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Chapter 9: Viruses and Virology
Viruses and Virology
31
Microbiology
03/22/2012

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Term
Bacteriophage
Definition
a virus that infects prokaryotic cells
Term
Capsid
Definition
the protein shell that surrounds the genome of a virus particle in a highly repetitive pattern
Term
Capsomere
Definition
the subunit of a capsid
Term
Defective Virus
Definition
a virus that relies on another virus, the helper virus, to provide some of its components
Term
Early Protein
Definition
a protein synthesized soon after virus infection and before replication of the virus genome
Term
Helper Virus
Definition
a virus that provides some necessary components for a defective virus
Term
Host Cell
Definition
a cell inside which a virus replicates
Term
Icosahedron
Definition
a 3-D figure with 20 triangular faces
Term
Late Protein
Definition
a protein synthesized later in virus infection, after replication of the virus genome
Term
Lysogen
Definition
a bacterium containing a prophage
Term
Lysogeny
Definition
a state in which a viral genome is replicated as a prophage along with the genome of the host
Term
Lytic Pathway
Definition
a series of steps after virus infection that leads to virus replication and destruction of the host cell
Term
Negative-Strand Virus
Definition
a virus with a single-stranded genome that has the opposite sense to the viral mRNA
Term
Nucleocapsid
Definition
the complex of nucleic acid and proteins of a virus
Term
Plaque
Definition
a zone of lysis or growth inhibition caused by a virus infection of a lawn of sensitive host cell
Term
Positive-Strand Virus
Definition
a virus with a single-stranded genome that has the same complementarity as the viral mRNA
Term
Prion
Definition
an infectious protein whose extracellular form contains no nucleic acid
Term
Prophage
Definition
the lysogenic form of a bacterial virus
Term
Provirus
Definition
the genome of a temperate or latent virus when it is replicating in step with the host chromosome
Term
Retrovirus
Definition
a virus whose RNA genome is replicated via a DNA intermediate
Term
Reverse Transcriptase
Definition
the enzyme that makes a DNA copy using RNA as template
Term
Reverse Transcription
Definition
the process of copying information found in RNA into DNA
Term
Temperate Virus
Definition
a virus whose genome can replicate along with that of its host without causing cell death, in a state called Lysogeny
Term
Transformation
Definition
in eukaryotes, a process by which a normal cell becomes a cancer cell
Term
Transmissible Spongiform Encephalopathy (TSE)
Definition
a degenerative disease of the brain cause by prion infection
Term
Virion
Definition
the infectious virus particle; the viral genome surrounded by a protein coat and sometimes other layers
Term
Virulent Virus
Definition
a virus that lyses or kills the hose cell after infection; a nontemperate virus
Term
Virus
Definition
a genetic element containing either RNA or DNA surrounded by a protein capsid and that replicates only inside host cells
Term
Viroid
Definition
a small, circular, single-stranded RNA that causes certain plant diseases
Term
Titer
Definition
number of infectious units per volume of fluid
Term
Phases of Viral Replication
Definition
Attachment - adsorption
Entry - penetration
Synthesis
Assembly - maturation
Release