 meter from the reservoir to the host.Influenza, pneumonia, whooping cough.

Term
Define Vehicle Transmission. (3) And Give an Example of each.
Definition

This is the transmission of disease agents by a medium, such as water, food, or air.


ie:

Water - water contaminated with untreated or poorly treated sewage. Cholera, waterborn shigellosis, and leptospirosis.

Food - incompletely cooked, poorly refrigerated, or prepared under unsanitary conditions. (food poisoning and tapeworm infestation)

Air - Travel more then 1 meter, Measles/Tuberculosis, dust particles (Staphylococci), Spores.

Term
Define Vectors and Give 3 Examples.
Definition

Also known as Arthropods, are animals that carry pathogens from one host to another.

 

ie: yellow fever, dengue fever, plague, rocky mountain spotted fever, (table 14.3)

Term
Define Biological transmission
Definition

Active process, arthropod gets infected, it reproduces in the vector then retransmitted.


Pass through feces, salivary glands

Term
Define Mechanical transmission.
Definition

Passive transport of pathogens, insect body parts, (typhoid fever)

 

Term
Define Noscomial Infections and give 3 examples.
Definition

A ______ ______ does not show any evidence of being present or incubating at the time of admission to a hospital; it is acquired as a result of a hospital stay. (antibody resistant)

 

ie; UTI, Surgical site infections, lower respiratory infections. (table 14.5)

 

Term
Define Emerging Infectious Disease and give 2 examples.
Definition

 

 

_____ _____ _____ are ones that are new or changing, showing an increase in incidence in the recent past, or a potential to increase in the near future.

 

ie; HIV, West Nile virus, SARS (table 14.6)

 

 

 

Term
Define Nationally Notifiable Diseases and give 3 examples.
Definition

 

__________ are any disease that is required by law to be reported to government authorities.

 

ie; HIV, anthrax, cholera, measles, lyme disease, (table 14.7)

 

Term
Define Epidemiology.
Definition
The science that studies when and where diseases occur and how they are transmitted in populations is called ____________.
Term
(General) What are 3 types of Epidemiology?
Definition

Descriptive Epidemoilogy

Analytical Epidemiology

Experimental Epidemiology